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  • plastids
  • This primary endosymbiosis event gave rise to three autotrophic clades with primary plastids: the green plants, the red algae and the glaucophytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The glaucophytes have typical cyanobacterial pigments, and are unusual in retaining a cell wall within their plastids (called cyanelles). (wikipedia.org)
  • plastós: formed, molded - plural plastids) is a major double-membrane organelle found in the cells of plants, algae, and some other eukaryotic organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plastids are the site of manufacture and storage of important chemical compounds used by the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plastids can also store products like starch and can synthesize fatty acids and terpenes, which can be used for producing energy and as raw material for the synthesis of other molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • In plants, plastids may differentiate into several forms, depending upon which function they play in the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • leucoplasts sometimes differentiate into more specialized plastids: Amyloplasts: for starch storage and detecting gravity (for geotropism) Elaioplasts: for storing fat Proteinoplasts: for storing and modifying protein Tannosomes: for synthesizing and producing tannins and polyphenols Depending on their morphology and function, plastids have the ability to differentiate, or redifferentiate, between these and other forms. (wikipedia.org)
  • The number of genome copies per plastid is variable, ranging from more than 1000 in rapidly dividing cells, which, in general, contain few plastids, to 100 or fewer in mature cells, where plastid divisions have given rise to a large number of plastids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plant nuclear genes encode the vast majority of plastid proteins, and the expression of plastid genes and nuclear genes is tightly co-regulated to coordinate proper development of plastids in relation to cell differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In plant cells, long thin protuberances called stromules sometimes form and extend from the main plastid body into the cytosol and interconnect several plastids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other types of plastids are the amyloplasts, specialized for starch storage, elaioplasts specialized for fat storage, and chromoplasts specialized for synthesis and storage of pigments. (wikipedia.org)
  • As in mitochondria, which have a genome encoding 37 genes, plastids have their own genomes of about 100-120 unique genes and, it is presumed, arose as prokaryotic endosymbionts living in the cells of an early eukaryotic ancestor of the land plants and algae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plastids do not develop, and the secretory apparatus (ER and Golgi) proliferates to secrete additional primary wall. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fungi
  • Some species of green algae, particularly of genera Trebouxia of the class Trebouxiophyceae and Trentepohlia (class Ulvophyceae), can be found in symbiotic associations with fungi to form lichens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since then, it has become clear that the Plantae as originally defined included several unrelated groups, and the fungi and several groups of algae were removed to new kingdoms. (thefullwiki.org)
  • however all current definitions of "plant" exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes (the archaea and bacteria). (wikipedia.org)
  • This contrasts with the cell walls of fungi, which are made of chitin, and of bacteria, which are made of peptidoglycan. (wikipedia.org)
  • Traditionally, botany has also included the study of fungi and algae by mycologists and phycologists respectively, with the study of these three groups of organisms remaining within the sphere of interest of the International Botanical Congress. (wikipedia.org)
  • seaweeds
  • Many species live most of their lives as single cells, while other species form coenobia (colonies), long filaments, or highly differentiated macroscopic seaweeds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Charophytes
  • Cell division by construction of a phragmoplast as a template for building a cell plate late in cytokinesis is characteristic of land plants and a few groups of algae, notably the Charophytes and the Chlorophyte Order Trentepohliales. (wikipedia.org)
  • Charales
  • In all land plants a disc-like structure called a phragmoplast forms where the cell will divide, a trait only found in the land plants in the streptophyte lineage, some species within their relatives Coleochaetales, Charales and Zygnematales, as well as within subaerial species of the algae order Trentepohliales, and appears to be essential in the adaptation towards a terrestrial life style. (wikipedia.org)
  • motile
  • Reproduction varies from fusion of identical cells (isogamy) to fertilization of a large non-motile cell by a smaller motile one (oogamy). (wikipedia.org)
  • The motile, free-swimming sperm of bryophytes and pteridophytes, cycads and Ginkgo are the only cells of land plants to have flagella similar to those in animal cells, but the conifers and flowering plants do not have motile sperm and lack both flagella and centrioles. (wikipedia.org)
  • D. salina can reproduce asexually through division of motile vegetative cells and sexually through the fusion of two equal gametes into a singular zygote. (wikipedia.org)
  • differ
  • The reproductive organs consist of antheridia and oogonia, though the structures of these organs differ considerably from the corresponding organs in other algae. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, the production of the various organic macromolecules of interest (proteins, lipids, starch) differ depending on the technique used to create biomass and can be therefore targeted. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • Species in the Dunaliella genus are morphogically similar to Chlamydomonas reinhardtii with the main exception being that Dunaliella lack both a cell wall and a contractile vacuole. (wikipedia.org)
  • plants
  • Proteins are also found in algal cell walls including highly glycosylated and hydroxyproline-rich forms, some of which have structural semblance to extensins and arabinogalactan proteins of land plants. (springer.com)
  • Sexual reproduction of plants is by isogamus, anisogamus or oogamus Starch is deposited on small bodies called pyrenoids Vegetative reproduction usually takes place by fragmentation. (wikipedia.org)
  • They share many similarities with the higher plants, including the presence of asymmetrical flagellated cells, the breakdown of the nuclear envelope at mitosis, and the presence of phytochromes, flavonoids, and the chemical precursors to the cuticle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, they cannot build up starches from carbon dioxide as plants can. (reference.com)
  • In the group cell division is associated with a phragmoplast as we have seen in plants. (wisc.edu)
  • Accordingly, these plants are sometimes termed 'metaphytes' and classified as the group Metaphyta (but Haeckel's definition of Metaphyta places some algae in this group). (wikipedia.org)
  • In the 19th and 20th centuries, new techniques were developed for the study of plants, including methods of optical microscopy and live cell imaging, electron microscopy, analysis of chromosome number, plant chemistry and the structure and function of enzymes and other proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • mainly
  • Apart from the xylem and phloem in their vascular bundles, leaves are composed mainly of parenchyma cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • unlike
  • citation needed] Alginates do not react with these dyes and wash out easily, unlike starch-based thickeners. (wikipedia.org)
  • food
  • Algae are critical to global primary production, CO 2 sequestering and biomineralization as well as being of economic significance in the food, pharmaceutical and biofuel industries. (springer.com)
  • Some algae may store food in the form of oil droplets. (wikipedia.org)
  • In food science and in many informal contexts, the term "carbohydrate" often means any food that is particularly rich in the complex carbohydrate starch (such as cereals, bread and pasta) or simple carbohydrates, such as sugar (found in candy, jams, and desserts). (wikipedia.org)
  • Pasta, toast, pie and pudding: a growing number of food products contain algae-based ingredients. (foodvalleysociety.com)
  • Algae production and biorefinery are becoming more efficient and food industry experts predict rapid growth of applications over the next few years. (foodvalleysociety.com)
  • Food companies large and small see potential in using algae. (foodvalleysociety.com)
  • We think algae will become increasingly important as a food ingredient. (foodvalleysociety.com)
  • Reinier Smit of algae producer Nutress does not believe consumer acceptance is the biggest hurdle for algae in the food industry. (foodvalleysociety.com)
  • At that point, algae will become highly profitable for the food industry. (foodvalleysociety.com)
  • European and national legislation for food products and ingredients based on algae differs according to the type of product," said Karin Verzijden, lawyer at Axon Lawyers. (foodvalleysociety.com)
  • These proteins are considered as having a good nutritional quality compared to the standard profile for human nutrition of the World Health Organisation and Food and Agricultural Organisation, as the algae synthesise essential and non-essential amino-acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Somewhere around a billion years ago, a free-living cyanobacterium entered an early eukaryotic cell, either as food or as an internal parasite, but managed to escape the phagocytic vacuole it was contained in. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins
  • The cell walls of most algae consist of a framework of fibrillar polysaccharides that are embedded in a matrix composed of neutral and charged polysaccharides along with various proteins, phenolics and complexed cations. (springer.com)
  • That's when algae will become a serious alternative source of lipids, proteins and carbohydrates," Wijffels said. (foodvalleysociety.com)
  • algal
  • There is good evidence that some of these algal groups arose independently from separate non-photosynthetic ancestors, with the result that the brown algae, for example, are no longer classified within the plant kingdom as it is defined here. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both marine and freshwater taxa are represented by free-living macroalgal forms and smaller endo/epiphytic/zoic forms, meaning they live in or on other algae, plants, and animals In addition, some marine species have adopted a parasitic lifestyle and may be found on closely or more distantly related red algal hosts In the system of Adl et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • The enrichment of novel red algal genes in a recent study demonstrates a strong signal for Plantae (Archaeplastida) monophyly and an equally strong signal of gene sharing history between the red/green algae and other lineages. (wikipedia.org)
  • seaweeds
  • El conferencista es doctorado del Programa de Posgrado en Filosofa de la Ciencia e investigador en estilos de buy spirulina powder 1kg spirulina growth rate vida saludable jadi berikan gizi yang cukup seperti : - susu strawberry jelly - putih telur yang direbus dan dihancur2kan - tablet corella dan spirulina juga bagus Check out this article on the dangers of eating algae spirulina kelp nori and other seaweeds: Algae Spirulina Seaweed Caution. (ucepe.eu)
  • Most conspicuous among the algae are the seaweeds, multicellular algae that may roughly resemble land plants, but are classified among the brown, red and green algae. (wikipedia.org)
  • The majority of species (6,793) are found in the Florideophyceae (class), and consist of mostly multicellular, marine algae, including many notable seaweeds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Species
  • it is required by all living organisms but can only be synthesized by bacteria, yeasts, molds, algae and some plant species. (watson-inc.com)
  • Two common species of the heterotrophic green alga Prototheca are pathogenic and can cause the disease protothecosis in humans and animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • In all land plants a disc-like structure called a phragmoplast forms where the cell will divide, a trait only found in the land plants in the streptophyte lineage, some species within their relatives Coleochaetales, Charales and Zygnematales, as well as within subaerial species of the algae order Trentepohliales, and appears to be essential in the adaptation towards a terrestrial life style. (wikipedia.org)
  • Species in the Dunaliella genus are morphogically similar to Chlamydomonas reinhardtii with the main exception being that Dunaliella lack both a cell wall and a contractile vacuole. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Vegetative cells of the reinhardtii species are haploid with 17 small chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • organisms
  • So instead, these photosynthetic organisms started to develop ways to get carbon dioxide into the cell and concentrating it around the Rubisco. (fieldofscience.com)
  • Traditionally, botany has also included the study of fungi and algae by mycologists and phycologists respectively, with the study of these three groups of organisms remaining within the sphere of interest of the International Botanical Congress. (wikipedia.org)
  • Algae comprise several different groups of organisms which produce energy through photosynthesis and for that reason have been included in the plant kingdom in the past. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • Later these will disappear, as the cells become packed full of proteins, lipids and starch, the cell walls thicken and the seed dries out during the seed ripening process. (blogspot.com)
  • In the 19th and 20th centuries, new techniques were developed for the study of plants, including methods of optical microscopy and live cell imaging, electron microscopy, analysis of chromosome number, plant chemistry and the structure and function of enzymes and other proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • When seeds are formed, most plants store a food reserve with the seed, such as starch, proteins, or oils. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most algae contain one or a few WRKY proteins, whereas even the earliest land plant, moss (Physcomitrella patens), possesses at least 30 WRKY factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Of these two WRKY proteins, WRKY1 of Giardia has been demonstrated to be involved in cell wall formation, a process also likely important to algae and early land plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • It remains unclear how and why the WRKY proteins dramatically expanded and diversified in the plant lineage but not algae. (wikipedia.org)
  • plants
  • Modern land plants share some features with the group of green algae called charophytes , and charophytes are the closest relatives of the plant kingdom. (psu.edu)
  • This means that the ancestor of all modern plants was a green algae living in an aquatic environment. (psu.edu)
  • Molecular evolutionary analyses of RNA and DNA sequence data from green algae and plants also clearly place these two groups together. (psu.edu)
  • Sexual reproduction of plants is by isogamus, anisogamus or oogamus Starch is deposited on small bodies called pyrenoids Vegetative reproduction usually takes place by fragmentation. (wikipedia.org)
  • They share many similarities with the higher plants, including the presence of asymmetrical flagellated cells, the breakdown of the nuclear envelope at mitosis, and the presence of phytochromes, flavonoids, and the chemical precursors to the cuticle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The green algae and land plants have lost that pigment. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2011 and modified with Silar 2016 for the green algae clades and Novíkov & Barabaš-Krasni 2015 for the land plants clade. (wikipedia.org)
  • Accordingly, these plants are sometimes termed 'metaphytes' and classified as the group Metaphyta (but Haeckel's definition of Metaphyta places some algae in this group). (wikipedia.org)
  • The streptophyte algae (i.e. the streptophyte clade minus the land plants) are less diverse (with around 122 genera) and adapted to fresh water very early in their evolutionary history. (wikipedia.org)
  • Charales
  • Tetraspora) In older classifications, the term Chlorophyceae is sometimes used to apply to all the green algae except the Charales, and the internal division is considerably different. (wikipedia.org)
  • nori
  • Red algae such as dulse (Palmaria palmata) and laver (nori/gim) are a traditional part of European and Asian cuisines and are used to make other products such as agar, carrageenans and other food additives. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytokinesis
  • Characteristics used for the classification of Chlorophyta are: type of zoid, mitosis (karyokynesis), cytokinesis, organization level, life cycle, type of gametes, cell wall polysaccharides and more recently genetic data. (wikipedia.org)
  • considerably
  • The reproductive organs consist of antheridia and oogonia, though the structures of these organs differ considerably from the corresponding organs in other algae. (wikipedia.org)
  • The way in which the groups of green algae are combined and named varies considerably between authors. (wikipedia.org)
  • rigid
  • Embryophyte cells also generally have an enlarged central vacuole enclosed by a vacuolar membrane or tonoplast, which maintains cell turgor and keeps the plant rigid. (wikipedia.org)
  • D. salina lacks a rigid cell wall, which makes organism susceptible to osmotic pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • undergoes
  • In the light, the zygote undergoes meiosis and releases four flagellated haploid cells that resume the vegetative lifecycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • secrete
  • The coralline algae, which secrete calcium carbonate and play a major role in building coral reefs, belong here. (wikipedia.org)
  • embryophytes
  • The unique habit among the algae of protecting the overwintering zygote within the tissues of the parent gametophyte is one of several characteristics of Coleochaetales that suggest that they are a sister group to the embryophytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Embryophytes also differ from algae by having metamers. (wikipedia.org)
  • flagella
  • Motile forms have two unequal flagella, which may have fine hairs and are anchored by a multilayered system of microtubules, both of which are similar to forms found in some green algae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a single-cell green alga about 10 micrometres in diameter that swims with two flagella. (wikipedia.org)
  • dinoflagellates
  • Generally, these dinoflagellates enter the host cell through phagocytosis, persist as intracellular symbionts, reproduce, and disperse to the environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • The successful culturing of swimming gymnodinioid cells from coral led to the discovery that "zooxanthellae" were actually dinoflagellates. (wikipedia.org)
  • form
  • It can be found within our cells in the form of coenzyme A (CoA) and is vital in releasing energy from the food we eat. (watson-inc.com)
  • Some algae may store food in the form of oil droplets. (wikipedia.org)
  • primarily
  • Vitamin A primarily helps with the maintenance of our vision, the growth and repair of cells, cell differentiation, maintaining the health of epithelial cells and protection against infection. (watson-inc.com)
  • molecular
  • Dominant themes in 21st century plant science are molecular genetics and epigenetics, which are the mechanisms and control of gene expression during differentiation of plant cells and tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chlamydomonas is used as a model organism for research on fundamental questions in cell and molecular biology such as: How do cells move? (wikipedia.org)
  • zygote
  • D. salina can reproduce asexually through division of motile vegetative cells and sexually through the fusion of two equal gametes into a singular zygote. (wikipedia.org)
  • eukaryotic
  • from Ancient Greek: ῥόδον rhodon, "rose" and φυτόν phyton, "plant"), are one of the oldest groups of eukaryotic algae. (wikipedia.org)
  • sexually
  • They reproduce asexually by the development of a septum between the two cell-halves or semi-cells (in unicellular forms, each daughter-cell develops the other semi-cell afresh) and sexually by conjugation, or the fusion of the entire cell-contents of the two conjugating cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a result of fertilization a protonema is formed, from which the sexually reproducing algae develops. (wikipedia.org)
  • food
  • In food science and in many informal contexts, the term carbohydrate often means any food that is particularly rich in the complex carbohydrate starch (such as cereals, bread and pasta) or simple carbohydrates, such as sugar (found in candy, jams , and desserts). (omicsgroup.org)