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  • epidemiological
  • Longitudinal studies of the genetic structure, complexity, infection dynamics, and duration of naturally acquired Plasmodium falciparum infections are needed to facilitate a comprehensive understanding of malaria epidemiology in the complex Kenyan highland eco-epidemiological systems where malaria recently expanded, as well as the evaluation of control measures. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Epidemiological studies have most often focused on the cumulative incidence of known diagnoses associated with PE, particularly metabolic diseases. (biomedcentral.com)
  • As epidemiological data are scarce, we aimed to estimate the overall incidence rate of PE with its different aetiologies and to determine the age of onset of symptoms of the disease. (biomedcentral.com)
  • intercepts
  • Equal form, Equal Intercepts) a χ2 fit statistic is iteratively estimated from the minimization of the difference between the model implied mean and covariance matrices and the observed mean and covariance matrices. (wikipedia.org)
  • populations
  • These data demonstrate that despite the relatively recent spread of malaria to the highlands, parasite populations seem to have stabilized with no evidence of bottlenecks between seasons, while the ability of residents to clear or control infections indicates presence of effective anti-plasmodial immune mechanisms. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Studies of the duration of plasmodial infections in natural populations are lacking in the East African highlands. (biomedcentral.com)
  • methods
  • Review methods Studies comparing the two procedures as the primary intervention for isolated left anterior descending artery stenosis were identified and the following extracted: study design, population characteristics, severity of coronary artery disease, cardiovascular risk factors, and outcomes of interest. (bmj.com)
  • This rudimentary computerized interpretation is not far off from the methods used today. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cancer systems biology encompasses concrete applications of systems biology approaches to cancer research, notably (a) the need for better methods to distill insights from large-scale networks, (b) the importance of integrating multiple data types in constructing more realistic models, (b) challenges in translating insights about tumorigenic mechanisms into therapeutic interventions, and (d) the role of the tumor microenvironment, at the physical, cellular, and molecular levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • significance
  • The clinical significance of remifentanil-induced swallowing difficulties is to be studied further. (diva-portal.org)
  • Test the results for statistical significance. (wikipedia.org)
  • As long as the models under comparison are nested, the difference between the χ2 values and their respective degrees of freedom of any two CFA models of varying levels of invariance follows a χ2 distribution (diff χ2) and as such, can be inspected for significance as an indication of whether increasingly restrictive models produce appreciable changes in model-data fit. (wikipedia.org)
  • While literal interpretations of such myths may appear to indicate extraordinarily long lifespans, many scholars believe such figures may be the result of incorrect translation of numbering systems through various languages coupled by the cultural and or symbolic significance of certain numbers. (wikipedia.org)
  • factors
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the contemporary incidence of gout, examine potential risk factors, and evaluate specific gout treatment patterns in the general population. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We evaluated potential risk factors for incident gout in a nested case-control study with 50,000 controls frequency-matched by age, sex and calendar time. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The aims of this study were to estimate the contemporary incidence of gout in a UK primary care setting, to quantify the magnitude of associations with potential risk factors, including relevant medical conditions and drug exposures, and to describe recent treatment trends in incident gout patients. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The branches of science (also referred to as "sciences", "scientific fields", or "scientific disciplines") are commonly divided into three major groups: Natural sciences: the study of natural phenomena (including cosmological, geological, chemical, and biological factors of the universe) Formal sciences: the study of mathematics and logic, which use an a priori, as opposed to factual, methodology. (wikipedia.org)
  • practice
  • However, for evaluations to be truly representative, the data upon which they are based need to be as reflective of clinical practice as much as possible. (springer.com)
  • Practice level data covering all the clinicians in the 68 practices were analysed. (bmj.com)
  • Interventions Intervention practices followed the Stemming the Tide of Antibiotic Resistance (STAR) educational programme, which included a practice based seminar reflecting on the practices' own dispensing and resistance data, online educational elements, and practising consulting skills in routine care. (bmj.com)
  • In applying statistics to a problem, it is common practice to start with a population or process to be studied. (wikipedia.org)
  • diseases
  • To date, exome sequencing verges on being the standard approach in studies of monogenic disorders, with increasing interest in studies of more complex diseases as well. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Patterns
  • By studying patterns of evolution and extinction in the context of environmental change, evolutionary paleoecologists are able to examine concepts of vulnerability and resilience in species and environments. (wikipedia.org)
  • interpret
  • Computer-based test interpretation (CBTI) programs are technological tools that have been commonly used to interpret data in psychological assessments since the 1960s. (wikipedia.org)
  • The empirically based programs, or actuarial assessment programs, use statistical analyses to interpret the data, while the clinically based programs, or automated assessment programs, rely on information from expert clinicians and research. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first program able to interpret computerized assessment data was developed in 1962 at the Mayo Clinic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stanford University
  • She works as a professor of health research and policy and of biomedical data science at Stanford University, and has served as president of the International Biometric Society. (wikipedia.org)
  • design
  • Results 12 studies (1952 patients) reporting results from eight groups were included: one was a retrospective design, one prospective non-randomised, and six prospective randomised. (bmj.com)
  • Design Nested case-control study. (bmj.com)
  • The design step may involve a pilot study in order to discover any hidden issues. (wikipedia.org)
  • experimental
  • An experimental study involves taking measurements of the system under study, manipulating the system, and then taking additional measurements using the same procedure to determine if the manipulation has modified the values of the measurements. (wikipedia.org)
  • empirical
  • Natural science is a branch of science that seeks to elucidate the rules that govern the natural world by applying an empirical and scientific method to the study of the universe. (wikipedia.org)
  • examine
  • Evolutionary paleoecology uses data from fossils and other evidence to examine how organisms and their environments change throughout time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Community paleoecology uses statistical analysis to examine the composition and distribution of groups of plants or animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • objective
  • Some object to the substitution of statistical correctness for moral leadership (for example) as an objective. (wikipedia.org)
  • CBTI programs are very efficient in that they save time, reduce human error, are cost effective, and are objective/reliable, yet limited in that they are not always used by adequately trained evaluators or are not integrated with multiple sources of data. (wikipedia.org)
  • however
  • however, recent data since the new millennium are lacking so far. (biomedcentral.com)
  • All the studies on this topic to date, however, have taken place in secondary care centres. (bmj.com)
  • However, the term "physical" creates an unintended, somewhat arbitrary distinction, since many branches of physical science also study biological phenomena. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetics
  • Irving Isadore Gottesman (December 29, 1930 - June 29, 2016) was an American professor of psychology who devoted most of his career to the study of the genetics of schizophrenia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alice Segers Whittemore is an American epidemiologist and biostatistician who studies the effects of genetics and lifestyle on cancer, after an earlier career as a pure mathematician studying group theory. (wikipedia.org)
  • Methodology
  • As technology continues to transform our modern society, computer-based interpretation programs have the possibility to expand their software and even alleviate some of the current concerns with the programs' methodology. (wikipedia.org)
  • population
  • This specific patient population was studied to minimise bias due to unmeasured confounders. (bmj.com)
  • Like any study technique, Pugmark tracking also calls for sincerity for true reflection of structure and spatial distribution of the population of large carnivores. (wikipedia.org)
  • results
  • In other words, an enumerative study is a statistical study in which the focus is on judgment of results, and an analytic study is one in which the focus is on improvement of the process or system which created the results being evaluated and which will continue creating results in the future. (wikipedia.org)
  • It results in data which shows which forest beat possess how many, of what sex/age and which type of large carnivore. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such mismatch between clinical results and the massive amounts of data acquired by omics technology highlights the existence of basic gaps in our knowledge of cancer fundamentals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adult
  • A randomized, double-blind, exploratory, placebo-controlled study was conducted in overweight and obese adult women ( n = 44) who ingested synthetic vitamin E (all-rac-α-tocopherol), natural source vitamin E (RRR-rac-α-tocopherol) or placebo capsules and were followed up for a period of 8 weeks. (biomedcentral.com)
  • hydrosphere
  • The formal discipline of Earth sciences may include the study of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, oceans and biosphere, as well as the solid earth. (wikipedia.org)
  • contrast
  • Physical science is an encompassing term for the branches of natural science and science that study non-living systems, in contrast to the life sciences. (wikipedia.org)
  • biological
  • Cancer systems biology encompasses the application of systems biology approaches to cancer research, in order to study the disease as a complex adaptive system with emerging properties at multiple biological scales. (wikipedia.org)
  • various
  • Lastly, Gottesman was a professor in the psychology department at the University of Minnesota, where he received his Ph.D. A native of Ohio, Gottesman studied psychology for his undergraduate and graduate degrees, became a faculty member at various universities, and spent most of his career at the University of Virginia and the University of Minnesota. (wikipedia.org)
  • In any instance, an appropriate type of statistical analysis should take account of the various types of error that may arise, as outlined below. (wikipedia.org)
  • assess
  • Data from two double-blinded, randomised, two-period crossover trials in type 1 (SWITCH 1) and type 2 (SWITCH 2) diabetes mellitus were used to assess the cost-effectiveness of degludec vs. glargine U100 with an economic model. (springer.com)
  • Further, CBTI research has been criticized for failure to assess inter-rater (comparing the interpretation of one protocol by two different programs) and internal consistency reliability (comparing the reliability of different sections of the same interpretation). (wikipedia.org)
  • Statistics
  • Statistics are supposed to make something easier to understand but when used in a misleading fashion can trick the casual observer into believing something other than what the data shows. (wikipedia.org)
  • The definition of the misuse of statistics is weak on the required completeness of statistical reporting. (wikipedia.org)
  • possible
  • The program was used to evaluate MMPI data from hospital patients and generated a list of 110 possible descriptive statements which corresponded to particular scale elevations. (wikipedia.org)
  • patients
  • Data on about 3,000,000 patients are systematically recorded and sent anonymously to THIN. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 7 Another study of a cohort of patients with acute coronary syndromes found that acute coronary syndrome events occurred on average 10 days after discontinuation of low dose aspirin. (bmj.com)
  • spatial
  • A `spreadsheet' type display of the non-spatial data and the ability to create new variables from exisiting ones using mathematical operators. (agocg.ac.uk)
  • The provision of specialist tools for exploring spatial properties of the data, in addition to the linking of a map with graphical views. (agocg.ac.uk)
  • Work on visualization tools for area-based spatial data has taken place within the framework of existing statistical and cartographic software, independently of ViSC software such as Iris or AVS (Earnshaw and Wiseman 1992).This may be in part due to the way in which visualization of this type of spatial data has grown out of initial concerns with the lack of spatial analysis facilities in GIS systems. (agocg.ac.uk)
  • We would stress again that the intention of this case study is to present a review of what is the current state of the art in the visualization of area-based spatial data across the range of available software packages, rather than making detailed comparisons between them. (agocg.ac.uk)
  • Because its operation is a simple Moving Average (MA), the KZ filter performs well in a missing data environment, especially in multidimensional time series where missing data problem arises from spatial sparseness. (wikipedia.org)
  • A few software packages for time series, longitudinal and spatial data have been developed in the popular statistical software R, which facilitate the use of the KZ filter and its extensions in different areas. (wikipedia.org)
  • The same idea can be easily extended to spatial data analysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because its operation is a simple moving average, the KZ filter performs well in a missing data environment, especially in multidimensional time and space where missing data can cause problems arising from spatial sparseness. (wikipedia.org)
  • analysis
  • The study of this interaction has been dominated by the analysis of artifacts such as carnelian beads and marine shell, along with limited textual evidence. (blogspot.com)
  • 13. M. Afzali, H. Soltanian-Zadeh , "Comparison of Hierarchical and Sequential Clustering Methods for Analysis of DTI Data of TLE," Presented at and Published in the Proceedings of the 6th Iranian Conference on Machine Vision and Image Processing (MVIP'2010), Isfahan, Iran, Oct. 27-28, 2010. (henryford.com)
  • Also, it's not made clear why an analysis of atmospheric 14C readings yields 13C data. (realclimate.org)
  • MS conducted the data analysis. (bmj.com)
  • In the 1990s she started (together with her team) so called grade data analysis, a science of applying copula and rank methods to problems of correspondence and cluster analysis together with outlier detection. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the Institute of Computer Science PAS, she had been leader of the Statistical Data Analysis division for many years. (wikipedia.org)
  • Power analysis can also be used to calculate the minimum effect size that is likely to be detected in a study using a given sample size. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Skeptical Environmentalist: Measuring the Real State of the World (Danish: Verdens sande tilstand, literal translation: The True State of the World) is a book by Danish environmentalist author Bjørn Lomborg, controversial for its claims that overpopulation, declining energy resources, deforestation, species loss, water shortages, certain aspects of global warming, and an assortment of other global environmental issues are unsupported by statistical analysis of the relevant data. (wikipedia.org)
  • Much of Lomborg's examination of his Litany is based on statistical data analysis, therefore his work may be considered a work of that nature. (wikipedia.org)
  • results
  • The aims of this study are to describe the results of gastrectomy and adjuvant chemoradiotherapy in patients treated in a single institution, and to identify prognostic factors that could determine which individuals would benefit from this treatment. (springer.com)
  • Altered DNA methylation at various CpG sites was associated with exposure to mercury, lead or BPA, providing candidates to be investigated using a larger study sample, as the results may reflect an independently associated predictor (e.g. socioeconomic status, diet, genetic variants, altered blood cell composition). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Results Over the study period, the prevalence of adolescent ever use and binge drinking increased from 11% to 25% and from 4% to 13%, respectively. (bmj.com)
  • In the present study, we describe a quantitative Beutler test modified by separating the enzyme extraction and reaction, and quantifying and recording the results by a fluorescent microplate reader and personal computer. (aaccjnls.org)
  • Classic methods fail if the input data contain strong outliers, and interpretation of their results should be different for different distribution types. (wikipedia.org)
  • The margin of error is a statistic expressing the amount of random sampling error in a survey's results. (wikipedia.org)
  • He used statistical and computational "election forensics" to detect fraud in comparing 366 Iranian district results with those in the 2005 election and concluded that "substantial core" local results were in line with basic statistical trends. (wikipedia.org)
  • These 100,000 series can then be analysed individually to calculate estimated trends in each series, and these results establish a distribution of estimated trends that are to be expected from such random data - see diagram. (wikipedia.org)
  • independently
  • The GPS does not require the user to transmit any data, and it operates independently of any telephonic or internet reception, though these technologies can enhance the usefulness of the GPS positioning information. (wikipedia.org)
  • particular
  • The margin of error is usually defined as the "radius" (or half the width) of a confidence interval for a particular statistic from a survey. (wikipedia.org)
  • While none of these ground-based analogs provides a perfect simulation of human microgravity exposure during spaceflight, each is useful for study of particular aspects of muscle unloading as well as for investigation of sensorimotor alterations. (wikipedia.org)
  • A similar but somewhat different concept is statistical sensitivity, which measures how likely it is that a given test gives the correct result (e.g. the likelihood that a test to determine if a patient has a particular disease correctly recognizes the disease). (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to the scope of the project, comprising the range of topics addressed, the diversity of data and sources employed, and the many types of conclusions and comments advanced, The Skeptical Environmentalist does not fit easily into a particular scientific discipline or methodology. (wikipedia.org)
  • software
  • Within the time available for this study it was not possible to make a very thorough evaluation of the graphical effectiveness of the software packages. (agocg.ac.uk)
  • The Internet of things (IoT) is the network of physical devices, vehicles, home appliances and other items embedded with electronics, software, sensors, actuators, and network connectivity which enables these objects to connect and exchange data. (wikipedia.org)
  • approach
  • Prof. Pleszczyńska is known for her criticism of the classic statistical approach. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another approach to thinking about science involves studying how knowledge is created from a sociological perspective, an approach represented by scholars like David Bloor and Barry Barnes. (wikipedia.org)
  • clearly such a constructed series would be trend-free, so as with the approach of using simulated data these series can be used to generate borderline trend values V and −V. In the above discussion the distribution of trends was calculated by simulation, from a large number of trials. (wikipedia.org)
  • scientific
  • The central questions of this study concern what qualifies as science, the reliability of scientific theories, and the ultimate purpose of science. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, The Skeptical Environmentalist is methodologically eclectic and cross-disciplinary, combining interpretation of data with assessments of the media and human behavior, evaluations of scientific theories, and other approaches, to arrive at its various conclusions. (wikipedia.org)
  • However Frank Finger gave the book a negative review in The Quarterly Review of Biology claiming Carington failed to present any scientific data that could be intelligently evaluated and concluded "it seems doubtful that this book will alter the scientific status of telepathic communication appreciably, and certainly it will cause no great upheaval in the field of biological science. (wikipedia.org)
  • disease
  • The institute's focus is on geo-epidemiologic and racial/ethnic mapping of disease, disabilities, injuries and health-related events, and the utilization of valid and reliable data from such mappings for geographic and racial-specific intervention development and implementation. (ahriresearch.org)
  • time
  • Given a set of points in time t {\displaystyle t} , and data values y t {\displaystyle y_{t}} observed for those points in time, values of a {\displaystyle a} and b {\displaystyle b} are chosen so that ∑ t [ y t − ( a ^ t + b ^ ) ] 2 {\displaystyle \sum _{t}[y_{t}-({\hat {a}}t+{\hat {b}})]^{2}} is minimized. (wikipedia.org)
  • To analyse a (time) series of data, we assume that it may be represented as trend plus noise: y t = a t + b + e t {\displaystyle y_{t}=at+b+e_{t}\,} where a {\displaystyle a} and b {\displaystyle b} are unknown constants and the e {\displaystyle e} 's are randomly distributed errors. (wikipedia.org)
  • random
  • Before considering trends in real data, it is useful to understand trends in random data. (wikipedia.org)
  • If a series which is known to be random is analysed - fair dice falls, or computer-generated pseudo-random numbers - and a trend line is fitted through the data, the chances of an exactly zero estimated trend are negligible. (wikipedia.org)
  • useful
  • These devices collect useful data with the help of various existing technologies and then autonomously flow the data between other devices. (wikipedia.org)
  • made
  • He was later offered a job on the Nickelodeon animated television series Rocko's Modern Life (1993-1996) after his success with short films The Green Beret and Wormholes (both 1992), which he made while studying animation. (wikipedia.org)
  • critical
  • This can either be as a critical replication study or an independent paper. (uio.no)
  • All authors had a hand in the interpretation of the data, the critical revision of the manuscript and all approved of the final version. (bmj.com)
  • human
  • Access to human crewmembers during both short- and long-duration mission for the study of skeletal muscle adaptation to microgravity and the efficacy of countermeasures has been, and continues to be, limited. (wikipedia.org)
  • reliable
  • fossil fuel depletion), and then identifying one or more widely held fears and their source (e.g. our air is growing increasingly toxic, by X measure, according to Y). From there, Lomborg chooses data that he considers to be the most reliable and reasonable available. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • The operations of the examination system were part of the imperial record keeping system, and the date of receiving the jinshi degree is often a key biographical datum: sometimes the date of achieving jinshi is the only firm date known for even some of the most historically prominent persons in Chinese history. (wikipedia.org)
  • He held that mind and matter both consist of the same kind of components known as "cognita" or sense data. (wikipedia.org)
  • come
  • The range (−V, V) can be employed in deciding whether a trend estimated from the actual data is unlikely to have come from a data series that truly has a zero trend. (wikipedia.org)
  • small
  • do you think you're concerned about depending on a third-bash on the web support company to shop your small business data? (link4seo.com)
  • points
  • If an individual series of observations is generated from simulations that employ a given variance of noise that equals the observed variance of our data series of interest, and a given length (say, 100 points), a large number of such simulated series (say, 100,000 series) can be generated. (wikipedia.org)
  • deal
  • It is easy to compute and allows for a straightforward way to deal with missing data. (wikipedia.org)
  • area
  • Whatever the reason, it would be extremely interesting to see whether ViSC products could in fact be used for the visualization of area-based data, since they are already available to the academic community and structures have been put in place to support them and this is also suggested as a topic for future research. (agocg.ac.uk)