• intracellular
  • The ability to respond to various intracellular and/or extracellular stresses allows the organism to adapt to changing environmental conditions and drives evolution. (biologists.org)
  • physiological
  • It is also considered an adaptogen, a nontoxic medication that normalizes physiological functions, disturbed by chronic stress, through correction of imbalances in the neuroendocrine and immune systems [9, (eurekaselect.com)
  • Ratan's scientific efforts have been primarily focused on understanding how neurons respond to physiological stresses, particularly oxidative stress, adaptively and maladaptively at a transcriptional level, and how the balance of these activities leads to neuronal death and impairment, or cell survival and recovery or resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • processes
  • Because of the importance of the epithelium in maintaining intestinal homeostasis, understanding mechanisms involved in intestinal epithelial healing and cell stress responses, and the identification of compounds that promote these processes, could lead to new therapeutic strategies for IBD. (biologists.org)
  • Three sirtuins, SIRT3, SIRT4 and SIRT5, are located in mitochondria and have been implicated in regulating metabolic processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Centre
  • In January 1962 they reported an increased number of lysosomes in rat liver cells after the addition of glucagon, and that some displaced lysosomes towards the centre of the cell contained other cell organelles such as mitochondria. (wikipedia.org)
  • defense
  • The concept that stress responses and the aging process share common mechanisms arose initially from studies in model organisms, where the identification of molecular pathways that regulate aging - insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IGF), sirtuins, target of rapamycin (TOR), AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) - highlighted that intrinsic induction of stress defense programs and the resulting adaptation can increase life expectancy ( Haigis and Yankner, 2010 ). (biologists.org)
  • mechanisms
  • αB-crystallin has been identified to preserve lens cell viability upon UV-light and oxidative stress exposures, however, the lens organelle targets of αB-crystallin and its mechanisms for the protection of lens organelles have yet to be fully established. (arvojournals.org)
  • Here, we sought to establish the role and mechanisms for αB-crystallin protection of lens mitochondria and nuclei upon UV-light and oxidative stress exposures. (arvojournals.org)
  • In this review we discuss the complex molecular mechanisms of proteotoxic stress responses in different cellular compartments with a focus on the UPR mt and its role in health and life-span regulation. (biologists.org)
  • function
  • The researchers discovered, in these mice, that the basic function of the liver was fine, but when the liver was exposed to stress (a portion was surgically removed), the liver could not regrow as it normally does because too much calcium flowed into cellular mitochondria, which triggered tissue death. (medicalxpress.com)
  • They found that one important benefit involves the cellular power plant - the mitochondria - which creates the fuel so the body can function properly. (laboratoryequipment.com)
  • Mitochondria function to convert the chemical energy from food into ATP, which cellular enzymes use to do work. (legendarypharma.com)
  • Gastric parietal cells are rich in mitochondria which provide energy in the form of ATP for cells by oxidative phosphorylation, critical to maintain the proper morphology and function of gastric mucosa. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Malfunctioning mitochondria-the power plants in cells-are behind the damage caused by strokes, heart attacks, and neurodegenerative diseases, but little has been known about how to stop these reactors from melting down, destroying cells and tissue. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Now, online in Nature Communications , researchers at Thomas Jefferson University report important insights into how mitochondria are naturally protected against taking up too much calcium, which can force cells to die. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Their findings offer a novel avenue for creating drugs designed to stop mitochondria from demolishing cells during a time of stress, such as from a heart attack, says one of the study's senior authors, Professor György Hajnóczky, M.D., Ph.D., director of the MitoCare Center at Thomas Jefferson University. (medicalxpress.com)
  • When stressed, and without the MICU1 calcium gatekeeper, the liver cells died," says Dr. Hajnóczky. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Due to the ensuing energy deficit, calcium accumulates in the cells and mitochondria are then flooded with calcium. (medicalxpress.com)
  • If mitochondria cannot keep this calcium in check, they fall apart causing the cells to die. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The data provide evidence that lens cells respond to UV-light and oxidative stress insult through phosphorylation and translocation of αB to the mitochondria and nucleus. (arvojournals.org)
  • Therefore, a healthy population of mitochondria is critical for the well-being of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although some evidence attributes SIRT3 activity in bypassing growth arrest in bladder carcinoma cells via regulation of p53 in the mitochondria. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is thought to protect cells from stress-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. (wikipedia.org)
  • formation
  • Hydroxyl radicals, which originated from the superoxide anion, and lipid peroxide formation in the mitochondria were both increased in the noninfarcted LV from MI mice. (ahajournals.org)
  • diseases
  • These diseases don't necessarily begin in the mitochondria, but the damage they cause is amplified in these organelles. (medicalxpress.com)
  • this is now known as a 'hormetic stress response' and drew the interest of the scientific community for its potential application in the pharmacological management of age-related diseases. (biologists.org)
  • intimately
  • A large body of evidence has established that stress adaptation and aging are intimately linked ( Kourtis and Tavernarakis, 2011 ). (biologists.org)
  • energy
  • Not only do mitochondria provide much of the energy for the life-sustaining cellular machinery but researchers have found they also help the cell make sense of signals from the environment that can change the cell's behavior. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Illustrative of such a hormetic stress response is the reaction to the low dose energy stress induced by caloric restriction, which prolongs lifespan in a wide array of species from yeast to primates ( Mair and Dillin, 2008 ). (biologists.org)
  • This protein is part of the FASTKD family, which is known for regulating the energy balance of mitochondria under stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a member of the FASTKD family, FASTKD5 localizes to the mitochondria to modulate their energy balance, especially under conditions of stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell death
  • αB crystallin prevented lens epithelial cell death upon exposure to UVA-light and oxidative stress insults. (arvojournals.org)
  • The observation that SIRT3 has nuclear activity came from a report that SIRT3 protected cardiomyocytes from stress mediated cell death and that this effect was due to deacetylation of a nuclear factor, Ku-70. (wikipedia.org)
  • presence
  • Indirect immunofluorescence using antibodies specific to either hsp 58 or grp 75 confirmed their presence within mitochondria. (cshl.edu)