• protons
  • The chloroplast also harnesses the power of an electrochemical gradient using protons. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cytochrome b6f complex is responsible for "non-cyclic" (1) and "cyclic" (2) electron transfer between two mobile redox carriers, plastoquinone (QH2) and plastocyanin (Pc): Cytochrome b6f catalyzes the transfer of electrons from plastoquinol to plastocyanin, while pumping two protons from the stroma into the thylakoid lumen: QH2 + 2Pc(Cu2+) + 2H+ (stroma) → Q + 2Pc(Cu+) + 4H+ (lumen) This reaction occurs through the Q cycle as in Complex III. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the low-potential ETC, the electron from heme bn is transferred to SQ, and the completely reduced Q2− takes up two protons from the stroma to form QH2. (wikipedia.org)
  • ribosomes
  • This combined experimental and bioinformatics analyses resolved chloroplast ribosomes in different assembly and functional states (e.g. 30, 50, and 70 S), which enabled the identification of plastid homologues of prokaryotic ribosome assembly factors as well as proteins involved in co-translational modifications, targeting, and folding. (mysciencework.com)
  • organisms
  • Despite this, chloroplasts can be found in an extremely wide set of organisms, some not even directly related to each other-a consequence of many secondary and even tertiary endosymbiotic events. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • From genomes that probably originally contained over 3000 genes only about 130 genes remain in the chloroplasts of contemporary plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacteria
  • Two families of reaction centers in photosystems exist: type I reaction centers (such as photosystem I (P700) in chloroplasts and in green-sulphur bacteria and type II reaction centers (such as photosystem II (P680) in chloroplasts and in non-sulphur purple bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • light
  • Alkalization of the chloroplast stroma caused by light-dependent proton flux into the thylakoid space. (nii.ac.jp)
  • In the unicellular red alga Porphyridium purpureum and in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, there is a single highly conspicuous pyrenoid in a single chloroplast, visible using light microscopy. (wikipedia.org)