• protein
  • Among the free fatty acid receptor (FFAR) family of G protein-coupled receptors, GPR41 is known to be the G?i/o-coupled receptor for short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) such as propionic acid (C3) and valeric acid (C5). (jove.com)
  • Whole-body and muscle glucose disposal were reduced by ∼50% in rats fed high-fat diets with casein or soy proteins, but these impairments were not observed in animals fed cod protein. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In marked contrast, feeding rats with cod protein completely prevented the deleterious effect of fat feeding on insulin-stimulated PI 3-kinase activity. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT-4), also known as solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 4, is a protein encoded, in humans, by the SLC2A4 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first evidence for this distinct glucose transport protein was provided by David James in 1988. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) released from the anterior pituitary gland binds the TSH receptor (a Gs protein-coupled receptor) on the basolateral membrane of the cell and stimulates the endocytosis of the colloid. (wikipedia.org)
  • A major role for RIP140 in adipose tissue is to block the expression of genes involved in energy dissipation and mitochondrial uncoupling, including uncoupling protein 1 and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1b. (wikipedia.org)
  • Notably, this is not the same as the presence of Myf5 protein, which is involved in the development of many tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • hormones
  • Hormones secreted from adipose tissue, the gastrointestinal tract, and the pancreatic islets of Langerhans regulate a variety of physiological processes. (britannica.com)
  • Other hormones that prevent the stimulation of lipogenesis in adipose cells are growth hormones (GH). (wikipedia.org)
  • Growth hormones result in loss of fat but stimulates muscle gain. (wikipedia.org)
  • One proposed mechanism for how the hormone works is that growth hormones affects insulin signaling thereby decreasing insulin sensitivity and in turn down regulating fatty acid synthase expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hormones that control adipose tissue lipolysis affect circulating concentrations of fatty acids, these in turn control the fuel selection in muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Far from being hormonally inert, adipose tissue has, in recent years, been recognized as a major endocrine organ, as it produces hormones such as leptin, estrogen, resistin, and the cytokine TNFα. (wikipedia.org)
  • intracellular
  • The exposure of rat Langerhans islets to glucose for 1 hour is able to remarkably induce the intracellular proinsulin levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • This also means that muscle cells are able to take in more glucose as its intracellular concentrations decrease. (wikipedia.org)
  • physiological
  • The expression of these adipokines is an integrated response to various signals received from many organs, which depends heavily on the integrity and physiological status of the adipose tissue. (nature.com)
  • Obesity is strongly associated with changes in the physiological function of adipose tissue, leading to insulin resistance, chronic inflammation, and altered secretion of adipokines. (aacrjournals.org)
  • obesity
  • Impaired insulin-mediated glucose uptake is a uniformly observed characteristic of the heart in these states, although changes in upstream kinase signaling are variable and dependent on the severity and duration of the associated obesity or diabetes mellitus. (ahajournals.org)
  • The multiple definitions have included insulin resistance or glucose intolerance, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and central obesity. (bootcampmilitaryfitnessinstitute.com)
  • Both adipose tissue deficiency (lipodystrophy, lipoatrophy) and adipose tissue excess (obesity) have deleterious effects and constitute major medical problems and socioeconomic burdens all around the world today. (nature.com)
  • Some researchers claim that obesity has protective effects against lipotoxicity as it results in extra adipose tissue in which excess lipids can be stored. (wikipedia.org)
  • An imbalance in glucose intake and energy expenditure has been shown to lead to both adipose cell hypertrophy and hyperplasia, which lead to obesity. (wikipedia.org)
  • In morbid obesity, RIP140 levels are down-regulated in visceral adipose tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • concentration
  • This response results in an increased prevalence of essential hypertension and higher plasma uric acid concentration. (bootcampmilitaryfitnessinstitute.com)
  • Several factors stimulate insulin secretion, but by far the most important is the concentration of glucose in the arterial (oxygenated) blood that perfuses the islets. (britannica.com)
  • Net glucose transfer is therefore highly dependent on maternal-fetal concentration gradients [ 12 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The interaction of glucose and lipogenic gene expression is assumed to be managed by the increasing concentration of an unknown glucose metabolite through the activity of glucokinase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The concentration of glucose in the blood decreases as a result, staying within the normal range even when a large amount of carbohydrates is consumed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glucose-6-phosphate cannot diffuse back out of cells, which also serves to maintain the concentration gradient for glucose to passively enter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Type 2 diabetes is characterized by high rates of glucagon secretion into the blood which are unaffected by, and unresponsive to the concentration of glucose in the blood glucose. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • In humans, adipose tissue is located beneath the skin (subcutaneous fat), around internal organs (visceral fat), in bone marrow (yellow bone marrow), intermuscular (Muscular system) and in the breast tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • substrate
  • The cycle controls fuel selection and adapts the substrate supply and demand in normal tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inadequate available glucose substrate can lead to hypoglycemia, fetal growth restriction, preterm delivery, or other problems. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulation of glucose
  • The identification of downstream effectors of PI 3-kinase involved in the regulation of glucose transport is the subject of intense investigation. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Evidence for the implication of both Akt and aPKC in the insulin-dependent regulation of glucose transport in muscle cells arises from transfection studies using either kinase-inactive or overexpression/constitutively active forms of the kinases ( 10 - 13 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • excess
  • Yet, too great of an excess will overburden these cells and cause a spillover into non-adipose cells, which do not have the necessary storage space. (wikipedia.org)
  • Renal lipotoxicity occurs when excess long-chain nonesterified fatty acids are stored in the kidney and proximal tubule cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are several potential mechanisms of by which the excess fatty acids can cause cell death and damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lipotoxicity in cardiac tissue is attributed to excess saturated fatty acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Insulin is secreted as a response mechanism for counteracting the increasing excess amounts of glucose in the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • One of the main regulators of gene expression in fat is the transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR γ ), which is a fatty acid- and eicosanoid-dependent nuclear receptor that plays key roles in the development and maintenance of the adipose tissue. (nature.com)
  • The formation of adipose tissue appears to be controlled in part by the adipose gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • hormone
  • For an adequate TH production, it is important that the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis be maintained whole so as to ensure the sequence of activities of the hypothalamic releasing hormone (thyrotropin-releasing hormone - TRH) over the pituitary gland, producing thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which in turn acts on the thyroid, producing TH. (scielo.br)
  • The hormone glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is secreted from the earlier (proximal) part of the small intestine in lower amounts after isomaltulose than for sucrose ingestion, whereas the hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is secreted from later (distal) parts of the small intestine in higher amounts with isomaltulose compared with sucrose. (wikipedia.org)
  • Production of T3 and its prohormone thyroxine (T4) is activated by thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which is released from the anterior pituitary gland. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the pituitary, it mediates negative feedback on thyroid-stimulating hormone. (wikipedia.org)
  • This has the effect of increasing the half-life of the hormone and decreasing the rate at which it is taken up by peripheral tissues. (wikipedia.org)