• rats
  • Methods- Histopathology, molecular biology, and electrophysiological and fluorescence cell death assays in slice cultures after OGD and in developing rats after intrauterine hypoxia-ischemia (HI). (ahajournals.org)
  • All experiments used male Wistar rats (weight, 250 to 300 g) (Charles River Laboratories, Sulzfeld, Germany) (a total of 18 rats: 12 for ischemia/reperfusion, 6 for sham-operated controls). (ahajournals.org)
  • infarction
  • Emboli are abnormal masses of material (which can be solid, liquid or gas) that are carried in the blood stream from one part of the circulation to another causing a blockage (occlusion) of a blood vessel that leads to lack of oxygen supply (ischemia) and finally infarction of tissue downstream of the embolus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The watershed zones themselves are particularly susceptible to infarction from global ischemia as the distal nature of the vasculature predisposes these areas to be most sensitive to profound hypoperfusion. (wikipedia.org)
  • glutamate
  • During brain ischemia, glutamate is released in excess from the presynaptic terminal, leading to the uncontrollable opening of the glutamate receptors, including the NMDA and AMPA receptors, which allows for an excessive influx of Ca2+ into the intracellular environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ischemia is followed by accumulation of glutamate and aspartate in the extracellular fluid, causing cell death, which is aggravated by lack of oxygen and glucose. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of the events resulting from ischemia and glutamate receptor activation, a deep chemical coma may be induced in patients with brain injury to reduce the metabolic rate of the brain (its need for oxygen and glucose) and save energy to be used to remove glutamate actively. (wikipedia.org)
  • neurons
  • Anoxic depolarization is a progressive and uncontrollable depolarization of neurons during stroke or brain ischemia in which there is an inadequate supply of blood to the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Astrogliosis (also known as astrocytosis or referred to as reactive astrocytosis) is an abnormal increase in the number of astrocytes due to the destruction of nearby neurons from CNS trauma, infection, ischemia, stroke, autoimmune responses, and neurodegenerative disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Insults to neurons in the central nervous system caused by infection, trauma, ischemia, stroke, autoimmune responses, or other neurodegenerative diseases may cause reactive astrocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ischemic stroke has a complex pathophysiology involving the interplay of many different cells and tissues such as neurons, glia, endothelium, and the immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • arteries
  • Neurological complications of aortic dissection (i.e., stroke and paralysis) are due to the involvement of one or more arteries supplying portions of the central nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ischemia within the arteries branching from the internal carotid artery may result in symptoms such as blindness in one eye, weakness in one arm or leg, or weakness in one entire side of the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ischemia within the arteries branching from the vertebral arteries in the back of the brain may result in symptoms such as dizziness, vertigo, double vision, or weakness on both sides of the body[citation needed]. (wikipedia.org)
  • Individuals with sickle cell anemia, compressed blood vessels, ventricular tachycardia, plaque buildup in the arteries, blood clots, extremely low blood pressure as a result of heart attack, and congenital heart defects have a higher predisposition to brain ischemia in comparison their healthy counterparts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Compression of blood vessels may also lead to brain ischemia, by blocking the arteries that carry oxygen to the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • excitotoxicity
  • Excitotoxicity may be involved in spinal cord injury, stroke, traumatic brain injury, hearing loss (through noise overexposure or ototoxicity), and in neurodegenerative diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) such as multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Parkinson's disease, alcoholism or alcohol withdrawal and especially over-rapid benzodiazepine withdrawal, and also Huntington's disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • The biochemical cascade resulting from ischemia and involving excitotoxicity is called the ischemic cascade. (wikipedia.org)
  • infarct size
  • Refined Qing Kai Ling, traditional Chinese medicinal preparation, reduces ischemic stroke-induced infarct size and neurological deficits and increases expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase," Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin , vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 633-637, 2008. (hindawi.com)
  • 11 In animal stroke models, hypothermia was also shown to decrease infarct size. (ahajournals.org)
  • chronic
  • Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News ) - Chronic disability after stroke represents a major unmet neurologic need. (bioethics.com)
  • brain
  • Gap junction channels allow exchange of intracellular ions and molecules as large as 1 kDa between dying and viable brain cells, exchanged that has been suggested to be detrimental or beneficial, depending on the nature of the insult (ie, ischemia or trauma). (ahajournals.org)
  • 1-4 Such effects have also been reported with exogenous administration after brain trauma and stroke. (ahajournals.org)
  • 10 However, nothing is known about the role of G-CSF during brain ischemia in vivo. (ahajournals.org)
  • Within a few seconds of stroke onset, the brain responds by entering a state of metabolic depression, in which energy consumption is reduced to compensate for the reduction in energy production. (wikipedia.org)
  • This approach is useful to study hypoxic ischemia in the developing brain, since newborn rat pups are utilized in this model. (wikipedia.org)
  • Watershed strokes are named because they affect the distal watershed areas of the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Internal watershed strokes (IWS), or subcortical brain infarcts, are located in the white matter along and slightly above the lateral ventricle, between the deep and the superficial arterial systems of the MCA, or between the superficial systems of the MCA and ACA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Watershed strokes are caused by ischemia or a lack of blood flow to the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are several conditions that can predispose someone to watershed stroke by increasing the likelihood that insufficient blood supply will be able to reach the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Early diagnosis and timely medical intervention can drastically reduce the severity of a stroke, limit damage to the brain, improve the chances of a full recovery and reduce recovery times massively. (wikipedia.org)
  • After the initial stroke, other symptoms depend on the area of the brain affected. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ischemia leads to alterations in brain metabolism, reduction in metabolic rates, and energy crisis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The causes of brain ischemia vary from sickle cell anemia to congenital heart defects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Symptoms of brain ischemia can include unconsciousness, blindness, problems with coordination, and weakness in the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other effects that may result from brain ischemia are stroke, cardiorespiratory arrest, and irreversible brain damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Accordingly, this discovery raised the possibility of intervening after brain ischemia before the damage becomes irreversible. (wikipedia.org)
  • The broad term, "stroke" can be divided into three categories: brain ischemia, subarachnoid hemorrhage and intracerebral hemorrhage. (wikipedia.org)
  • The symptoms of brain ischemia reflect the anatomical region undergoing blood and oxygen deprivation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The symptoms of brain ischemia range from mild to severe. (wikipedia.org)
  • Brain ischemia has been linked to a variety of diseases or abnormalities. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sickle cell anemia may cause brain ischemia associated with the irregularly shaped blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • neurological
  • Q. T. Chen, "Diagnostic criteria and levels on and evaluation of neurological impairment for stroke patients," Chinese Journal of Neurology , vol. 29, pp. 376-383, 1996. (hindawi.com)
  • intravenous
  • Conclusions- G-CSF achieved a significant neuroprotective effect in cell culture and after intravenous administration after stroke. (ahajournals.org)
  • infection
  • Background and Purpose Previous infection is discussed as a risk factor for ischemic stroke in children and younger adults. (ahajournals.org)
  • 2 Several authors have discussed infection as a causative factor for ischemic stroke in children and young adults. (ahajournals.org)
  • 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 A case-control study with patients aged younger than 50 years indicated that recent infection is an important and independent risk factor for ischemic stroke in Finland. (ahajournals.org)
  • 12 During a study of leukocyte function in acute stroke excluding subjects with infection, 13 we noted a high prevalence of recent infection among patients of all ages in southern California, an observation supported by the report of Ameriso and coworkers. (ahajournals.org)
  • In particular, we addressed the following questions: Is an association of stroke and recent infection restricted to younger age groups? (ahajournals.org)
  • needed to induce
  • Results- Nasal inoculation of only 200 colony-forming units of S pneumoniae caused severe pneumonia and bacteremia after experimental stroke, whereas 200 000 colony-forming units are needed to induce comparable disease in sham animals. (ahajournals.org)
  • 1974
  • In 1974, Hossmann and Zimmermann demonstrated that ischemia induced in mammalian brains for up to an hour can be at least partially recovered. (wikipedia.org)
  • increases
  • We tested if stroke-induced immunodeficiency increases the risk of pneumonia after aspiration in a newly developed model of poststroke pneumonia. (ahajournals.org)
  • symptoms
  • Initial symptoms, as promoted by the American Stroke Association, are FAST (stroke), representing F = Facial weakness (droop), A = Arm weakness (drift), S = Speech difficulty (slur), and T = Time to act (priority of intervention). (wikipedia.org)
  • Any one of these symptoms, whether seen alone or in combination, should be assumed to be stroke until proven otherwise. (wikipedia.org)
  • trauma
  • They have also been shown to reduce vasogenic edema after trauma, stroke, or obstructive hydrocephalus. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacterial
  • Conclusions- Experimental stroke propagates bacterial aspiration from harmless intranasal colonization to harmful pneumonia. (ahajournals.org)
  • 1 Bacterial pneumonia is the most frequent severe complication 1-3 and the most common cause of death in patients sustaining a stroke. (ahajournals.org)
  • Reduction of bulbar reflexes, drowsiness, the bedridden patient's state, and subsequent aspiration are considered to account for the high incidence of bacterial pneumonia after stroke. (ahajournals.org)
  • patients
  • Almost all younger patients and many of the older patients living in this area are referred to our emergency unit for primary diagnostic and therapeutic procedures after stroke. (ahajournals.org)
  • 10 The reasons for the high incidence of pneumonia in patients sustaining a stroke are still incompletely understood. (ahajournals.org)
  • Model
  • 2,3 The components of the basal lamina (type IV collagen, laminins, and fibronectin 4 ) were shown to be degraded in a baboon stroke model. (ahajournals.org)
  • The thrombembolic model is closest to the pathophysiology of human cardioembolic stroke. (wikipedia.org)
  • damage
  • Imaging studies of stroke often test new techniques for their ability to (a) reveal the location and extent of ischemic injury at early time points and (b) quantify the degree of damage that has occurred or may subsequently develop. (ahajournals.org)