• moist heat sterilization pr
  • Almost all the air is removed from the chamber, because air is undesired in the moist heat sterilization process (this is one trait that differ from a typical pressure cooker used for food cooking). (wikipedia.org)
  • The various procedures used to perform moist heat sterilization process cause destruction of micro-organisms by denaturation of macromolecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • eugenic
  • At the end of World War II, while other eugenic sterilization programs were being phased out, Alberta continued on, even increasing the scope of eligibility for sterilizations[citation needed]. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite knowledge of Nazi eugenic atrocities,[citation needed] the Alberta Eugenics Board intended to increase the pace of sterilization. (wikipedia.org)
  • Encouraged by the eugenic sterilization legislation enacted by the state of Georgia in 1937, the SLNJ lobbied intensely, although unsuccessfully, between 1939 and 1942 for the passage of a state sterilization law in New Jersey and conducted an educational program of publications and exhibits designed to promote sterilization. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the Human Betterment Foundation was dissolved in 1943, its promotional activities for eugenic sterilization were continued through Birthright, which received most of the Foundation's records regarding its work on sterilization programs and also the (financial) support of such past Foundation-backers as C.M. Goethe, Paul Popenoe, and Lois Gosney Castle, who had succeeded her father in 1942 as head of the Foundation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eugenic, which allowed sterilising people considered insane or with severe illness or with physical disability, so that any children would not be passed on these traits, Social indication allowed sterilisation of people considered unsuitable to foster a child due to mental illness, being feebleminded or having an antisocial lifestyle. (wikipedia.org)
  • mentally incompetent
  • A court may authorize a physician to perform a sterilization on a mentally incompetent adult or child after the procedural requirements are met and the court finds with clear and convincing evidence the patient is or is likely to engage sexual activity, no other contraceptive is reasonably available, the patient's mental disability renders the patient permanently unable to care for a child, and the procedure conforms with medical standards. (wikipedia.org)
  • Programs or projects to which this subpart applies shall not perform or arrange for the performance of a sterilization of any mentally incompetent individual or institutionalized individual. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1928
  • From the years 1928 to 1972, sterilizations, both compulsory and optional, were performed on nearly 3000 "unfit" individuals of varying ages and ethnicities. (wikipedia.org)
  • sterility
  • Preparation of injectable medications and intravenous solutions for fluid replacement therapy requires not only sterility but also well-designed containers to prevent entry of adventitious agents after initial product sterilization. (wikipedia.org)
  • While "sterility" implies the destruction of free-living organisms which may grow within a sample, sterilization does not necessarily entail destruction of infectious matter. (wikipedia.org)
  • eugenicists
  • Eugenicists sought to actively support the reproduction of some women while at the same time seeking to ensure their cooperation in efforts to curb the reproduction of others through their support for measures like marriage regulation, institutionalization and sterilization. (wikipedia.org)
  • commonly
  • The degree of sterilization is commonly expressed by multiples of the decimal reduction time, or D-value, denoting the time needed to reduce the initial number N 0 {\displaystyle N_{0}} to one tenth ( 10 − 1 {\displaystyle 10^{-1}} ) of its original value. (wikipedia.org)
  • Quinacrine is commonly used to treat malaria, but it can also be used for non-surgical sterilization. (wikipedia.org)
  • voluntary
  • Voluntary abortion was far more effective in eliminating 'undesirables' then sponsored sterilization. (metafilter.com)
  • Motivations for voluntary sterilizations include: Because of the emphasis placed on childbearing as the most important role of women, not having children was traditionally seen as a deficiency or due to fertility problems. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to the 2000 governmental report, 21,000 were estimated to have been forcibly sterilised, 6,000 were coerced into a "voluntary" sterilisation while the nature of a further 4,000 cases could not be determined. (wikipedia.org)
  • sterile
  • When using biological indicators, samples containing spores of heat-resistant microbes such as Geobacillus stearothermophilis are sterilized alongside a standard load, and are then incubated in sterile media (often contained within the sample in a glass ampule to be broken after sterilization). (wikipedia.org)
  • temperature
  • The temperature is increased until it reaches the sterilization temperature where it is held for a set period of time. (rpi.edu)
  • However, since 1950, there has been an increase in medical devices and instruments made of materials (e.g., plastics) that require low-temperature sterilization. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within the past 15 years, a number of new, low-temperature sterilization systems (e.g., hydrogen peroxide gas plasma, peracetic acid immersion, ozone) have been developed and are being used to sterilize medical devices. (wikipedia.org)
  • The D-value is a function of sterilization conditions and varies with the type of microorganism, temperature, water activity, pH etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • The proper time and temperature for dry heat sterilization is 160 °C (320 °F) for 2 hours or 170 °C (340 °F) for 1 hour. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1975
  • In 1975, the United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit decided the statute of limitations for a lawsuit challenging the legality of a sterilization begins to accrue when the plaintiff discovers the sterilization. (wikipedia.org)
  • Compulsory sterilisation in Sweden (Swedish: Tvångssterilisering i Sverige) occurred between 1934 and 1975. (wikipedia.org)
  • mandatory
  • In Sweden, sterilisation was only mandatory before sex change. (wikipedia.org)
  • This last mandatory sterilisation has been criticized by several political parties in Sweden and since 2011 the Parliament of Sweden was expected to change the law but ran into opposition from the Christian Democrat party. (wikipedia.org)
  • physicians
  • The majority of the physicians performing the sterilizations decided that sterilization was the best alternative for these women. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to negative stereotypes of Native American women and beliefs of racial superiority, many physicians believed these women did not possess the intelligence to limit the number of children or use birth control effectively, which led to the sterilization abuse in the 1970s. (wikipedia.org)
  • targets
  • Factors that made Native American women targets of sterilization included belief of racial inferiority and negative stereotypes of the Native American population. (wikipedia.org)
  • S.K. Mandal, the chief medical officer in Chhattisgarh, suggested that the doctor who performed the operations was under pressure to meet government-set targets for a number of sterilizations that had to be performed. (wikipedia.org)
  • pregnancy
  • There were three indications for sterilisation: Medical, if a pregnancy could seriously put a woman suffering from chronic illness or permanently weakened constitution at risk of life and health. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fallopian
  • When the abdominal cavity was opened the ways of sterilization were by crushing or removing the fallopian tubes, but the most "successful" method was by removing the uterus, which surgeons often opted for. (wikipedia.org)
  • refuse
  • Sterilization law is the area of law, within reproductive rights, that gives a person the right to choose or refuse reproductive sterilization and governs when the government may limit this fundamental right. (wikipedia.org)
  • damages
  • On June 12, 1995 with the Honorable Madame Joanne B. Viet presiding, Leilani, sued the Alberta Government for wrongful sterilization and damages, with her lawyers Jon Faulds and Sandra Anderson. (wikipedia.org)
  • women
  • Among women in the United States, it is estimated that over 50 percent of sterilizations performed each year are in the postpartum period [ 1 ]. (uptodate.com)
  • Scholars define "voluntarily childless" women as "women of childbearing age who are fertile and state that they do not intend to have children, women of childbearing age who have chosen sterilization, or women past childbearing age who were fertile but chose not to have children. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reports of forced sterilization of Native American women began to surface in the 1970s. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sterilizations had an appreciable effect on the fertility rates of Native American women. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was amended and extended on June 26, 1935 and Section 10a was added, which authorized forced abortions in women who were otherwise subject to sterilization. (wikipedia.org)
  • In November 2014, 15 women died after undergoing mishandled sterilization operations performed in the Indian state of Chhattisgarh. (wikipedia.org)
  • indicates
  • Dry heat, as the name indicates, utilizes hot air that is either free from water vapor, or has very little of it, and where this moisture plays a minimal or no role in the process of sterilization. (wikipedia.org)
  • requires the medium to be formulated for this purpose), or the appearance of turbidity (cloudiness indicating light scattering by bacterial cells) indicates that sterilization was not achieved and the sterilization cycle may need revision or improvement. (wikipedia.org)
  • years
  • The film runs through the life of Leilani Muir, starting with her early life as a child, her life at the Provincial Training School (Michener Centre) in Red Deer, Alberta, her experience of the sterilization itself, and her lawsuit that ensued years later. (wikipedia.org)
  • Virginia implemented Laughlin's "Model Eugenical Sterilization Law" with little modification two years after it was published. (wikipedia.org)
  • lawsuit
  • The Sterilization of Leilani Muir is a 1996 documentary directed by Glynis Whiting about the life and times of Leilani Muir, the first person to file a lawsuit against the Alberta provincial government for wrongful sterilization under the Sexual Sterilization Act of Alberta. (wikipedia.org)