Loading...
  • phosphatidylinositol 3-kina
  • Although different tumor types rely to differing degrees on activation of the Raf, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, and Ral guanine nucleotide exchange factor effector pathways ( 5 ), the particular importance of Raf activation has long been appreciated ( 6 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • In one approach, a single signaling pathway is "vertically" targeted, with drugs inhibiting multiple steps in a signaling cascade: For example, pretreatment of A549 lung carcinoma cells with the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor PX-866, which strongly potentiates the action of the epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor Iressa ( 9 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • apoptosis
  • Based on roles for C/EPB homologous protein (CHOP) and ER calcium release in apoptosis, we hypothesized that apoptosis involves the activation of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) receptor (IP3R) via CHOP-induced ERO1-α (ER oxidase 1 α). (rupress.org)
  • Using siRNA species that decrease ERO1-α protein ( Fig. 1 b ) and activity (not depicted), we found that partial silencing of the oxidase led to a significant reduction in macrophage apoptosis in both the lipoprotein-cholesterol and the thapsigargin-fucoidan models ( Fig. 1 c ). (rupress.org)
  • Resistance to camptothecin, indenoisoquinoline, aphidicolin, hydroxyurea, and staurosporine and hypersensitivity to etoposide and actinomycin D show that Top1, in addition to being the target of camptothecins, also regulates DNA replication, rDNA stability, and apoptosis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • First, Top1 may directly interact with many host cell proteins, including DNA repair factors, transcription factors, RNA splicing factors, cell cycle regulators, apoptosis-related proteins, and viral proteins, 6 suggesting the involvement of Top1 in a variety of physiologic processes mediated by those factors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In research, staurosporine is used to induce apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been found that one way in which staurosporine induces apoptosis is by activating caspase-3. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similarly, the Shigella effectors IpgD and OspG (a homolog of NleH) block apoptosis, the former by phosphorylating and stabilizing the double minute 2 protein (MDM2) which in turn leads to a block of NF-kB-induced apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • specificity
  • Here we used the protozoan Trypanosoma brucei as a model to investigate efficiency and specificity of RNAi generated by expression of long dsRNA of PFRA and PFRC genes, which code for flagellar proteins required for cell motility. (jove.com)
  • Numerous balanol congeners have been synthesized in order to study the effect of chemical modifications on kinase binding and specificity. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathways
  • Among these different pathways, Ras interaction with and activation of Raf serine/threonine kinases (Raf-1, A-Raf, and B-Raf), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases, and Ral guanine nucleotide exchange factors has been shown to be critical for tumor promotion. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We identified distinct phosphatidylinositol 3-OH kinase (PI3K)-linked pathways supporting basal and insulin-triggered NE transport in the human noradrenergic neuroblastoma, SK-N-SH. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Thus, in lymphocytes, as in other cell types, glycolipid-based domains provide sites of integration of signaling pathways involved in GPI-anchored protein endocytosis. (rupress.org)
  • amino acid
  • the amino acid composition of this pocket is unique to Src family kinases. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The biosynthesis of staurosporine starts with the amino acid L-tryptophan in its zwitterionic form. (wikipedia.org)
  • MET is transcribed into a 6,641 bp mature mRNA, which is then translated into a 1,390 amino-acid MET protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • The HSulf1 gene (GenBank accession number AY101175) has an open reading frame of 2616 bp, encoding a protein of 871 amino acid (aa), and HSulf2 (GenBank accession number AY101176) has an open reading frame of 2613 bp, encoding a protein of 870 aa. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibit
  • The MCP compounds were identified as inhibitors of Ras-Raf interactions and previously shown to inhibit multiple Ras-dependent transformation phenotypes when used as monoagents in cell culture analyses. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Two of the more important ones to date have been Arcyriacyanin A, which was found to inhibit a panel of human cancer cells by effecting PKC and protein tyrosine kinase, and lycogalic acid dimethyl ester A (found in Tokushima, Japan from Lycogala epidendrum), which showed strong antiviral activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Balanol was originally discovered to inhibit PKC and many of its isoforms in humans (α, β-Ι, β-ΙΙ, γ, δ, ε, η), with an inhibition profile similar to that of staurosporine. (wikipedia.org)
  • downstream
  • The protein kinase C inhibitor bis(indolyl)maleimide inhibitor BIM1 is clearly seen in the structure of PKCiota (residue 574-turn motif), need to be phosphorylated towards a PKCbeta-specific inhibitor site-directed mutagenesis of the compound for its full activation and co-crystallized as an asymmetric pair which is mediated by 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1) are downstream characteristics of PKCs and PKB/AKT. (wikipedia.org)
  • The beta chain contains the intracellular tyrosine kinase domain and a tail on the C-terminal which is vital for the docking of substrates and downstream signalling. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phosphorylation occurs in tyrosines close to the C-terminus, creating a multi-functional docking site which recruits adaptor proteins and leads to downstream signalling. (wikipedia.org)
  • Following MET activation, transphosphorylation occurs on Tyr 1234 and Tyr 1235 C-terminal region contains two crucial tyrosines (Tyr 1349 and Tyr 1356), which are inserted into the multisubstrate docking site, capable of recruiting downstream adapter proteins with Src homology-2 (SH2) domains. (wikipedia.org)
  • mammalian
  • Both Pan1p and the similar mammalian protein Eps15 have been implicated in endocytosis, which brings up the controversial question of whether actin is involved in mammalian endocytosis. (rupress.org)
  • effector
  • Effector caspases cleave a range of proteins involved in cell structure and function. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Effector proteins may have many different activities, but usually help the pathogen to invade host tissue, suppress its immune system, or otherwise help the pathogen to survive. (wikipedia.org)
  • Effector proteins are usually critical for virulence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gram negative microbes are also suspected to deploy bacterial outer membrane vesicles to translocate effector proteins and virulence factors via a novel membrane vesicle trafficking secretory pathway, in order to modify their environment or attack/invade target cells, for example, at the host-pathogen interface. (wikipedia.org)
  • More importantly, it is difficult to prove experimentally that a predicted effector is actually secreted into a host cell because the amount of each effector protein is tiny. (wikipedia.org)
  • Yersinia inhibits phagocytosis through the concerted actions of several effector proteins, including YopE which acts as a RhoGAP and inhibits Rac-dependent actin polymerization. (wikipedia.org)
  • substrate
  • Phosphorylation usually results in a functional change of the target protein (substrate) by changing enzyme activity, cellular location, or association with other proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Without ATP bound, these kinases are unable to catalyze the transfer of the γ-phosphate from ATP to the kinase's target substrate, and thus function is hindered. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a Hsp70 protein, it has a C-terminal protein substrate-binding domain and an N-terminal ATP-binding domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hsc70 is known to localize to the cytoplasm and lysosome, where it participates in chaperone-mediated autophagy by aiding the unfolding and translocation of substrate proteins across the membrane into the lysosomal lumen. (wikipedia.org)
  • catalytic activity
  • Protein kinases are also found in bacteria and plants, and include the pseudokinase sub-family, which exhibit unusual features including atypical nucleotide binding and weak, or no, catalytic activity and are part of a much larger pseudoenzyme group of 'degraded' enzyme relatives that are found throughout life, where they take an active participation in mechanistic cellular signaling. (wikipedia.org)
  • subunit
  • Association of two components of this putative landmark provides a link from pheromone signaling to the cytoskeleton: the β subunit of a heterotrimeric G protein is involved in pheromone detection, and the guanine nucleotide exchange factor Cdc24p helps to orient and recruit the actin cytoskeleton. (rupress.org)
  • activation
  • Role of guanine nucleotide-binding protein and tyrosine kinase in platelet-activating factor activation of phospholipase C in A431 cells: proposal for dual mechanisms. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Based on these observations the involvement of PT-sensitive and -insensitive guanine nucleotide-binding protein(s) (G-protein) as well as the role of tyrosine kinase in the activation of PLC by PAF was considered further. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In alpha-toxin permeabilized cells, PT blocked GTP-gamma-S potentiation of PLC activation by PAF, thus suggesting that PT-insensitive G-proteins were not involved in PAF activation of PLC in A431 cells. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The protective effect of TPA on CYP2E1-dependent AA + Fe toxicity seemed to involve a PKC-related survival mechanism, since PKC inhibitors such as Ro 31-8425 (bisindolylmaleimide X hydrochloride) or staurosporine abolished that protection, and activation of PKC by TPA was an early event that occurs prior to the developing toxicity. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Where Thr-412 (activation loop of the kinase domain) at PKCiota/lambda phosphorylates glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) that sort cargo to the anterograde pathway the phosphorylation pathway(s) involved in this phenomenon mimic glutamate and can adopt two limiting diastereomeric (syn and anti) conformation biosynthetically related indolocarbazole analogs and in Proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase Pim-1-Peptide as a phosphorylation target including itself. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations
  • Two major factors influence activity of MAP kinases: a) signals that activate transmembrane receptors (either natural ligands or crosslinking agents) and proteins associated with them (mutations that simulate active state) b) signals that inactivate the phosphatases that restrict a given MAP kinase. (wikipedia.org)
  • therapeutic
  • An important clinical task is to coherently integrate the use of protein-targeted drugs into preexisting therapeutic regimens, with the goal of improving treatment efficacy. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These inhibitors may have therapeutic application in the treatment of various types of cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • conformation
  • The bound BIM1 inhibitor blocks the ATP-binding site and puts the kinase domain into an intermediate open conformation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The StaN enzyme reorients the sugar by attaching it to the 2nd indole nitrogen into an unfavored conformation to form intermediated O-demethyl-N-demethyl-staurosporine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activity of MAP kinases is restricted by a number of protein phosphatases, which remove the phosphate groups that are added to specific serine or threonine residues of the kinase and are required to maintain the kinase in an active conformation. (wikipedia.org)
  • activity
  • Protein kinase C activity is required for normal cell wall synthesis. (rupress.org)
  • AZ exerted its agonist effect from outside the cell membrane, and the effect did not depend on intracellular G-protein or protein kinase activity. (aspetjournals.org)
  • PAF stimulated tyrosine kinase activity as observed with the increase in radioactivity associated with proteins immunoprecipitated with polyclonal antibodies to phosphotyrosine residues. (aspetjournals.org)
  • This process, which is regulated by both protein kinase C and A activity, is tightly controlled by the dynamic organization of actin cytoskeleton, and may be critical for polarized contacts of circulating cells. (rupress.org)
  • When encapsulated in liposome nanoparticle, staurosporine is shown to suppress tumors in vivo in a mouse model without the toxic side effects which have prohibited its use as an anti-cancer drug with high apoptotic activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The chemical activity of a kinase involves transferring a phosphate group from a nucleoside triphosphate (usually ATP) and covalently attaching it to specific amino acids with a free hydroxyl group. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because protein kinases have profound effects on a cell, their activity is highly regulated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activity of these protein kinases can be regulated by specific events (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • Over the course of the next decade, further study of the compound showed some fungi inhibition, hypotensive activity, and most importantly, a broad protein kinase inhibitor. (wikipedia.org)
  • SU-11274 was evolved by substitution at the 5-position of the indolinone and by adding a 3,5-dimethyl pyrrole group, PHA-665752 was evolved - a second-generation inhibitor with better potency and activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein possesses tyrosine kinase activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • heat shock pr
  • While Hsc70 also performed chaperone functions under normal conditions, unlike canonical heat shock proteins, Hsc70 is constitutively expressed and performs functions related to normal cellular processes, such as protein ubiquitylation and degradation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In conjunction with other heat shock proteins, this protein stabilizes existing proteins against aggregation and mediates the folding of newly translated proteins in the cytosol and in organelles. (wikipedia.org)
  • basal
  • In Chop −/− macrophages, the increase in Ero1a mRNA and both basal and ER stress-induced ERO1-α protein were diminished. (rupress.org)
  • actin
  • Many proteins bind actin, and many other proteins bind actin-binding proteins. (rupress.org)
  • isolate actin-regulating kinase 1 (Ark1p) based on its two-hybrid interaction with the actin-binding protein Sla2p. (rupress.org)
  • Both proteins localize to actin patches, which in budding yeast are involved in endocytosis (actin may provide an assembly force that overcomes the osmotic forces of turgor pressure). (rupress.org)
  • Deletion of one kinase gene causes only a slight slowing of growth, but deletion of both genes yields cells that die at extreme temperatures and grow very slowly at 30°C. Most of the surviving cells are enlarged and have huge clumps of filamentous actin in the cytoplasm. (rupress.org)
  • The more immediate question of how all the actin-patch proteins cooperate in yeast endocytosis will probably have to wait for the development of an in vitro endocytosis assay. (rupress.org)
  • Endocytosis of GPI-anchored proteins in human lymphocytes: role of glycolipid-based domains, actin cytoskeleton, and protein kinases. (rupress.org)
  • interaction
  • MRI, immunoblot and immunofluorescence tools has allowed researchers to identify and observe tau protein aggregation both intra and intercellullary as well as their interaction with other proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Region of homology to semaphorins (Sema domain), which includes the full α-chain and the N-terminal part of the β-chain Cysteine-rich MET-related sequence (MRS domain) Glycine-proline-rich repeats (G-P repeats) Four immunoglobulin-like structures (Ig domains), a typical protein-protein interaction region. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacteria
  • His laboratory produced the first evidence for quorum sensing in bacteria, early evidence of the molecular mechanisms of circadian clock regulation in organisms (first using dinoflagellate luminescence and then expanded to other cellular proteins), and some of the initial studies of energy transfer in green fluorescent proteins (GFP) in cnidarian luminescence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacterial effectors are proteins secreted by pathogenic bacteria into the cells of their host, usually using a type 3 secretion system (TTSS/T3SS), a type 4 secretion system (TFSS/T4SS) or a Type VI secretion system (T6SS). (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • PART has been associated with Microtubule association tau protein (MAPT) H1 haplotype and no association has been seen with APOE ε4, a gene strongly linked to AD. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transformatation in tau gene on chromosome 17 can be linked to PART due to the fact that the tau protein analyzed from PART NFTs consist fo 3R and 4R isoforms. (wikipedia.org)
  • MAPT gene results in different tau protein isoforms due to splicing patterns of exon 10. (wikipedia.org)
  • Heat shock 70 kDa protein 8 also known as heat shock cognate 71 kDa protein or Hsc70 or Hsp73 is a heat shock protein that in humans is encoded by the HSPA8 gene on chromosome 11. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene encodes a 70kDa heat shock protein which is a member of the heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) family. (wikipedia.org)
  • Heat shock 70 kDa protein 1, also termed Hsp72, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HSPA1A gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gene is located in the major histocompatibility complex class III region, in a cluster with two closely related genes which encode similar proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • potency
  • The potency of staurosporine against Lck derives in part from an induced movement of the glycine-rich loop of the enzyme upon binding of this ligand, which maximizes the van der Waals interactions present in the complex. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Tumor
  • Phorbol esters activate protein kinase C (PKC), thereby blocking cell differentiation and promoting tumor growth. (aspetjournals.org)
  • When injected into the mouse glioblastoma model, staurosporine is found to accumulate primarily in the tumor via fluorescence confirmation, and the mice did not suffer weight loss compared to the control mice administered with the free compound, an indicator of reduced toxicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, this protein enhances antigen-specific tumor immunity by facilitating more efficient antigen presentation to cytotoxic T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • indolocarbazole
  • The value of such calculations lies in understanding a variant was designed which showed improved binding characteristics of configurationally stable atropisomeric bisindolylmaleimides where the two kinase domains, and two different inhibitor conformers bind in different orientations, the hinge region of staurosporine-Pim-1 resembles co-crystallized as an asymmetric pair of biosynthetically 'related' indolocarbazole analogs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Staurosporine is an indolocarbazole. (wikipedia.org)
  • mediates
  • The endogenous bioactive JA-Ile conjugate mediates the binding of JAZ proteins to the F-box protein CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 (COI1), part of the Skp1/Cullin/F-box SCF COI1 ubiquitin E3 ligase complex. (plantcell.org)
  • CRM1 is normally a member from the importin superfamily of nuclear transportation receptors, recognizing protein bearing a leucine-rich nuclear export series (NES).7 You can find seven known nuclear export protein, but CRM1 mediates the export of almost all main TSP from the nucleus. (healthandwellnesssource.org)
  • In conjunction with other heat shock proteins, this protein stabilizes existing proteins against aggregation and mediates the folding of newly translated proteins in the cytosol and in organelles. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteasome
  • Upon the subsequent destruction of the JAZ proteins by the 26S proteasome, multiple transcription factors are relieved from JAZ-mediated repression, allowing them to activate their respective downstream responses. (plantcell.org)
  • It is also involved in the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway through interaction with the AU-rich element RNA-binding protein 1. (wikipedia.org)
  • adaptor proteins
  • Therefore, SXXE/D motifs found in the cytoplasmic domains of many TNFR family members and their adaptor proteins may serve to function as a specific interaction module for the α-helical death domain signal transduction. (jimmunol.org)
  • genes
  • By means of extensive forward genetic screens for positive and negative effectors of JA signaling, reverse genetics screens with COI1 interactors, COI1-dependent genes or JA-regulated genes, numerous proteins involved in JA signaling have been identified. (plantcell.org)
  • The chromosome is 8,667,507 bp long with a GC-content of 72.1%, and is predicted to contain 7,825 protein-encoding genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • FP, but not HF, formed non-covalent complexes with Ca(2+)-CaM-PDE1, indicating that FP is an inhibitor of PDE1, and resulting in elevated cellular cAMP levels. (jove.com)
  • His laboratory produced the first evidence for quorum sensing in bacteria, early evidence of the molecular mechanisms of circadian clock regulation in organisms (first using dinoflagellate luminescence and then expanded to other cellular proteins), and some of the initial studies of energy transfer in green fluorescent proteins (GFP) in cnidarian luminescence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hallmark of PART is linked to presence of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) that are a result of tau protein accumulation intra and inter cellular in neuron cells which ultimately leads to neuron death and tissue atrophy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also development of specific tau tracers allows for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging allowing for both intra-cellular and extracellular observation of tau protein behaviours. (wikipedia.org)
  • Up to 30% of all human proteins may be modified by kinase activity, and kinases are known to regulate the majority of cellular pathways, especially those involved in signal transduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein kinases are also found in bacteria and plants, and include the pseudokinase sub-family, which exhibit unusual features including atypical nucleotide binding and weak, or no, catalytic activity and are part of a much larger pseudoenzyme group of 'degraded' enzyme relatives that are found throughout life, where they take an active participation in mechanistic cellular signaling. (wikipedia.org)
  • ligand
  • Amide hydrogen/deuterium exchange (H/D exchange) coupled with mass spectrometry has been widely used to analyze the interface of protein-protein interactions, protein conformational changes, protein dynamics and protein-ligand interactions. (jove.com)
  • structural
  • To study the role of two structural proteins of PRRSV in virus-host cells interactions, two stable cell lines (MARC-2a and MARC-N) expressing GP2 and N proteins, respectively, were established. (hindawi.com)
  • ORF 1a and 1b constitute the majority of the genome and encode viral nonstructural proteins while the rest codes for structural proteins: GP2, E, GP3, GP4, GP5, 5a, M, and N. A lipid bilayer envelope surrounds the viral RNA embedded within nucleocapsid (N) [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Of the structural proteins, GP2, GP3, GP4, and GP5 are glycosylated and present on the viral envelope, along with the nonglycosylated M and E proteins. (hindawi.com)
  • Thus far, most of the structural information pertaining to the PIM kinase family has been limited to PIM1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Structural analysis of kinase pockets demonstrated that main chain atoms which are conserved in their relative positions to staurosporine contributes to staurosporine promiscuity. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzymes
  • This ensures no signal will arise due to any other kinases/enzymes present in a test sample, as other kinases or phosphatases present without tag or a different tag produce no signal. (thermofisher.com)
  • phosphatases
  • Two major factors influence activity of MAP kinases: a) signals that activate transmembrane receptors (either natural ligands or crosslinking agents) and proteins associated with them (mutations that simulate active state) b) signals that inactivate the phosphatases that restrict a given MAP kinase. (wikipedia.org)
  • interactions
  • The C terminals of TNFR1, TRADD, FADD, and RIP all carry a discrete region termed the "death domain," which is composed of six continuous α-helical bundles and responsible for homotypic interactions among these four proteins. (jimmunol.org)
  • Finally, the presence of JAZ proteins was also found to be regulated by alternative splicing and interactions with proteins from other hormonal signaling pathways. (plantcell.org)
  • As a result, the absence of the interactions present in this region may increase flexibility in PIM2 within the N-terminal kinase lobe and contribute to the disordered regions of the PIM2 structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • suppress
  • Effector proteins may have many different activities, but usually help the pathogen to invade host tissue, suppress its immune system, or otherwise help the pathogen to survive. (wikipedia.org)
  • When encapsulated in liposome nanoparticle, staurosporine is shown to suppress tumors in vivo in a mouse model without the toxic side effects which have prohibited its use as an anti-cancer drug with high apoptotic activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor
  • The nuclear export protein chromosome maintenance region 1, found to become elevated in non-Hodgkins lymphomas, controls localization of critical tumor suppressor proteins. (healthandwellnesssource.org)
  • When injected into the mouse glioblastoma model, staurosporine is found to accumulate primarily in the tumor via fluorescence confirmation, and the mice did not suffer weight loss compared to the control mice administered with the free compound, an indicator of reduced toxicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, this protein enhances antigen-specific tumor immunity by facilitating more efficient antigen presentation to cytotoxic T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Streptomyces
  • In recent years, biotechnology researchers have begun using Streptomyces species for heterologous expression of proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Staurosporine (antibiotic AM-2282 or STS) is a natural product originally isolated in 1977 from the bacterium Streptomyces staurosporeus. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a semi-synthetic derivative of staurosporine, an alkaloid from the bacterium Streptomyces staurosporeus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first isolated ICZ, dubbed staurosporine (STA) was in 1977 from a culture of Streptomyces staurosporeus found in a soil sample from Iwate Prefecture, Japan. (wikipedia.org)
  • Effector
  • Effector caspases cleave a range of proteins involved in cell structure and function. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Effector proteins are usually critical for virulence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gram negative microbes are also suspected to deploy bacterial outer membrane vesicles to translocate effector proteins and virulence factors via a novel membrane vesicle trafficking secretory pathway, in order to modify their environment or attack/invade target cells, for example, at the host-pathogen interface. (wikipedia.org)
  • More importantly, it is difficult to prove experimentally that a predicted effector is actually secreted into a host cell because the amount of each effector protein is tiny. (wikipedia.org)
  • Yersinia inhibits phagocytosis through the concerted actions of several effector proteins, including YopE which acts as a RhoGAP and inhibits Rac-dependent actin polymerization. (wikipedia.org)
  • specific
  • JAZ proteins have been demonstrated to interact with a broad array of transcription factors that each control specific downstream processes. (plantcell.org)
  • View kinase compatibility and assay component selection table and kinase-specific protocols. (thermofisher.com)
  • Any signal resulting from the LanthaScreen Eu Kinase Binding Assay is due to a specific interaction of a Eu-anti-epitope tag antibody bound to the kinase of interest. (thermofisher.com)
  • The chemical activity of a kinase involves transferring a phosphate group from a nucleoside triphosphate (usually ATP) and covalently attaching it to specific amino acids with a free hydroxyl group. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activity of these protein kinases can be regulated by specific events (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • aggregation
  • However tau protein aggregation to form NFT mark as an identificatory critarion for other neurogenerative diseases such as parkinson disease, chronic traumatic encephalopathy, picks disease, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • MRI, immunoblot and immunofluorescence tools has allowed researchers to identify and observe tau protein aggregation both intra and intercellullary as well as their interaction with other proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytosol
  • On loss of IL-7 in a dependent cell line, Bax protein translocated from the cytosol to the mitochondria, where it integrated into the mitochondrial membrane. (pnas.org)
  • Bax moves from the cytosol to the mitochondria under conditions that induce cell death, for example in staurosporine-treated Cos-7 cells in which a Bax-green fluorescent protein fusion protein was overexpressed ( 13 ) or during IL-3 withdrawal in FL5.12A cells ( 14 , 15 ). (pnas.org)
  • affinity
  • A. The affinity of Gleevec® was measured using the binding assay by mixing His-tagged Abl (1 nM), both with and without phosphatase treatment, with 0.25 nM of Kinase Tracer 178 and 2 nM Eu-anti-His-Tag antibody followed by TR-FRET measurements. (thermofisher.com)
  • This is achieved through the stronger affinity of staurosporine to the ATP-binding site on the kinase. (wikipedia.org)
  • hydrogen
  • One of the major lessons learned from initial research on STA was the development of the pharmacophore model for a protein kinase inhibitor in which a bidentate hydrogen donating system flanked by various hydrophobic groups inserts into the binding site. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanism
  • Here we report a mechanism by which cytokine withdrawal activates the prodeath protein Bax. (pnas.org)
  • In conclusion, FP was shown to be a Ca(2+)-CaM-PDE inhibitor, which might account for its underlying anti-cancer mechanism in HeLa cells. (jove.com)
  • stabilize
  • Tau protein stabilize the microtubules and are involved in fast dendrite growth, retrograde and antegrade transport intracellularly and neuron maintenance. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosome
  • Our research verifies chromosome maintenance area 1 being a healing focus on in non-Hodgkins lymphoma, indicating that nuclear export proteins warrants further scientific investigations. (healthandwellnesssource.org)
  • bound
  • EspG functions as a Rab GTPase-activating protein (Rab-GAP), trapping Rab-GTPases in their inactive GDP bound form, and reducing ER-Golgi transport (of IL-8 and other proteins). (wikipedia.org)