• chemoreceptor trig
  • citation needed] Receptors on the floor of the fourth ventricle of the brain represent a chemoreceptor trigger zone, known as the area postrema, stimulation of which can lead to vomiting. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are various sources of input to the vomiting center: The chemoreceptor trigger zone at the base of the fourth ventricle has numerous dopamine D2 receptors, serotonin 5-HT3 receptors, opioid receptors, acetylcholine receptors, and receptors for substance P. Stimulation of different receptors are involved in different pathways leading to emesis, in the final common pathway substance P appears involved. (wikipedia.org)
  • The vomiting act encompasses three types of outputs initiated by the chemoreceptor trigger zone: Motor, parasympathetic nervous system (PNS), and sympathetic nervous system (SNS). (wikipedia.org)
  • The chemoreceptor trigger zone (CTZ) is an area of the medulla oblongata that receives inputs from blood-borne drugs or hormones, and communicates with other structures in the vomiting center to initiate vomiting. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the ways the chemoreceptor trigger zone implements its effects on the vomiting center is by activation of the opioid mu receptors and delta receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • diarrhea
  • Adverse effects include: Loss of appetite Vomiting Diarrhea Increase in thirst Increase in urination Fatigue and/or lethargy (drowsiness) Loss of coordination Seizures Liver dysfunction: jaundice (yellowing of eyes) Blood or dark tar-like material in urine or stools Lethargy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Side effects tended to be mild, usually consisting of nausea or gastro-intestinal pain and diarrhea. (wikipedia.org)
  • opioids
  • Dopamine antagonists act in the brain and are used to treat nausea and vomiting associated with neoplastic disease, radiation sickness, opioids, cytotoxic drugs and general anaesthetics. (wikipedia.org)
  • For instance, the CTZ has opioid receptors that monitor the level of opioids in the blood, and when the amount of opioids in the blood reach a certain level, the opioid receptors in the CTZ will signal to the rest of the vomiting center to initiate vomiting. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is because the CTZ sends the "vomit" command through action potentials, and these specific action potentials that trigger emesis are only produced when a certain amount of opioids bind to a certain amount of opioid receptors in the CTZ. (wikipedia.org)
  • bulimia nervosa
  • Self-induced vomiting can be a component of an eating disorder, such as Bulimia Nervosa, and is itself now an eating disorder on its own, purging disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Recurrent vomiting, such as observed in bulimia nervosa, may lead to destruction of the tooth enamel due to the acidity of the vomit. (wikipedia.org)
  • pain
  • We report on the design and implementation of a study protocol entitled Acupuncture randomised trial for post anaesthetic recovery and postoperative pain - a pilot study ( ACUARP ) designed to investigate the effectiveness of acupuncture therapy performed in the perioperative period on post anaesthetic recovery and postoperative pain. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Reston underwent an emergency appendectomy in China, and described acupuncture's success in relieving his postoperative pain. (biomedcentral.com)
  • citation needed] Peppermint is claimed to help nausea or stomach pain when added into a tea or peppermint candies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some medical studies have suggested that acupressure may be effective at helping manage nausea and vomiting, for helping lower back pain, tension headaches, stomach ache, among other things, although such studies have been found to have a high likelihood of bias. (wikipedia.org)
  • When first introduced in Germany during World War I, both IV and IM administrations of oxycodone were commonly used for postoperative pain management of Central Powers soldiers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Paracetamol combined with NSAIDs may be more effective for treating postoperative pain than either paracetamol alone or NSAIDs alone. (wikipedia.org)
  • pregnancy
  • 10,11,Nausea and vomiting may be influenced by hormonal changes in pregnancy, which alter the sphincter tone of the oesophagus and the stomach and the activity of small bowel and oesophagus, as well as adverse effects of uterotonic drugs, intraoperative manipulation of the uterus and psychological distress aggravated by insufficient anaesthesia. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Nausea or "morning sickness" is common during early pregnancy but may occasionally continue into the second and third trimesters. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pregnancy should therefore be considered as a possible cause of nausea in any women of child bearing age. (wikipedia.org)
  • portion of the stomach
  • During a sleeve gastrectomy the greater curvature of the stomach is separated from the lesser curvature and antrum, thereby eliminating ~85% of the total stomach, including the grehlin-producing portion of the stomach. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Weight loss is achieved by reducing the size of the stomach with a gastric band or through removal of a portion of the stomach (sleeve gastrectomy or biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch) or by resecting and re-routing the small intestine to a small stomach pouch (gastric bypass surgery). (wikipedia.org)
  • A laparoscopic adjustable gastric band, commonly called a lap-band, A band, or LAGB, is an inflatable silicone device placed around the top portion of the stomach to treat obesity, intended to slow consumption of food and thus reduce the amount of food consumed. (wikipedia.org)
  • The individual achieves sustained weight loss by choosing healthy food options, limiting food intake and volume, reducing appetite, and progress of food from the top portion of the stomach to the lower portion digestion. (wikipedia.org)
  • aspiration
  • Aspiration of as little as 30-40 mL can be a significant cause of suffering and death during an operation and therefore fasting is performed to reduce the volume of stomach contents as much as possible. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is to increase the pH (make more neutral) of the acid present in the stomach, helping to reduce the damage caused by pulmonary aspiration, should it occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • duration
  • This review sought to establish what effect the use of aromatherapy has on the severity and duration of established postoperative nausea and vomiting and whether aromatherapy can be used with safety and clinical effectiveness comparable to standard pharmacological treatments . (nih.gov)
  • include
  • The neurotransmitters implicated in the control of nausea and vomiting include acetylcholine, dopamine, histamine (H-1 receptor), substance P (NK-1 receptor), and serotonin (5-HT3 receptor). (wikipedia.org)
  • Other methods of weight loss include use of drugs and supplements that decrease appetite, block fat absorption, or reduce stomach volume. (wikipedia.org)
  • Functional
  • Any GBP leads to a marked reduction in the functional volume of the stomach, accompanied by an altered physiological and physical response to food. (wikipedia.org)