• progenitor cell
  • The CMP can then further differentiate into the megakaryocyte-erythroid progenitor cell (MEP), which goes on to make RBCs and platelets, or the granulocyte/macrophage progenitor (GMP), which gives rise to the granulocytes of the innate immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hemangioblast theory, which posits that the RBCs and ECs derive from a common progenitor cell, was developed as researchers observed that receptor knockout mice, such as flk1-/-, exhibited defective RBC formation and vessel growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Symmetric division gives rise to two identical daughter cells, both endowed with stem cell properties, whereas asymmetric division produces only one stem cell and a progenitor cell with limited self-renewal potential. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • Focused on the gut, our preliminary studies suggest that intestinal stem cell (ISC) numbers are reduced in old mice and humans and that intestinal crypts isolated from old mice are less functional in an in vitro organoid assay of ISC function. (labome.org)
  • Scientists are studying the various components of the niche and trying to replicate the in vivo niche conditions in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • In vitro induction of BRAF V600E drove the organoids to derive cystic changes in morphology and promoted adoption of a stem cell niche independency characterized by growth in the absence of added stem cell niche factors including Wnt3a, R-Spondin, and Noggin. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Studies have shown that radial glia in the SGZ express nestin and Sox2, biomarkers associated with neural stem cells, and that isolated radial glia can generate new neurons in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • These properties can be illustrated with relative ease in vitro, using methods such as clonogenic assays, where the progeny of a single cell is characterized. (wikipedia.org)
  • It can be induced by modifying the growth medium when stem cells are cultured in vitro or transplanting them to an organ of the body different from the one they were originally isolated from. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2007 Nov;73:1106-10) and "very small embryonic like" - "VSEL" stem cells, and display pluripotency in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • CSCs
  • Combined with its role in the protection of CSCs against genotoxic insults, these data strongly put forward the niche as an important target for novel therapies. (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, recent data suggest that tumor cancer stem cells (CSCs) in the stem-cell niches, with self-renewing capacities, might be responsible for tumor initiation, propagation, and recurrence. (hindawi.com)
  • therefore, employing the same logic used for developmental hierarchies, niches that maintain CSCs, should also exist (see refs. (aacrjournals.org)
  • At least two possibilities exist for generating CSC niches: either they are manufactured as nascent domains by tumor cells, or CSCs usurp existing tissue-specific stem cell niches. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Localization of nascent CSC niches is complicated because there are no common anatomical features among tumors ( Fig. 2 ), and consensus is continually shifting about the identity of CSCs. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Although a niche can include a single stem cell, clusters composed of three or more cardiac stem cells (CSCs) and early lineage committed cells (LCCs) were included in the analysis. (ahajournals.org)
  • Young niches contained 6 CSCs while old niches showed 10 CSCs. (ahajournals.org)
  • Apoptosis of CSCs-LCCs increased with age and was restricted to p16 INK4a -positive-cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • However, the fraction of senescent CSCs-LCCs undergoing apoptosis decreased 3.5-fold with age: apoptosis was detected in 7% and 2% of p16 INK4a positive CSCs-LCCs of young and old animals, respectively resulting in the accumulation of senescent cells.Freshly isolated CSCs proliferated in response to growth stimuli but this effect was attenuated in old cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • Collectively, the accumulation of senescent CSCs and the poor response of p16 INK4a- negative CSCs to growth stimuli determined the formation of dysfunctional niches. (ahajournals.org)
  • The decrease in the number of functionally-competent CSCs-LCCs together with the accumulation of senescent CSCs-LCCs limits the ability of CSC niches to repopulate the senescent ventricular myocardium. (ahajournals.org)
  • Tissues
  • Tissues characterized by constant turnover contain post-mitotic, terminally differentiated cells originating from highly proliferative progenitors, which in turn derive from a relatively small population of st. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Only stem cells are thought capable of regenerating entire tissues in perpetuity. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A and B, stem cell niches are clearly identifiable in normal tissues. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These cells are able to incorporate into other renal tissues, and was able to repeatedly form spheres in 3D cultures, and clonal analysis also exhibited its multipotency. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adult stem cells are undifferentiated cells, found throughout the body after development, that multiply by cell division to replenish dying cells and regenerate damaged tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulate
  • Osteoblasts (expressing M-CSF, RANKL, and OPG and producing IL-7) may regulate lymphoid (expressing IL-7R) and osteoclast (derived from monocytes, expressing the M-CSF ligand c-Fms and RANK) cell development. (jci.org)
  • Cell-cell communication through adherens junctions, cell-ECM communication through integrins, paracrine, juxtacrine, and hormonal signaling, mechanical sensing of physical and geometric constraints, and integration of neural signals are all coordinated to enforce quiescence (red signals) and to tightly regulate self-renewal (green signals). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Several factors are important to regulate stem-cell characteristics within the niche: cell-cell interactions between stem cells, as well as interactions between stem cells and neighbouring differentiated cells, interactions between stem cells and adhesion molecules, extracellular matrix components, the oxygen tension, growth factors, cytokines, and the physicochemical nature of the environment including the pH, ionic strength (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ependymal cells actively regulate neuronal fate specification of adult neural precursors through release of Noggin. (wikipedia.org)
  • TGFβ The TGFβ family of cytokines regulate the stemness of both normal and cancer stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • mammalian
  • The existence of niches has long been predicted from mammalian studies, but identifying stem. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here we will explore the emerging effects of diet on nutrient-sensing pathways active in mammalian tissue stem cells and their relevance to normal and cancerous growth. (labome.org)
  • The SSC niche is found in the seminiferous epithelium of mammalian testis, and is primarily constituted of Sertoli and peritubular myoid cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • It was also shown that the two SC compartments acted in accord to maintain a constant cell population and a steady cellular turnover. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1978, after observing that the prototypical colony-forming stem cells were less capable at replacing differentiated cells than bone marrow cells injected into irradiated animals, Schofield proposed that a specialized environment in the bone marrow allows these precursor cells to maintain their cellular reconstitution potential. (wikipedia.org)
  • The objective of this study was to determine whether aging of the heart is characterized by alterations in the cellular composition of cardiac niches and defective cardiomyogenesis. (ahajournals.org)
  • In conclusion, the cellular composition of the niches varies with age. (ahajournals.org)
  • Cell therapy can be defined as therapy in which cellular material is injected into a patient. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, a greater investment in growth and reproduction would result in reduced investment in DNA repair maintenance, leading to increased cellular damage, shortened telomeres, accumulation of mutations, compromised stem cells, and ultimately, senescence. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, with regards to cellular replication, the progressive shortening of telomeres is a mechanism which limits the amount of generations of a single cell may undergo. (wikipedia.org)
  • differentiate
  • Upon each division, 1 daughter cell leaves the bone to proliferate and differentiate into various lineages. (jci.org)
  • The CLP then goes on to differentiate into more committed lymphoid precursor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are 2 types of hematopoiesis that occur in humans: Primitive hematopoiesis - blood stem cells differentiate into only a few specialized blood lineages (typically isolated to early fetal development). (wikipedia.org)
  • When the neurons reach the OB they differentiate into GABAergic interneurons as they are integrated into either the granule cell layer or periglomerular layer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aal spermatogonia differentiate and thus are no longer classed as stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • When they move past the basal membrane they differentiate due to cell signals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Around 50% of the SSC population undergo self-renewal to maintain stem cell numbers, and the other 50% become committed progenitor cells that will differentiate into spermatozoa during spermatogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Discoveries in recent years have suggested that adult stem cells might have the ability to differentiate into cell types from different germ layers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stem cells from the bone marrow, which is derived from mesoderm, can differentiate into liver, lung, GI tract and skin, which are derived from endoderm and mesoderm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stem cells are characterized by their capacity to differentiate into multiple cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are two basic types of stem cell: adult stem cells, which are limited in their ability to differentiate, and embryonic stem cells (ESCs), which are pluripotent. (wikipedia.org)
  • rather they have the capability to differentiate into any cell type. (wikipedia.org)
  • behavior
  • These approaches can be readily used to dissect the complex molecular interplay of stem cells and their niche and study single-cell behavior in high-throughput. (epfl.ch)
  • Ruth Chiquet-Ehrismann's research focused on the influence of the extracellular matrix on cell behavior, a very new field at the time. (wikipedia.org)
  • vascular
  • In the RMS, vascular cells are arranged parallel to the route of the migrating cells and provide a scaffolding. (wikipedia.org)
  • This vascular membrane is held together by areolar tissue covered by mesothelial cells from the delicate strands of connective tissue called the arachnoid trabeculae. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is also frequently referred to as a vascular, or angiogenic, niche due to the importance and pervasiveness of the blood vessels in the SGZ. (wikipedia.org)
  • vivo
  • However, even these conditions may not truly mimic in vivo niche conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • By continuous intravital imaging in mice, researchers were able to explore the structure of the stem cell niche and to obtain the fate of individual stem cells (SCs) and their progeny over time in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • A similar dependence of self-renewal potential on proximity to the niche border was reported in the context of hair follicle, in an in vivo live-imaging study. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using in vivo lineage tracing techniques, Lgr5+ cells were found to contribute to the nephron, specifically to the ascending limb of the loop of Henle and the distal convoluted tubule. (wikipedia.org)
  • epithelium
  • Further studies will clarify the signals originating from the ISC niche and determine the processes that control the number and uniform distribution of niches throughout the epithelium. (harvard.edu)
  • The intestinal epithelium is the fastest regenerative tissue in the body, fueled by fast-cycling stem cells. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Although originally thought to arise from the squamous epithelial cell layer covering the ovary, HGSC is now thought to originate in the Fallopian tube epithelium. (wikipedia.org)
  • The glands and intestinal villi are covered by epithelium, which contains multiple types of cells: enterocytes (absorbing water and electrolytes), goblet cells (secreting mucus), enteroendocrine cells (secreting hormones), cup cells, tuft cells, and at the base of the gland, Paneth cells (secreting anti-microbial peptides) and stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also, new epithelium is formed here, which is important because the cells at this site are continuously worn away by the passing food. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulation
  • These include the cloning of a cDNA for parathyroid hormone, the identification of a role for parathyroid hormone-related protein in endochondral ossification through Indian hedgehog (IHH) activation, and studies that identified a role for parathyroid hormone in the regulation of the bone marrow stem cell niche. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research into human embryonic stem cells is controversial, and regulation varies from country to country, with some countries banning it outright. (wikipedia.org)
  • Feldman's research focuses on regulation of development in meristems/stem cells, root gravitropism, and redox regulation of plant development. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most important somatic cells that support regulation of SSCs are Sertoli cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells present in the testes express molecules that play key roles in the regulation of SSC self-renewal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fibroblast growth factor (FGF2) is another molecule crucial for the regulation of stem cell renewal and is expressed in Sertoli cells, Leydig cells and germ cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 12 (CXCL12) signaling via its receptor C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) is also involved in regulation of SSC fate decisions.CXCL12 is found in Sertoli cells in the basement membrane of the seminiferous tubules in adult mouse testes, and its receptor is expressed in undifferentiated spermatogonial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • undergo
  • This includes cells that naturally secrete the relevant therapeutic factors, or which undergo epigenetic changes or genetic engineering that causes the cells to release large quantities of a specific molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • The large majority of postmitotic neurons undergo apoptosis, or cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • They undergo symmetric or asymmetric cell division into two daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • lineages
  • Injection of MKPC into mice post-ischemic injury saw the MKPC regenerating different cell lineages and was able to regenerate renal function and enhanced survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • neurogenic
  • Unique to the adult SVZ, ependymal cells lining the ventricular wall are in close association with neural precursors and their progeny, acting like a shield to protect the "neurogenic niche", a zone in which stem cells are retained after embryonic development for the production of new cells of the nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1992, Brent A. Reynolds and Samuel Weiss were the first to isolate neural progenitor and stem cells from the adult striatal tissue, including the SVZ - one of the neurogenic areas - of adult mice brain tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since then, neural progenitor and stem cells have been isolated from various areas of the adult central nervous system, including non-neurogenic areas, such as the spinal cord, and from various species including humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • astrocytes
  • Because astrocytes are in close contact with many of the other cells in the SGZ, they are well-suited to serve as sensory and regulatory channels in neurogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some neural cells are migrated from the SVZ along the rostral migratory stream which contains a marrow-like structure with ependymal cells and astrocytes when stimulated. (wikipedia.org)
  • The astrocytes in the tubes provide support for the migrating cells as well as insulation from electrical and chemical signals released from surrounding cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most widely accepted model of an adult NSC is a radial, astrocytes-like, GFAP-positive cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Signaling
  • Both synthetic and natural biomaterials are reviewed with emphasis on how material-stem cell interactions direct specific signaling pathways and ultimately modulate the cell fate. (springer.com)
  • We have recently demonstrated that CR in young mice augments ISC function by reducing mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling in Paneth cells, and that these effects of CR can be mimicked by rapamycin (an mTORC1 inhibitor). (labome.org)
  • Specifically, we will test the hypotheses that induction of niche Bst-1 by CR and rapamycin boosts ISC function in old mice (Aim 1);that the transcription factor PPAR-gamma mediates this response in Paneth cells (Aim 2);and that cADPR-activated signaling mediates this response in ISCs (Aim 3). (labome.org)
  • Tenascin-C is required for normal Wnt/b-catenin signaling in the whisker follicle stem cell niche. (wikipedia.org)
  • mediate
  • Therefore, successful therapeutic strategies will target the functions that all CSC niches have in common: to mediate self-renewal and to maintain an undifferentiated state and CSC activity even in the presence of cytotoxic agents. (aacrjournals.org)
  • It constitutes a basic unit of tissue physiology, integrating signals that mediate the balanced response of stem cells to the needs of organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regeneration
  • Inactivation of the positive feedback by CRISPR/Cas9 mutation of the binding sequence alters the mosaic stem cell niche pattern and hinders regeneration in organoids. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Alternately, it was also reported that differentiated tubular epithelial cells are the driving mechanism for regeneration after injury, using proliferative expansion as the mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • interactions
  • Ruth Chiquet-Ehrismann (9 November 1954 - 4 September 2015) was a Swiss biochemist and cell biologist working on interactions in the extracellular matrix. (wikipedia.org)
  • signals
  • We show that a combination of signals originating from the epidermal cell layer can correctly pattern the key gene expression domains and notably leads to adaptive scaling of these domains to the size of the tissue. (sciencemag.org)
  • Self-renewal of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) is regulated by local signals. (wikipedia.org)
  • neurons
  • Under basal conditions, apoptotic corpses of newly generated neurons are rapidly phagocytosed from the niche by unactivated microglia in the adult SGZ. (wikipedia.org)
  • The brain comprises many different types of neurons, but the SGZ generates only one type: granule cells-the primary excitatory neurons in the dentate gyrus (DG)--which are thought to contribute to cognitive functions such as memory and learning. (wikipedia.org)
  • These processes act as a scaffold upon which newly formed neurons can migrate the short distance from the SGZ to the granule cell layer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neuroblasts represent the last stage of precursor cell development before cells exit the cell cycle and assume their identity as neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • At this point, after exiting the cell cycle, cells are considered immature neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eventually, the neurons are integrated into the hippocampal circuitry as fully matured granule cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some neural stem cells persist in the adult vertebrate brain and continue to produce neurons throughout life. (wikipedia.org)
  • therapies
  • Collectively, this program will yield significant insight and information that will directly translate into optimization of existing cell therapies and development of new ones. (labome.org)
  • therapeutic
  • Nevertheless, these cells are being investigated as the basis for a number of therapeutic applications, including possible treatments for diabetes and Parkinson's disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is yet no consensus among biologists on the prevalence and physiological and therapeutic relevance of stem cell plasticity. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • One test in aging mice looked at the formation of endosteum stroma cells, which form a thin layer of connective tissue on the inner surface of bones. (eurekalert.org)
  • Study authors say they observed reduced production of osteoblasts and other stroma cells in the endosteum of older mice. (eurekalert.org)
  • Scientists followed up the earlier experiments by transplanting bone marrow cells from older mice (19-21 months) into young mice (8 to 10 weeks). (eurekalert.org)
  • As a follow up to the current study, the researchers are investigating the possibility to use osteopontin replacement therapy in mice to counter the influence of an aging niche directly in the animals. (eurekalert.org)
  • Impressively, testis and neural stem cells from male mice were shown to give rise to lactating mammary glands when transplanted into the mammary fat pad ( 9 , 10 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • In mice A Single (As) spermatogonia are capable of creating 2 separate daughter SSCs when they divide or the daughter cells can join and form A Paired (Apr) spermatogonia. (wikipedia.org)