• fibrosis
  • After cardiac fibrosis was induced in rats by either 14-day ANG II infusion or 21-day DOCA-salt treatment [a high endothelin-1 (ET-1) model], fibrillin-1 immunostaining was stronger in the interstitium (2.8-fold and 4.4-fold increases, respectively, in each model), extended between myocytes, and accumulated in microscopic scars and in the perivascular area of both ventricles. (physiology.org)
  • Later on, ECG and cardiac magnetic resonance ( Figure 4 ) confirmed the structural diagnosis, showing asymmetrical hypertrophy of the ventricular walls, a maximum thickness of 23 mm at the mid-septum, and disorganized fibrosis along the septum. (ahajournals.org)
  • Pn −/− mice also showed less fibrosis and hypertrophy following long-term pressure overload, suggesting an intimate relationship between Pn and the regulation of cardiac remodeling. (ahajournals.org)
  • 4,5 For example, dilated cardiomyopathy is characterized by a thinning of the ventricular walls that likely results, in part, from a "loosening" of the ECM within the heart, whereas a restrictive cardiomyopathy is often associated with an increase in ventricular stiffness, an overabundance of fibrosis, and inappropriate ECM expansion. (ahajournals.org)
  • Endothelial cells also are responsible for the production of E-selectin, which recruits lymphocytes into the tissue beneath the endothelium that subsequently release transforming growth factor beta, encouraging fibrosis and thus ventricular stiffening. (wikipedia.org)
  • Given that diabetic cardiomyopathy's definition excludes concomitant atherosclerosis or hypertension, there are no changes in perfusion or in atrial natriuretic peptide levels up until the very late stages of the disease, when the hypertrophy and fibrosis become very pronounced. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conversely, Grx2 knockout hearts developed left ventricular hypertrophy and fibrosis, leading to hypertension. (wikipedia.org)
  • The increase in TGF-beta 1 expression in a pressure-overloaded heart correlates with the degree of fibrosis, suggesting TGF-beta 1 involvement in the progression from a compensated hypertrophy to failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • pressure overload
  • In a transgenic mouse model of cardiac-specific overexpression of CARP, mice exhibited normal physiology at baseline, but were protected against pathological cardiac hypertrophy induced via pressure-overload or isoproterenol, which could be attributed to the downregulation of the ERK1/2, MEK and TGFbeta-1 pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice displayed normal cardiac function at baseline and in response to pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy, suggesting that these proteins are not essential. (wikipedia.org)
  • abnormalities
  • This is usually observed in the presence of structural abnormalities predisposing to reentry phenomena. (ahajournals.org)
  • Gross Structural Abnormalities Structural changes that occur with HFpEF are often radically different from those associated with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). (wikipedia.org)
  • Other cardiorenal connectors include renin-angiotensin-system activation, nitric oxide/reactive oxygen species imbalance, inflammatory factors and abnormal activation of the sympathetic nervous system, which can cause structural and functional abnormalities in both heart and/or the kidney. (wikipedia.org)
  • cardiomyocytes
  • Human engineered cardiac tissues (hECTs) are derived by experimental manipulation of pluripotent stem cells, such as human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and, more recently, human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) to differentiate into human cardiomyocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • conduction
  • Mutations of Scn5a are responsible for pathologic cardiac phenotypes such as the congenital long QT syndrome type 3, Brugada syndrome, and progressive cardiac conduction disorders. (onlinejacc.org)
  • Cardiology can be described as all of the following: An academic discipline Branch of science Branch of applied science Branch of medicine Branch of internal medicine Adult cardiology - Cardiac electrophysiology - study of the electrical properties and conduction diseases of the heart. (wikipedia.org)
  • markedly
  • 14 In model systems, norepinephrine markedly increases the expression of CT-1 in cardiac myocytes in vitro and in vivo, via a cAMP response element in the 5′ flanking region of the CT-1 gene. (ahajournals.org)
  • In contrast, left ventricular hypertrophy markedly progressed despite the mild extracardiac target-organ damage in primary aldosteronism. (ahajournals.org)
  • gene
  • Approximately 40% of these mutations occur in the β-myosin heavy chain gene on chromosome 14 q11.2-3, and approximately 40% involve the cardiac myosin-binding protein C gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • CARP, also known as Cardiac adriamycin-responsive protein or Cardiac ankyrin repeat protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ANKRD1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Decreased expression of CARP in cardiac cells within the ischemic region was detected in a rat model of ischemic injury, and was thought to be linked to the induction of GADD153, an apoptosis-related gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Myosin essential light chain (ELC), ventricular/cardiac isoform is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MYL3 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • interstitium
  • The composition of the matrix of the interstitium and the proportion and the expression of each protein can have a profound influence on cardiac structure and compliance that will determine its hemodynamic functions ( 20 ). (physiology.org)
  • Besides, the cardiac interstitium which consisted of largely Type I and Type III collagen fibres are also involved in cardiac remodeling. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1989)"Cardiac interstitium in health and disease" JACC 13:1637-1652 Creemers EE, Pinto YM. (wikipedia.org)
  • hemodynamic
  • Mechanical stretch of cardiac myocytes increases the expression of CT-1 and activates the JAK/STAT pathway, 9 providing a link from the biological properties of CT-1 to its potential role in remodeling in response to hemodynamic overload. (ahajournals.org)
  • adult
  • These are the first genetic data detailing the function of Pn in the adult heart as a regulator of cardiac remodeling and hypertrophy. (ahajournals.org)
  • Abstract- We have shown that exposure of pregnant ewes to dexamethasone (11.5 mg/d for 2 days) at 27 days of gestation (term, 150 days) led to increased blood pressure and cardiac output in adult offspring. (ahajournals.org)
  • Conditional ablation of NM II-B in cardiac myocytes after E11.5 allows study of NM II-B function in adult myocytes. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Left ventricular hypertrophy is thought to be a leading cause of SCD in the adult population. (wikipedia.org)
  • hECTs also express key cardiac genes (α-MHC, SERCA2a and ACTC1) nearing the levels seen in the adult heart. (wikipedia.org)
  • chamber
  • Cardiac magnetic resonance in a 4-chamber view. (ahajournals.org)
  • CARP was originally identified as a YB-1-associating, cardiac-restricted transcription co-repressor in the homeobox NKX2-5 pathway that is involved in cardiac ventricular chamber specification, maturation and morphogenesis, and whose mRNA levels are exquisitely sensitive to Doxorubicin, mediated through a hydrogen peroxide/ERK/p38MAP kinase-dependent as well as M-CAT cis-element-dependent mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • cardiovascular
  • Independently, the SA was a stronger risk indicator of cardiac mortality compared to the other cardiovascular and ECG risk factors analyzed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interest in these bioengineered cardiac tissues has risen due to their potential use in cardiovascular research and clinical therapies. (wikipedia.org)
  • In cardiovascular disease, Grx2a overexpression protects mouse heart from Dox and ischemia-induced cardiac injury, potentially via increasing mitochondrial protein glutathionylation. (wikipedia.org)
  • increase in cardiac
  • Treating cardiac myofibrils with the Lysine-rich N-terminal peptide (amino acids 5-14) evoked a supramaximal increase in cardiac myofibrillar MgATPase activity at submaximal calcium concentrations, and further studies demonstrated that this region of ELC modulates the affinity of myosin for actin. (wikipedia.org)
  • morbidity
  • Cardiac allograft vasculopathy remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality after transplantation. (stanford.edu)
  • Neurologic events during left ventricular assist device (LVAD) support are associated with significant morbidity and death. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Many studies have investigated the prognostic strength of the SA for cardiac morbidity and mortality compared to these and other ECG parameters. (wikipedia.org)
  • The SA is a sensitive marker of repolarization aberrations and with further research support the SA will likely become clinically applied in predicting cardiac morbidity and mortality. (wikipedia.org)
  • collagen
  • 2005. Inhibition of cardiac myofibroblast formation and collagen synthesis by activation and overexpression of adenylyl cyclase. (wikipedia.org)
  • alterations in the cardiac
  • In human heart failure, there are characteristic alterations in the cardiac β-adrenoceptor system: selective downregulation of β 1 -adrenoceptors with little or no change in β 2 -adrenoceptors, reduced adenylyl cyclase activity, increased G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) activity, and reduced neuronal noradrenaline transporter. (ahajournals.org)
  • 4,5 These heart failure-associated alterations in the cardiac ECM are likely regulated, in part, by the cardiac fibroblast through both stretch-sensitive signaling pathways and by neuroendocrine effectors such as angiotensin II and transforming growth factor (TGF)β. (ahajournals.org)
  • echocardiography
  • Clinical cardiac electrophysiology - Cardiogeriatrics (geriatric cardiology) - Echocardiography - use of ultrasound to study the mechanical function/physics of the heart. (wikipedia.org)
  • Remodeling
  • In cardiology, ventricular remodeling (or cardiac remodeling) refers to changes in the size, shape, structure, and function of the heart. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term "reverse remodeling" in cardiology implies an improvement in ventricular mechanics and function following a remote injury or pathological process. (wikipedia.org)
  • significantly
  • Within 13 to 19 days after MCT application (group A), RV weight (222±6 versus 147±5 mg) and RV/left ventricular (LV) weight ratio (0.42±0.01 versus 0.29±0.01) were significantly increased, whereas plasma noradrenaline, RV β-AR density, RV NAT density and activity, and RV GRK activity were not significantly altered. (ahajournals.org)
  • We observed decreased cardiac allograft function in patients to be significantly associated with loss of microvascular cell surface markers, consistent with altered biology of the vascular endothelium or injury, and with up-regulation of cytokines such as IL-6, IL-10, TGF-b, and TNF-a. (stanford.edu)
  • clinical
  • I study the role of sub-clinical cytomegalovirus infection in the development of cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV), and the effect of antiviral agents in preventing CAV, work that has been supported by a program project grant from NIH. (stanford.edu)
  • Background- The clinical significance and long-term consequences of left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy associated with intensive athletic conditioning remain unresolved. (ahajournals.org)
  • The possibility that this residual LV hypertrophy, apparently part of the athlete's heart syndrome, may have future long-term clinical implications in some individuals cannot be excluded with certainty. (ahajournals.org)
  • 8,9 ⇓ Therefore, extreme alterations in LV morphology observed in highly trained athletes unavoidably raise several critical issues, including the clinical significance and long-term consequences of the hypertrophy induced by training and the likelihood of complete reversibility after deconditioning. (ahajournals.org)
  • His clinical goal is to apply minimally invasive robotic surgery and other cutting-edge techniques to enhance cardiac surgery. (childrenshospital.org)
  • Clinical judgment, of course, should guide the physical exam but the following are pertinent things related to a general / broad cardiac exam. (wikipedia.org)
  • allograft
  • Preliminary data suggest that angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors retard the atherosclerotic plaque development that is the hallmark of cardiac allograft vasculopathy. (stanford.edu)
  • The objective of this project is to investigate the role of an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, ramipril, in preventing the development of cardiac allograft vasculopathy. (stanford.edu)
  • chronic
  • Herein, we report a successful bridge to heart transplantation by use of the TandemHeart percutaneous ventricular assist device (pVAD) in a chronic aortic dissection patient who was experiencing postcardiotomy shock. (biomedsearch.com)
  • heart failure
  • Cardiac transplantation is the ultimate treatment option for patients with end stage heart failure. (stanford.edu)
  • For patients with end-stage heart failure and contraindications to transplantation, insertion of a continuous-flow left ventricular assist device (LVAD) is an effective treatment strategy. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Mechanical circulatory support during severe acute heart failure presents options for myocardial recovery or cardiac replacement. (biomedsearch.com)
  • It is estimated that approximately 100,000 patients in the United States with advanced heart failure might benefit from cardiac transplantation, while donors are available for only 2000 recipients each year. (biomedsearch.com)
  • While a cardiac arrest may be caused by heart attack or heart failure, these are not the same. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was previously believed that low cardiac output in heart failure patients result in decreased blood flow to the kidneys which can lead to progressive deterioration of kidney function. (wikipedia.org)