• Arabidopsis
  • The role of Rubisco in CO2 sensing will be investigated in experiments characterizing the stomatal response to CO2 in the Arabidopsis mutants R100 and rca-, which have reduced rates of Rubisco-dependent carboxylation. (unt.edu)
  • Arabidopsis mutants will also be used in further studies of an acclimation of the stomatal response to CO2, and a possible role of the xanthophyll cycle of the guard cell chloroplast in acclimations of the stomatal response to CO2. (unt.edu)
  • Inflorescence stems, which dominate the overall architecture of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana , are initially formed from the rib zone of the SAM and are composed of radially patterned tissue layers of epidermis, cortex, endodermis, vasculature, and pith. (pnas.org)
  • used genetic approaches to show that in Arabidopsis thaliana stomatal specification involves a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade. (sciencemag.org)
  • H. Wang, N. Ngwenyama, Y. Liu, J. C. Walker, S. Zhang, Stomatal development and patterning are regulated by environmentally responsive mitogen-activated protein kinases in Arabidopsis . (sciencemag.org)
  • For the plant counterpart, a crystal structure of the AHA2 PM H+ -ATPase from Arabidopsis thaliana has been obtained from 3D crystals with a resolution of 3.6 Å. (wikipedia.org)
  • H+ -ATPases in plants are expressed from a multigene subfamily, and Arabidopsis thaliana for instance, have 12 different H+ -ATPase genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • leaf
  • The presence of 0.1 mM 8-Br-cAMP, a membrane-permeable analogue of cAMP, alone in the incubation medium did not affect stomatal opening in the light in leaf epidermal peel experiments. (oup.com)
  • Ordinarily, carbon dioxide is fixed to ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) by the enzyme RuBisCO in mesophyll cells exposed directly to the air spaces inside the leaf. (wikipedia.org)
  • They affect which tissues grow upward and which grow downward, leaf formation and stem growth, fruit development and ripening, plant longevity, and even plant death. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phenotypic plasticity in plants includes the allocation of more resources to the roots in soils that contain low concentrations of nutrients and the alteration of leaf shape, size, and thickness. (wikipedia.org)
  • In some older works the cells of the leaf epidermis have been regarded as specialised parenchyma cells, but the established modern preference has long been to classify the epidermis as dermal tissue, whereas parenchyma is classified as ground tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • The plant epidermis consists of three main cell types: pavement cells, guard cells and their subsidiary cells that surround the stomata and trichomes, otherwise known as leaf hairs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Leaf surfaces are dotted with pores called stomata, and in most plants they are more numerous on the undersides of the foliage. (wikipedia.org)
  • This movement lowers the water potential in the leaf airspace and causes evaporation of liquid water from the mesophyll cell walls. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of the cohesive properties of water, the tension travels through the leaf cells to the leaf and stem xylem where a momentary negative pressure is created as water is pulled up the xylem from the roots. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a water molecule evaporates from the surface of the leaf, it pulls on the adjacent water molecule, creating a continuous flow of water through the plant. (wikipedia.org)
  • Desert plants have specially adapted structures, such as thick cuticles, reduced leaf areas, sunken stomata and hairs to reduce transpiration and conserve water. (wikipedia.org)
  • stomata
  • Stomata are special structures in plant leaves that allow gas and water vapor exchange between plants and the environment. (sciencemag.org)
  • Stomata are separated by pavement cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • These plants arrested as seedlings and showed clustered stomata instead of the normal arrangement in which stomata are always separated by one pavement cell. (sciencemag.org)
  • MKK4 and MKK5 are the upstream kinases to MPK3 and MPK6 in stress response pathways, and RNA interference of these two MAPKKs simultaneously caused the seedling leaves to have all stomata with no pavement cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • These plants had no stomata, but when crossed into either mpk6 −/− or mpk3 −/− mutant background, then normal stomata and stomatal arrangement were restored. (sciencemag.org)
  • Plants deficient in the MAPKKK Yoda (YDA) also have a clustered stomata phenotype, and GVG-Nt-MEK DD suppressed this clustered phenotype in a dose-dependent manner, with higher concentrations of steroid suppressing the clustering more effectively than lower concentrations. (sciencemag.org)
  • A mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade appears critical to maintaining the one-cell spacing of stomata in plant leaves. (sciencemag.org)
  • Stomata are present in the sporophyte generation of all land plant groups except liverworts. (wikipedia.org)
  • In vascular plants the number, size and distribution of stomata varies widely. (wikipedia.org)
  • In plants with floating leaves, stomata may be found only on the upper epidermis and submerged leaves may lack stomata entirely. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most plants require the stomata to be open during daytime. (wikipedia.org)
  • A group of mostly desert plants called "CAM" plants (Crassulacean acid metabolism, after the family Crassulaceae, which includes the species in which the CAM process was first discovered) open their stomata at night (when water evaporates more slowly from leaves for a given degree of stomatal opening), use PEPcarboxylase to fix carbon dioxide and store the products in large vacuoles. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, most plants do not have the aforementioned facility and must therefore open and close their stomata during the daytime, in response to changing conditions, such as light intensity, humidity, and carbon dioxide concentration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Whereas most land plants' stomata have guard cells with chloroplasts in their cytoplasm (including those of closely related Phragmipedium slipper orchids), Paphiopedilum stomata do not. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, most plants close their stomata in response to either blue or red light, but Paphiopedilum guard cells only respond to blue light. (wikipedia.org)
  • In taller plants and trees, the force of gravity can only be overcome by the decrease in hydrostatic (water) pressure in the upper parts of the plants due to the diffusion of water out of stomata into the atmosphere. (wikipedia.org)
  • intracellular
  • Consistent with these results, patch-clamping experiments showed that intracellular addition of 0.5 mM or 1 mM cAMP significantly reversed the inhibition of whole-cell. (oup.com)
  • Consistent with these results, patch-clamping experiments showed that intracellular addition of 0.5 mM or 1 mM cAMP significantly reversed the inhibition of whole-cell inward K + currents by internally supplied 13 μM Ca 2+ or 10 μM ABA in stomatal guard cell protoplasts, respectively. (oup.com)
  • The resulting release of negatively charged anions from guard cells results in an electrical shift of the membrane to more positive voltages (depolarization) at the intracellular surface of the guard cell plasma membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vacuoles are large intracellular storage organelles in plants cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • soil
  • Plant and Soil (in press). (berkeley.edu)
  • Because these forests are dominated by evergreen conifers, both summer drought, and winter drought caused by frozen soil and plant water, along with strong evaporative demand, may be especially important. (springer.com)
  • Besides that, bacterial ooze (which is usually used as a sign for detection) on plant surfaces) can enter the surrounding soil or water, contaminating farming equipment or may be acquired by insect vectors. (wikipedia.org)
  • DGVMs commonly simulate a variety of plant and soil physiological processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Drought can be defined as the absence of rainfall or irrigation for a period of time sufficient to deplete soil moisture and cause dehydration in plant tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • The time required for dehydration stress to occur depends on the water-holding capacity of the soil, environmental conditions, stage of plant growth, and plant species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aside from the moisture content of the soil, environmental conditions of high light intensity, high temperature, low relative humidity and high wind speed will significantly increase plant water loss. (wikipedia.org)
  • The essential plant nutrients include carbon, oxygen and hydrogen which are absorbed from the air, whereas other nutrients including nitrogen are typically obtained from the soil (exceptions include some parasitic or carnivorous plants). (wikipedia.org)
  • Most soil conditions across the world can provide plants adapted to that climate and soil with sufficient nutrition for a complete life cycle, without the addition of nutrients as fertilizer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plants take up essential elements from the soil through their roots and from the air (mainly consisting of nitrogen and oxygen) through their leaves. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the water potential is more negative within the plant than the surrounding soils, the nutrients will move from the region of higher solute concentration-in the soil-to the area of lower solute concentration - in the plant. (wikipedia.org)
  • parenchyma cells
  • Apart from the xylem and phloem in their vascular bundles, leaves are composed mainly of parenchyma cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Parenchyma cells have thin, permeable primary walls enabling the transport of small molecules between them, and their cytoplasm is responsible for a wide range of biochemical functions such as nectar secretion, or the manufacture of secondary products that discourage herbivory. (wikipedia.org)
  • Others, such as the majority of the parenchyma cells in potato tubers and the seed cotyledons of legumes, have a storage function. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • the epidermis serves as an interface between the plant and the external environment ( 1 ), the stem endodermis plays a role in shoot gravitropic response ( 2 ), and the vasculature contains the essential conductive tissues phloem and xylem ( 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • an interdisciplinary field dealing with the application of analytical and experimental engineering methods, design and techniques to tissues, cells and molecules of living system. (springer.com)
  • The role of this cell type is to support the plant in axes still growing in length, and to confer flexibility and tensile strength on tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plant hormones are not nutrients, but chemicals that in small amounts promote and influence the growth, development, and differentiation of cells and tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • The biosynthesis of plant hormones within plant tissues is often diffuse and not always localized. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plants utilize simple chemicals as hormones, which move more easily through their tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • occurs
  • The production of hormones occurs very often at sites of active growth within the meristems, before cells have fully differentiated. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are three fundamental ways plants uptake nutrients through the root: Simple diffusion occurs when a nonpolar molecule, such as O2, CO2, and NH3 follows a concentration gradient, moving passively through the cell lipid Billayer membrane without the use of transport proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • roots
  • Potted plants form a tight lump of roots that, when untangled, can be up to 1 m long. (wikipedia.org)
  • The large number of R. solanacearum can shed from roots of symptomatic and nonsymptomatic plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like many salt-tolerant plants, M. crystallinum accumulates salt throughout its life, in a gradient from the roots to the shoots, with the highest concentration stored in epidermal bladder cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • A plant with a large mass of leaves in relation to the root system is prone to drought stress because the leaves may lose water faster than the roots can supply it. (wikipedia.org)
  • Newly planted plants and poorly established plants may be especially susceptible to dehydration stress because of the limited root system or the large mass of stems and leaves in comparison to roots. (wikipedia.org)
  • The epidermis (from the Greek ἐπιδερμίς, meaning "over-skin") is a single layer of cells that covers the leaves, flowers, roots and stems of plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • In plants with secondary growth, the epidermis of roots and stems is usually replaced by a periderm through the action of a cork cambium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Water is necessary for plants but only a small amount of water taken up by the roots is used for growth and metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • The amount of water lost by a plant also depends on its size and the amount of water absorbed at the roots. (wikipedia.org)
  • responses
  • 2012. Plant responses to stresses: role of ascorbate peroxidase in the antioxidant protection. (springer.com)
  • 2012. Biotechnological approaches to study plant responses to stress. (springer.com)
  • As such, it is essential for the uptake of most metabolites, and also for plant responses to the environment (e.g., movement of leaves). (wikipedia.org)
  • The concentration of hormones required for plant responses are very low (10−6 to 10−5 mol/L). Because of these low concentrations, it has been very difficult to study plant hormones, and only since the late 1970s have scientists been able to start piecing together their effects and relationships to plant physiology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mesembryanthemum
  • Mesembryanthemum crystallinum is a prostrate succulent plant native to Africa, Sinai and southern Europe, and naturalized in North America, South America and Australia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mesembryanthemum crystallinum is covered with bladder cells, enlarged epidermal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some plants, Mesembryanthemum crystallinum for example, are able to alter their photosynthetic pathways to use less water when they become water- or salt-stressed. (wikipedia.org)
  • concentrations
  • Further characterization of guard cells acclimation to CO2 should enrich our understanding of plant acclimations and adaptations to their environment, and of possible effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations on the vegetation. (unt.edu)
  • Plasma membrane H+ -ATPases are found throughout the plant in all cell types investigated, but some cell types have much higher concentrations of H+ -ATPase than others. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plant hormones are signal molecules produced within the plant, and occur in extremely low concentrations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plants also move hormones around the plant diluting their concentrations. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • 2010. Reactive oxygen species and antioxidant machinery in abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants. (springer.com)
  • The formation of certain SM compounds may be restricted to single plant species, specific plant organs, cells or even particular cell compartments. (springer.com)
  • The experiments described here were conducted either in target plants, usually crop species, or as a form of a "proof of concept" in model plant species (e.g. (springer.com)
  • function
  • Projects pay special attention to how aspects of plant form and function combine to permit adaptation to environmental variation, whether naturally or anthropogenically imposed, and how plants and their unique traits influence the structure and function of the communities and ecosystems they compose. (berkeley.edu)
  • Research proposed here will test the hypothesis that zeaxanthin function as a transducer of CO2 signals in guard cells. (unt.edu)
  • Success in characterizing a zeaxanthin-dependent CO2 sensing mechanism in guard cells will significantly enhance our understanding of stomatal function and CO2 sensing in plants cells. (unt.edu)
  • The large and rapid advances made during the last decade in our understanding of the molecular genetic control of SM production and biological function provide an excellent foundation for successful bioengineering of these small molecules in plants. (springer.com)
  • This technique is used in plants for the analysis of gene function and has been adapted for high-throughput functional genomics. (springer.com)
  • Sclerenchyma cells - Sclerenchyma cells (from the Greek skleros, hard) are hard and tough cells with a function in mechanical support. (wikipedia.org)
  • This difference results in simpler, but weaker control of stomatal function. (wikipedia.org)
  • These two groups of P-type ATPases, although not from the same subfamily, seem to perform a complementary function in plants/fungi/protists and animal cells, namely the creation of an electrochemical gradient used as an energy source for secondary transport. (wikipedia.org)
  • The main function of these bladder cells is to reserve water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because maintaining membrane fluidity is critical for cell function, ectotherms adjust the phospholipid composition of their cell membranes such that the strength of van der Waals forces within the membrane is changed, thereby maintaining fluidity across temperatures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Zeiger's research includes stomatal function and the transfer of genetic material in response to blue-light. (wikipedia.org)
  • experiments
  • The blue light-dependence of CO2 sensing will be studied in experiments characterizing the stomatal response to CO2 under red light. (unt.edu)
  • guard cells
  • This research proposal addresses the characterization of the sensory transduction of the CO2 signal in guard cells. (unt.edu)
  • When conditions are conducive to stomatal opening (e.g., high light intensity and high humidity), a proton pump drives protons (H+) from the guard cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In some cases, chloride ions enter, while in other plants the organic ion malate is produced in guard cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Guard cells are specialized cells in the epidermis of leaves, stems and other organs that are used to control gas exchange. (wikipedia.org)
  • When guard cells take up these solutes, the water potential (Ψ) inside the cells decreases (creating a hypotonic solution), causing osmotic water flow into the guard cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ions that are taken up by guard cells are mainly potassium (K+) ions and chloride (Cl−) ions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specialized potassium efflux channels participate in mediating release of potassium from guard cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This electrical depolarization of guard cells leads to activation of the outward potassium channels and the release of potassium through these channels. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] The epidermal tissue includes several differentiated cell types: epidermal cells, guard cells, subsidiary cells, and epidermal hairs (trichomes). (wikipedia.org)
  • The stoma is bounded by two guard cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to one theory, in sunlight the concentration of potassium ions (K+) increases in the guard cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This, together with the sugars formed, lowers the water potential in the guard cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a result, water from other cells enter the guard cells by osmosis so they swell and become turgid. (wikipedia.org)
  • organs
  • In higher plants, aboveground organs are generated via continual activity of the shoot apical meristem (SAM). (pnas.org)
  • Cell walls perform many essential functions: they provide shape to form the tissue and organs of the plant, and play an important role in intercellular communication and plant-microbe interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • R. solanacearum can overwinter in plant debris or diseased plants, wild hosts, seeds, or vegetative propagative organs like tubers. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • Glucosinolates are hydrolyzed by myrosinases upon damage of plant tissue releasing volatile ITCs causing a strong smell and a pungent taste repelling herbivores from further consuming the plant ( Halkier and Gershenzon, 2006 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Because plant cells do not migrate during organogenesis, cell-cell communication within and between tissue layers is critical for elaboration of organ shape. (pnas.org)
  • Micronutrients are present in plant tissue in quantities measured in parts per million, ranging from 0.1 to 200 ppm, or less than 0.02% dry weight. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanism
  • The binding of ITCs to tubulins has been reported as a mechanism by which ITCs induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. (frontiersin.org)
  • In conclusion, our data demonstrate an ITC-induced mechanism leading to growth inhibition in A. thaliana and rat bladder cancer cells, and expose clues to the mechanisms underlying the physiological role of glucosinolates in vivo . (frontiersin.org)
  • In contrast to stomatal development, the underlying mechanism of ER-mediated inflorescence development remains unclear. (pnas.org)
  • Citation
  • citation needed] Inclusion bodies have higher density (~1.3 mg ml−1) than many of the cellular components, and thus can be easily separated by high-speed centrifugation after cell disruption. (wikipedia.org)
  • ectopic
  • Fewer asymmetric cell divisions occurred in plants in which the pathway was hyperactivated (GVG-Nt-MEK DD ) and ectopic cell divisions occurred, all producing small stomatal cells in plants in which the pathway was inactivated (rescued mpk3 , mpk6 double mutants). (sciencemag.org)
  • In addition, the fine controls that may keep the concentration of a protein low will also be missing in a prokaryotic cell, and overexpression can result in filling a cell with ectopic protein that, even if it were properly folded, would precipitate by saturating its environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • signals
  • Zeiger has published almost 100 scientific papers on the subjects of photothynsesis and the sensory transduction of internal and external signals in plant cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptors
  • These receptors perceive signaling ligands, EPF1 and EPF2, which are secreted from neighboring stomatal precursors ( 7 ⇓ ⇓ - 10 , 22 ). (pnas.org)
  • Future research is needed to test if these receptors can be used to engineer drought tolerance in plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • response
  • Studies on the osmoregulatory role of sucrose in the stomatal response to CO2 will investigate downstream targets of the CO2 response. (unt.edu)
  • In Lange OL, Nobel PS, Osmond CB, and Ziegler H (editors) Physiological Plant Ecology I: Response to the Physical Environment, Encyclopedia of Plant Physiology (New Series) Vol. 12A. (springer.com)
  • Caldwell MM (1981) Plant response to solar ultraviolet radiation, pp. 169-198. (springer.com)
  • drought tolerance
  • AREB1ΔQT-overexpressing plants showed ABA hypersensitivity and enhanced drought tolerance, and eight genes with two or more ABRE motifs in the promoter regions in two groups were greatly upregulated: late embryogenesis abundant class genes and ABA- and drought stress-inducible regulatory genes. (plantcell.org)
  • vascular
  • The vascular system of the plants usually turns brown in color and the weakened stalk usually causing the stalk to fall over. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore
  • Furthermore, AREB1:RD plants displayed reduced survival under dehydration, and three of the eight greatly upregulated genes were downregulated, including genes for linker histone H1 and AAA ATPase, which govern gene expression and multiple cellular activities through protein folding, respectively. (plantcell.org)
  • development
  • Examination of cotyledons in the various mutant plants at various times during development showed that the stomatal phenotypes were associated with aberrations in asymmetric cell divisions. (sciencemag.org)
  • Billings WD and Bliss LC (1959) An alpine snowbank environment and its effect on vegetation, plant development, and productivity. (springer.com)
  • Bliss LC (1956) A comparison of plant development in microenvironments of arctic and alpine tundras. (springer.com)
  • NACs are plant-specific transcription factors (TFs) involved in multiple aspects of development and stress. (frontiersin.org)
  • The prior environment of a plant also can influence the development of dehydration stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • He is co-author of the "Plant Physiology and Development" textbook published by Oxford University Press, which is a widely used upper-division plant phsyiology textbook that has been translated into numerous languages and published in six editions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plant Physiology and Development Taiz, L. (wikipedia.org)
  • fungi
  • This contrasts with the cell walls of fungi, which are made of chitin, and of bacteria, which are made of peptidoglycan. (wikipedia.org)
  • This article is about the P-type plasma membrane H+ -ATPase found in plants and fungi. (wikipedia.org)
  • The plasma membrane H+ -ATPase or proton pump creates the electrochemical gradients in the plasma membrane of plants, fungi, protists, and many prokaryotes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phytohormones are found not only in higher plants but in algae, showing similar functions, and in microorganisms, such as unicellular fungi and bacteria, but in these cases they play no hormonal or other immediate physiological role in the producing organism and can, thus, be regarded as secondary metabolites. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are naturally produced within plants, though very similar chemicals are produced by fungi and bacteria that can also affect plant growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • widely
  • Early in the study of plant hormones, "phytohormone" was the commonly used term, but its use is less widely applied now. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • A cell wall composed of cellulose and hemicelluloses, pectin and in many cases lignin, is secreted by the protoplast on the outside of the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other names in common use include proton-translocating ATPase, yeast plasma membrane H+ -ATPase, plant plasma membrane H+ -ATPase, yeast plasma membrane ATPase, plant plasma membrane ATPase, and ATP phosphohydrolase. (wikipedia.org)
  • conifers
  • The motile, free-swimming sperm of bryophytes and pteridophytes, cycads and Ginkgo are the only cells of land plants to have flagella similar to those in animal cells, but the conifers and flowering plants do not have motile sperm and lack both flagella and centrioles. (wikipedia.org)
  • leaves
  • Wild hosts Woody nightshade (Solanum dulcamara) Geranium: Wilting begins with lower leaves and petioles and works its way up the plant. (wikipedia.org)
  • Foliage begins to wilt and, if the plant is not irrigated, leaves will fall off and the plant will eventually die. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, a plant will try to supply more nutrients to its younger leaves than to its older ones. (wikipedia.org)
  • When nutrients are mobile within the plant, symptoms of any deficiency become apparent first on the older leaves. (wikipedia.org)
  • water use efficiency
  • Bioenergy sorghum is targeted for production in water-limited annual cropland therefore traits that improve plant water capture, water use efficiency, and resilience to water deficit are necessary to maximize productivity. (frontiersin.org)
  • Tolerance
  • Liaoyuanduol" is an infinite-growth-typed tomato plant containing lots of properties including high quality and diseases resistance, high and stable yield, low temperature and low light tolerance, extensive adaptability and so on. (frontiersin.org)