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  • botulinum toxin
  • Replacement of strabismus surgery with less invasive procedures began in Alan B Scott's San Francisco lab with his development of botulinum toxin injection treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a small-scale study, adults whose reading difficulties due to convergence insufficiency had been unsuccessfully addressed by convergence exercises, base-in prism glasses or strabismus surgery showed improved reading after botulinum toxin therapy, maintaining improved reading remaining also after six months. (wikipedia.org)
  • surgical
  • Medical and surgical treatment of strabismus is based on the amount of eye misalignment present. (aapos.org)
  • The orthoptist can also assist in determining prism power when treatment with prisms is indicated, can offer eye exercises to build fusional amplitudes when appropriate, and can provide accurate strabismus measurements for surgical planning when muscle surgery is indicated. (aao.org)
  • Unstable medical and surgical issues should be resolved before strabismus surgery. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Because injection treatment does not result in the scaring that is often a troublesome consequence of conventional strabismus surgery, if therapeutic goals are not achieved with one injection, additional injections or surgical treatments can readily be given. (wikipedia.org)
  • In complex strabismus cases, toxin can be injected diagnostically as an aid to planning surgical treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • toxin
  • Botulinum A toxin (introduced as Oculinum, now called Botox, is the principal drug used to temporarily paralyze extraocular muscles, and is widely accepted as an alternative to surgery for many types of strabismus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Residual misalignments that remain following traditional strabismus surgery can be corrected with toxin injection. (wikipedia.org)
  • For treating strabismus, the toxin is used in much diluted form, and the injection is targeted to reach specific muscles that move the eye, thereby temporarily weakening the selected muscles. (wikipedia.org)
  • surgery
  • Strabismus surgery is a one-day procedure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Secondly, strabismus surgery may also result in subjective and objective cyclodeviation, possibly resulting in cyclotropia and rotational double vision (cyclodiplopia) if the visual system cannot compensate for it. (wikipedia.org)
  • Functional considerations: A frequent outcome of strabismus surgery is consecutive microtropia (also known as monofixation syndrome). (wikipedia.org)
  • mitomycin C has also been shown to reduce fibrosis in strabismus surgery. (wikipedia.org)
  • walleye
  • Strabismus is also sometimes called crossed eyes (when the eyes turn in) or walleye (when they turn out). (kidshealth.org)
  • Sometimes called "crossed-eyes" or "walleye," strabismus often begins when a child is very young and is usually the result of a problem with neuromuscular, including brain, control of eye movement, or less often, the actual eye muscle. (nemours.org)
  • muscles and nerves
  • Other things that can increase your child's risk for strabismus include an illness that affects the muscles and nerves, premature birth, Down syndrome, a head injury, and other problems. (peacehealth.org)
  • abnormal
  • Play media The BSGT is used for patients with strabismus to test for suppression, normal retinal correspondence or abnormal retinal correspondence, particularly in cases of manifest strabismus. (wikipedia.org)
  • extraocular muscle
  • The idea of treating strabismus by cutting some of the extraocular muscle fibers was published in American newspapers by New York oculist John Scudder in 1837 Eye muscle surgeries typically correct strabismus and include the following:Loosening / weakening procedures Recession involves moving the insertion of a muscle posteriorly towards its origin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some forms of strabismus can be corrected by weakening an extraocular muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • adult
  • A child who develops strabismus after the age of eight or nine years is said to have adult-onset strabismus. (encyclopedia.com)
  • An orthoptist can play an integral part in the workup and management of adult strabismus. (aao.org)
  • In the evaluation of adult strabismus, the orthoptist can assess the sensory status and provide accurate measurements in relevant fields of gaze. (aao.org)
  • In the management of adult strabismus, the detailed sensory assessment provided by an orthoptist is crucial in determining the prognosis for achieving or maintaining single vision. (aao.org)
  • When the adult presents with constant strabismus, preoperative sensory testing can determine whether fusion ability and adequate fusional amplitudes have been preserved. (aao.org)
  • vision
  • Light reflex testing is the least accurate way to measure strabismus but may be the only means possible in young children and in those with vision too poor to fixate on a target well. (aapos.org)
  • Without treatment, strabismus can cause permanent vision problems. (peacehealth.org)