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  • protein
  • To clarify the roles of the principal thermogenic molecule mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in the sympathetically stimulated glucose utilization, we investigated the uptake of 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) into BAT and some other tissues of UCP1-knockout (KO) mice in vivo. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Among the free fatty acid receptor (FFAR) family of G protein-coupled receptors, GPR41 is known to be the G?i/o-coupled receptor for short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) such as propionic acid (C3) and valeric acid (C5). (jove.com)
  • Whole-body and muscle glucose disposal were reduced by ∼50% in rats fed high-fat diets with casein or soy proteins, but these impairments were not observed in animals fed cod protein. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In marked contrast, feeding rats with cod protein completely prevented the deleterious effect of fat feeding on insulin-stimulated PI 3-kinase activity. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT-4), also known as solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 4, is a protein encoded, in humans, by the SLC2A4 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first evidence for this distinct glucose transport protein was provided by David James in 1988. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) released from the anterior pituitary gland binds the TSH receptor (a Gs protein-coupled receptor) on the basolateral membrane of the cell and stimulates the endocytosis of the colloid. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a meal containing carbohydrates or protein is eaten and digested, blood glucose levels rise, and the pancreas secretes insulin. (wikipedia.org)
  • A major role for RIP140 in adipose tissue is to block the expression of genes involved in energy dissipation and mitochondrial uncoupling, including uncoupling protein 1 and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1b. (wikipedia.org)
  • Notably, this is not the same as the presence of Myf5 protein, which is involved in the development of many tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • concentration
  • This response results in an increased prevalence of essential hypertension and higher plasma uric acid concentration. (bootcampmilitaryfitnessinstitute.com)
  • Several factors stimulate insulin secretion, but by far the most important is the concentration of glucose in the arterial (oxygenated) blood that perfuses the islets. (britannica.com)
  • Net glucose transfer is therefore highly dependent on maternal-fetal concentration gradients [ 12 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The interaction of glucose and lipogenic gene expression is assumed to be managed by the increasing concentration of an unknown glucose metabolite through the activity of glucokinase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The concentration of glucose in the blood decreases as a result, staying within the normal range even when a large amount of carbohydrates is consumed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glucose-6-phosphate cannot diffuse back out of cells, which also serves to maintain the concentration gradient for glucose to passively enter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Type 2 diabetes is characterized by high rates of glucagon secretion into the blood which are unaffected by, and unresponsive to the concentration of glucose in the blood glucose. (wikipedia.org)
  • lipids
  • VLDL particles are secreted directly into blood, where they mature and function to deliver the endogenously derived lipids to peripheral tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Upon entrance of the cell, fatty acids can be converted to different types of lipids for storage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some researchers claim that obesity has protective effects against lipotoxicity as it results in extra adipose tissue in which excess lipids can be stored. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • In humans, adipose tissue is located beneath the skin (subcutaneous fat), around internal organs (visceral fat), in bone marrow (yellow bone marrow), intermuscular (Muscular system) and in the breast tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • substrate
  • The cycle controls fuel selection and adapts the substrate supply and demand in normal tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inadequate available glucose substrate can lead to hypoglycemia, fetal growth restriction, preterm delivery, or other problems. (wikipedia.org)
  • excess
  • Both adipose tissue deficiency (lipodystrophy, lipoatrophy) and adipose tissue excess (obesity) have deleterious effects and constitute major medical problems and socioeconomic burdens all around the world today. (nature.com)
  • Yet, too great of an excess will overburden these cells and cause a spillover into non-adipose cells, which do not have the necessary storage space. (wikipedia.org)
  • Renal lipotoxicity occurs when excess long-chain nonesterified fatty acids are stored in the kidney and proximal tubule cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are several potential mechanisms of by which the excess fatty acids can cause cell death and damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lipotoxicity in cardiac tissue is attributed to excess saturated fatty acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Insulin is secreted as a response mechanism for counteracting the increasing excess amounts of glucose in the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulation
  • The identification of downstream effectors of PI 3-kinase involved in the regulation of glucose transport is the subject of intense investigation. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Evidence for the implication of both Akt and aPKC in the insulin-dependent regulation of glucose transport in muscle cells arises from transfection studies using either kinase-inactive or overexpression/constitutively active forms of the kinases ( 10 - 13 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • demonstrate the importance of peripheral clock regulation in chondrocytes and report that the circadian transcription factor BMAL1 plays an essential role in maintaining the integrity of cartilage tissue. (jci.org)
  • occurs
  • Optimum AdPLA activity occurs in relatively basic conditions, between pH 7 and 9, to facilitate formation of a histidine-water complex and subsequent fatty acid hydrolysis. (wikipedia.org)