• mammalian
  • For example, the avian protein, in contrast with the mammalian protein, exhibited only minimal binding activity for asialoglycoproteins but interacted strongly with agalactoglycoproteins. (asbmb.org)
  • The Golgi apparatus present in mammalian cells may be labeled with immunofluorescent probes, but first a candidate protein resident somewhere in the complex must be identified and targeted with a primary mono or polyclonal antibody. (fsu.edu)
  • The culture of rat thoracic aorta cells illustrated above was fixed, permeabilized, and blocked with 10-percent normal goat serum in phosphate-buffered saline prior to immunofluorescent labeling with rabbit primary antibodies to giantin, a protein resident in the Golgi complex of mammalian cells. (fsu.edu)
  • The pattern of accessory molecules expressed by avian T cells resembles mammalian α/β T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ability of avian reovirus to induce apoptosis is not restricted to a distinct cell type of virus strain due to the fact that several different isolates of this pathogen could induce apoptosis in different mammalian and avian cell lines. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • Duplication and divergence events then led to claw β-keratin genes, and further recombination resulted in new feather and feather-like avian β-keratin genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • A recent study using molecular dating methods to link the evolution of avian β-keratin genes in general to that of feathers specifically reveals that the avian β-keratin family began diverging from the crocodile family about 216 million years ago. (wikipedia.org)
  • Analysis of the structure and sequence of several different env genes suggests that Env proteins are type 1 fusion machines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Their genomes are similar in length and contain two major open reading frames similar to the capsid and replication associated protein genes found in other circoviruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus the number and order of genes is unchanged as is the structure of transcription initiation and termination sites. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rinder and her colleagues have shown that avian bornaviruses apparently lack a 22-nucleotide fragment that serves a regulatory function for the genes coding for viral proteins X and P. Cultured Some avian bornaviruses induce typical PDD in Patagonian conures (Cyanoliseus patagonus) with a typical interval of 55-60 days between infection and death. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent influenza research into the genes of the Spanish flu virus shows it to have genes adapted from both human and avian strains. (wikipedia.org)
  • induce
  • Wang, Xiaomei 2016-07-20 00:00:00 Avian leukosis virus (ALV) is an avian oncogenic retrovirus that can induce various clinical tumors. (deepdyve.com)
  • It is believed that two heptad repeat regions (HR1) and (HR2) form a six-helix bundle structure that helps to induce fusion of the viral membrane with the host cell membrane .The Hn protein is made up of a stalk and a globular head that contains receptor-binding capabilities that bind to sialic acid receptors located on cells in the upper respiratory tract of the host. (wikipedia.org)
  • precursor
  • Tsai and Oroszlan (19) have described proteolytic processing and novel glycosylation pathways for retroviral envelope proteins and characterized the env precursor polyprotein of avian reticuleondotheliosis virus (REV-A) as being modified by unusually large sialic acid-rich complex-type carbohydrate moieties (19). (google.ca)
  • Matrix proteins are produced as N-terminal domains of Gag precursor polyproteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • In many cases they are synthesised as part of a larger precursor protein, either as a prepropeptide or as an N-terminal domain associated with an inactive peptidase or zymogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular
  • However, little is known with respect to the molecular and antigenic structure of the TCV virion, due to difficulties in propagating TCV strains in tissue cultures and lack of highly specific immunological probes (1, 4). (springer.com)
  • In molecular biology, the UBX protein domain is found in ubiquitin-regulatory proteins, which are members of the ubiquitination pathway, as well as a number of other proteins including FAF-1 (FAS-associated factor 1), the human Rep-8 reproduction protein and several hypothetical proteins from yeast. (wikipedia.org)
  • In molecular biology, an intrabody (from intracellular and antibody) is an antibody that works within the cell to bind to an intracellular protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • apoptosis
  • The function of the UBX domain is not known although the fragment of avian FAF-1 containing the UBX domain causes apoptosis of transfected cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apoptosis can also be induced in cells that are infected with UV-irradiated reovirus virions and cells infected with ribavirin-treated avian reovirus, which suggests that viral mRNA synthesis and crucial steps that occur during viral replication are not necessary for induction of apoptosis in infected cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Disregarding infectivity, the number of inoculated virus particles is the significant factor that leads to apoptosis from avian reovirus. (wikipedia.org)
  • H5N1
  • Moreover, a basic amino acid at position 591 of PB2 substantially increased the lethality of an avian H5N1 virus in mice. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Arginine at position 591 fills the cleft found in H5N1 PB2 proteins in this area, resulting in differences in surface shape and charge for H1N1 PB2 proteins. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Avian influenza strains are divided into two types based on their pathogenicity: high pathogenicity (HP) or low pathogenicity (LP). The most well-known HPAI strain, H5N1, appeared in China in 1996, and also has low pathogenic strains found in North America. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • Oncley, J.L.: Evidence from physical chemistry regarding the size and shape of protein molecules from ultra-centrifugation, diffusion, viscosity, dielectric dispersion, and double refraction of flow. (springer.com)
  • The results, which confirm the oldest evidence of the structural protein beta-keratin, show that molecules can survive in their original state for hundreds of millions of years without fossilizing, and that researchers can use modern techniques to identify them, the researchers said. (livescience.com)
  • The diffraction patterns from these crystals allow the determination of the 3-D structures of these molecules at the atomic level, providing insights into biological function and forming the basis for the rational design of new therapeutic agents. (diamond.ac.uk)
  • A class of molecules of particular interest to structural biologists is the membrane proteins. (diamond.ac.uk)
  • Phosphorylation at tyrosine residues controls a wide range of properties in proteins such as enzyme activity, subcellular localization, and interaction between molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Replication
  • These drugs inhibit M2 protein ion channel which has role on viral replication. (ac.ir)
  • There are two main open reading frames arranged in opposite directions that encode the replication (Rep) and capsid (Cap) proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • A stem loop structure with a conserved nonanucleotide motif is located at the 5' intergenic region of circovirus genomes and is thought to initiate rolling-cycle replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • In an experiment where primary cultures of chicken embryo fibroblasts were treated with alpha/beta interferon, results indicated that this interaction induced an antiviral state that strongly inhibited vaccinia and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) replication, but didn't have an effect on avian reovirus, specifically the replication of the S1133 strain. (wikipedia.org)
  • alpha-helical
  • Structurally alpha-keratin have alpha-helical coiled coil structure while beta-keratin have twisted beta sheet structure.bIn the case of β-sheets, this allows sterically-unhindered hydrogen bonding between the amino and carboxyl groups of peptide bonds on adjacent protein chains, facilitating their close alignment and strong binding. (wikipedia.org)
  • intracellular
  • Because naturally occurring antibodies are optimised to be secreted from the cell, intrabodies require special alterations, including the use of single-chain antibodies (scFvs), modification of immunoglobulin VL domains for hyperstability, selection of antibodies resistant to the more reducing intracellular environment, or expression as a fusion protein with maltose binding protein or other stable intracellular proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • nascent protein
  • The nascent protein contains a N-terminal signal peptide sequence, a conserved "ZP domain" module, a consensus furin cleavage site (CFCS), a polymerization-blocking external hydrophobic patch (EHP), and a C-terminal transmembrane domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzyme
  • Dr Isaac Westwood from the University of Oxford has been leading a team looking at the structure of a particular M. tuberculosis enzyme called HsaD, which acts as a catalyst in the metabolism of cholesterol and may be a possible therapeutic target for the dormant bacterium. (diamond.ac.uk)
  • A tyrosine kinase is an enzyme that can transfer a phosphate group from ATP to a protein in a cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The systematic name of this enzyme class is NAD(P)+:protein-L-arginine ADP-D-ribosyltransferase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research has shown that this core protein may possibly disrupt the IFN-induced cellular response against avian reovirus through the blockage of enzyme pathways that are dependent on dsRNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • subgroup
  • Tyrosine kinases are a subgroup of the larger class of protein kinases that attach phosphate groups to other amino acids (serine and threonine). (wikipedia.org)
  • virus
  • We also present the X-ray crystallographic structure of the C-terminus of a pandemic H1N1 virus PB2 protein. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Coronavirus proteins: structure and functions of the oligosaccharides of the avian infectious bronchitis virus glycoproteins. (springer.com)
  • The tropism of the virus is determined by the SU protein domain because it is responsible for the receptor-binding function of the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Env protein of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) also has a trimeric structure of heterodimers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Structural studies on these viral enzymes and interacting host proteins are providing valuable insights into the mechanisms by which the virus is able to prosper within the human cell, thus paving the way for the development of new viral inhibitor drugs. (diamond.ac.uk)
  • Gag-derived proteins govern the entire assembly and release of the virus particles, with matrix proteins playing key roles in Gag stability, capsid assembly, transport and budding. (wikipedia.org)
  • Avian paramyxovirus 2 (APMV 2) is a virus belonging to the family Paramyxoviridae and genus Avulavirus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Avian paramyxovirus 2 has been known to cause disease, specifically mild respiratory infections in domestic poultry, including turkeys and chickens, and has many economic effects on egg production and poultry industries.The virus was first isolated from a strain in Yucaipa, California in 1956. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is believed that the F and Hn proteins present on the outer envelope of the virus assist in entry of the virus into the host cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fusion protein (F) is an integral membrane protein, sharing many features similar to other viral fusion proteins and is directly involved in virus fusion. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are 10 proteins that are also involved in the composition of this virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Instead, extracts of cells that were infected with avian-reovirus were able to block the activation of dsRNA-dependent enzymes, enabling the virus to relieve the translation-inhibitory activity of dsRNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Avian influenza, for most purposes, refers to the influenza A virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Companion birds in captivity are unlikely to contract the virus and there has been no report of a companion bird with avian influenza since 2003. (wikipedia.org)
  • envelope
  • Because of the high prevalence of these inactive forms, the immune system often produces antibodies which target inactive Env, rather than active forms of the envelope protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • The matrix protein (M) is believed to form the inner layer of the envelope and interacts with the F and Hn proteins on the outside of the viral envelope during viral entry. (wikipedia.org)
  • capsid
  • The capsid protein P27 is the group-specific antigen of ALV and has many viral antigen sites that are easy to detect. (deepdyve.com)
  • It is hypothesized that interactions between the Hn and F proteins cause conformational changes in the respective proteins controlling the attachment and fusion of the viral capsid with the host cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • Ashwell's work on hepatic binding proteins has served as a stimulus for the identification of a host of carbohydrate-specific receptors on various cell surfaces and has inaugurated the current concept of a cellular lectin. (asbmb.org)
  • Phosphorylation of proteins by kinases is an important mechanism in communicating signals within a cell (signal transduction) and regulating cellular activity, such as cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • A protein tyrosine kinase called pp125 is likely at hand in the influence of cellular focal adhesions, as indicated by an immunofluorescent localization of the said kinase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The avian immune system refers to the system of biological structures and cellular processes that protects birds from disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • strains
  • However, other isolated strains of avian paramyxovirus 2 have been isolated that contain genomes of similar, but different, lengths. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) are mitochondrial transporters present in the inner membrane of mitochondria. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The uncoupling proteins (UCPs) are particular mitochondrial transporters of the inner membrane that appear to be controlling the level of respiration coupling. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The eggshell is mostly made up of calcium carbonate and the membrane is valuable protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Their location makes them desirable drug targets - currently over 50% of commercially available drugs interact with membrane proteins - however they are notoriously difficult to study by MX techniques. (diamond.ac.uk)
  • To address this challenge, a new membrane protein laboratory has been established at the synchrotron which aims to provide world class expertise, equipment and training in the area of membrane protein x-ray crystallography whilst expanding Diamond's suite of cutting edge MX facilities. (diamond.ac.uk)
  • This term can apply to several types of protein targeting: the antibody may remain in the cytoplasm, or it may have a nuclear localization signal, or it may undergo cotranslational translocation across the membrane into the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum, provided that it is retained in that compartment through a KDEL sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • mRNA
  • Experimental deletion of rev resulted in the inability to detect the Env protein and levels of env mRNA in the cell cytoplasm were significantly diminished. (wikipedia.org)
  • beta-keratin
  • β-keratin or beta-keratin is a protein in the keratin family. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1999) showed that these featherlike structures consisted of beta-keratin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Beta-Keratin Specific Immunological reactivity in Feather-Like Structures of the Cretaceous Alvarezsaurid, Shuvuuia deserti Journal of Experimental Biology (Mol Dev Evol) 255:146-157 beta-Keratins at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) There are two main forms of keratin, alpha-keratin and beta-keratin. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • They compared the avian and rabbit proteins and found that they had many properties in common, such as similar carbohydrate constituents and a requirement for calcium. (asbmb.org)
  • We found potential markers of pathogenicity in all of the 11 proteins expressed by the H5 type of AIV. (beds.ac.uk)
  • The tiny and ancient structures were found on Eoconfuciusornis , a crow-size early bird that lived in what is now northern China during the early Cretaceous. (livescience.com)
  • This isn't the first time that researchers have found ancient structures within fossils. (livescience.com)
  • However, a third TCR, called TCR3, has been found in avian T cell populations that lack both TCR1 and TCR2. (wikipedia.org)
  • mammals
  • Certain small mammals kept as pets have the same or similar proteins in their fur and feces and so should be removed. (wikipedia.org)
  • The avian immune system resembles that of mammals since both evolved from a common reptilian ancestor and have inherited many commonalities. (wikipedia.org)
  • residue
  • Together, Ashwell and Morell devised a labeling prodcedure that involved enzymatic removal of the glycoprotein's terminal sialic acid residue, thereby exposing galactose, which was then treated with galactose oxidase and tritiated borohydride, resulting in the incorporation of tritium into the protein. (asbmb.org)
  • feathers
  • This disease is caused by the exposure to avian proteins present in the dry dust of the droppings and sometimes in the feathers of a variety of birds. (wikipedia.org)
  • In birds, scales, beaks, claws and feathers also contain β-keratin of the avian family. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microscopic pigment structures and proteins that graced the feathers of a Cretaceous-age bird are still present in its 130-million-year-old fossil, a new study finds. (livescience.com)
  • To learn more, Schweitzer and her colleagues used scanning and transmission electron microscopy to get a better view of the fossilized feathers' surfaces and internal structures. (livescience.com)
  • motif
  • Additionally, the absence of a carboxy-terminal di-glycine motif, however, indicates that UBX domains are not covalently attached to target proteins in a ubiquitin-like manner. (wikipedia.org)
  • residues
  • Several years later, Ashwell and Toshisuke Kawasaki isolated an avian hepatic binding protein that was specific for terminal N-acetylglucosamine residues on glycoproteins. (asbmb.org)
  • Tyrosine kinases catalyze the phosphorylation of tyrosine residues in proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The phosphorylation of tyrosine residues in turn causes a change in the function of the protein that they are contained in. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins in the cytosol and proteins in the nucleus are phosphorylated at tyrosine residues during this process. (wikipedia.org)
  • suggests
  • Research suggests that the highly conserved protein may be involved in intercisternal cross-bridge structures that are assumed to function in Golgi cisternae stacking. (fsu.edu)
  • serine
  • The Kazal domain is an evolutionary conserved protein domain usually indicative of serine protease inhibitors. (wikipedia.org)
  • fusion protein
  • Type 1 fusion machines initially bind a receptor on the target cell surface, which triggers a conformational change, allowing for binding of the fusion protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequence
  • Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed. (uniprot.org)
  • They are distinct structural units defining a large family of proteins that often exhibit a modular domain architecture three-dimensional structures of UBX domains reveal a close structural relationship with ubiquitin despite the lack of significant sequence homology UBX domain is very similar to ubiquitin which gives us some indication of evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • substrate
  • A well-known example of such an uncoupling of respiration to ADP phosphorylation is represented by the mitochondrial uncoupling protein of brown adipocytes (UCP1), which dissipates energy of substrate oxidation as heat ( 15 - 18 ). (diabetesjournals.org)