• solar radiation
  • The aerosols injected into the atmosphere reduced the solar radiation reaching the Earth's surface, which cooled the atmosphere for several years and resulting in famines and crop failures in Europe and elsewhere, although the exact scale of the temperature anomalies and their consequences is still debated. (wikipedia.org)
  • The chemical composition of the aerosol directly affects how it interacts with solar radiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • albedo
  • If r eff is greater than about 2 microns, the global average greenhouse effect of the aerosols exceeds the albedo effect, causing a surface heating. (nasa.gov)
  • gases
  • SAGE data has been used to study the atmospheres aerosols, ozone, water vapor, and other trace gases. (wikipedia.org)
  • The warming from greenhouse gases and aerosols calculated for the coming decade can vary by almost a factor of two - depending on whether aerosols continue to increase at the same rate as over the past decade, or if instead they decrease to very low levels, such as those experienced in 1960. (eponline.com)
  • The Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) was a NASA scientific research satellite within NASA's ERBE (Earth Radiation Budget Experiment) Research Program - a three-satellite mission, designed to investigate the Earth's radiation budget It also carried an instrument that studied stratospheric aerosol and gases. (wikipedia.org)
  • The precursors for these aerosols-i.e. the gases from which they originate-may have an anthropogenic origin (from fossil fuel or coal combustion) and a natural biogenic origin. (wikipedia.org)
  • anthropogenic
  • The natural and anthropogenic factors, which determine the state of the stratospheric aerosol layer (SAL), may have the character of a constant, gradually accumulating effect or a short-term powerful disturbance. (hindawi.com)
  • Earth's
  • Publications] S.Mukai, I.Sano and T.Takashima: 'Polarization and Directionality of the Earth's Reflectance(POLDER) has Succeded in Detecting Aerosols' Geocarto Int.12. (nii.ac.jp)
  • fully understood
  • The reasons for the 10-year increase in stratospheric aerosols are not fully understood and are the subject of ongoing research, said coauthor Ryan Neely, with the University of Colorado and the Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES). (eponline.com)
  • Retrieval
  • We intend to develop efficient algorithms for aerosol retrieval. (nii.ac.jp)
  • An efficient algorithm for aerosol retrieval is developed by considering simulations in the polarization field. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] I.Sano, S.Mukai, T.Takashima and Y.Yamaguchi: 'Retrieval Algorithms for Photopolarimetric Properties of Aerosols' Adv.Space Res.Vol.17. (nii.ac.jp)
  • spray
  • Another angle of the initial Pencil Thin Type lines that you see when the planes spray the Aerosol jet spray Chemtrails. (hubpages.com)
  • strongly
  • Another important aerosol type is elemental carbon (EC, also known as black carbon, BC): this aerosol type includes strongly light-absorbing material and is thought to yield large positive radiative forcing. (wikipedia.org)
  • study
  • Understanding of these aerosols comes in large part from the study of volcanic eruptions, notably Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines, which erupted in 1991 when scientific techniques were sufficiently far advanced to study the effects carefully. (wikipedia.org)
  • effect
  • The increase in aerosols since 2000 implies a cooling effect of about 0.1 watts per square meter - enough to offset some of the 0.28 watts per square meter warming effect from the carbon dioxide increase during that same period. (eponline.com)
  • optical
  • P. Rivas-Perea and J. G. Rosiles, "A Probabilistic Model for Stratospheric Soil-Independent Dust Aerosol Detection," in Imaging and Applied Optics Congress , OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper DMD4. (osapublishing.org)
  • Publications] S.Mukai, I.Sano, Y.Sasano, M.Suzuki and T.Yokota: 'Optical Properties of STratospheric Aerosols' Adv.Space Res.17. (nii.ac.jp)
  • continue
  • If stratospheric aerosol levels continue to increase, temperatures will not rise as quickly as they would otherwise, said Ellsworth Dutton, also with NOAA ESRL and a co-author on the paper. (eponline.com)