• plastids
  • This primary endosymbiosis event gave rise to three autotrophic clades with primary plastids: the green plants, the red algae and the glaucophytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The glaucophytes have typical cyanobacterial pigments, and are unusual in retaining a cell wall within their plastids (called cyanelles). (wikipedia.org)
  • plastós: formed, molded - plural plastids) is a major double-membrane organelle found in the cells of plants, algae, and some other eukaryotic organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plastids are the site of manufacture and storage of important chemical compounds used by the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plastids can also store products like starch and can synthesize fatty acids and terpenes, which can be used for producing energy and as raw material for the synthesis of other molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • In plants, plastids may differentiate into several forms, depending upon which function they play in the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • leucoplasts sometimes differentiate into more specialized plastids: Amyloplasts: for starch storage and detecting gravity (for geotropism) Elaioplasts: for storing fat Proteinoplasts: for storing and modifying protein Tannosomes: for synthesizing and producing tannins and polyphenols Depending on their morphology and function, plastids have the ability to differentiate, or redifferentiate, between these and other forms. (wikipedia.org)
  • The number of genome copies per plastid is variable, ranging from more than 1000 in rapidly dividing cells, which, in general, contain few plastids, to 100 or fewer in mature cells, where plastid divisions have given rise to a large number of plastids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plant nuclear genes encode the vast majority of plastid proteins, and the expression of plastid genes and nuclear genes is tightly co-regulated to coordinate proper development of plastids in relation to cell differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In plant cells, long thin protuberances called stromules sometimes form and extend from the main plastid body into the cytosol and interconnect several plastids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other types of plastids are the amyloplasts, specialized for starch storage, elaioplasts specialized for fat storage, and chromoplasts specialized for synthesis and storage of pigments. (wikipedia.org)
  • As in mitochondria, which have a genome encoding 37 genes, plastids have their own genomes of about 100-120 unique genes and, it is presumed, arose as prokaryotic endosymbionts living in the cells of an early eukaryotic ancestor of the land plants and algae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plastids do not develop, and the secretory apparatus (ER and Golgi) proliferates to secrete additional primary wall. (wikipedia.org)
  • fungi
  • Some species of green algae, particularly of genera Trebouxia of the class Trebouxiophyceae and Trentepohlia (class Ulvophyceae), can be found in symbiotic associations with fungi to form lichens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since then, it has become clear that the Plantae as originally defined included several unrelated groups, and the fungi and several groups of algae were removed to new kingdoms. (thefullwiki.org)
  • however all current definitions of "plant" exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes (the archaea and bacteria). (wikipedia.org)
  • This contrasts with the cell walls of fungi, which are made of chitin, and of bacteria, which are made of peptidoglycan. (wikipedia.org)
  • Traditionally, botany has also included the study of fungi and algae by mycologists and phycologists respectively, with the study of these three groups of organisms remaining within the sphere of interest of the International Botanical Congress. (wikipedia.org)
  • motile
  • Reproduction varies from fusion of identical cells (isogamy) to fertilization of a large non-motile cell by a smaller motile one (oogamy). (wikipedia.org)
  • none has motile cells of any kind. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The motile, free-swimming sperm of bryophytes and pteridophytes, cycads and Ginkgo are the only cells of land plants to have flagella similar to those in animal cells, but the conifers and flowering plants do not have motile sperm and lack both flagella and centrioles. (wikipedia.org)
  • D. salina can reproduce asexually through division of motile vegetative cells and sexually through the fusion of two equal gametes into a singular zygote. (wikipedia.org)
  • Charophytes
  • Cell division by construction of a phragmoplast as a template for building a cell plate late in cytokinesis is characteristic of land plants and a few groups of algae, notably the Charophytes and the Chlorophyte Order Trentepohliales. (wikipedia.org)
  • photosynthesis
  • Like plants, they have choloroplasts capable of photosynthesis, but like animals, they have cell membranes rather than cell walls and are capable of independent movement. (reference.com)
  • [ 4 ] [ 5 ] The algae comprise several different groups of organisms that produce energy through photosynthesis, each of which arose independently from separate non-photosynthetic ancestors. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Algae comprise several different groups of organisms which produce energy through photosynthesis and for that reason have been included in the plant kingdom in the past. (wikipedia.org)
  • Parenchyma cells are living cells that have functions ranging from storage and support to photosynthesis and phloem loading (transfer cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • Phycology
  • H. Takeda, "Sugar composition of the cell wall and taxonomy of Chlorella (Chlorophyceae)," Journal of Phycology , vol. 27, pp. 224-232, 1991. (hindawi.com)
  • Charales
  • In all land plants a disc-like structure called a phragmoplast forms where the cell will divide, a trait only found in the land plants in the streptophyte lineage, some species within their relatives Coleochaetales, Charales and Zygnematales, as well as within subaerial species of the algae order Trentepohliales, and appears to be essential in the adaptation towards a terrestrial life style. (wikipedia.org)
  • plants
  • Proteins are also found in algal cell walls including highly glycosylated and hydroxyproline-rich forms, some of which have structural semblance to extensins and arabinogalactan proteins of land plants. (springer.com)
  • Sexual reproduction of plants is by isogamus, anisogamus or oogamus Starch is deposited on small bodies called pyrenoids Vegetative reproduction usually takes place by fragmentation. (wikipedia.org)
  • They share many similarities with the higher plants, including the presence of asymmetrical flagellated cells, the breakdown of the nuclear envelope at mitosis, and the presence of phytochromes, flavonoids, and the chemical precursors to the cuticle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, they cannot build up starches from carbon dioxide as plants can. (reference.com)
  • In the group cell division is associated with a phragmoplast as we have seen in plants. (wisc.edu)
  • The carbohydrate reserves of red algae are in the form of floridean starch, a specialized glucose polymer of different structure than the starch of plants. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Accordingly, these plants are sometimes termed 'metaphytes' and classified as the group Metaphyta (but Haeckel's definition of Metaphyta places some algae in this group). (wikipedia.org)
  • In the 19th and 20th centuries, new techniques were developed for the study of plants, including methods of optical microscopy and live cell imaging, electron microscopy, analysis of chromosome number, plant chemistry and the structure and function of enzymes and other proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • Cells may have one or more nuclei, depending on the species. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Species in the Dunaliella genus are morphogically similar to Chlamydomonas reinhardtii with the main exception being that Dunaliella lack both a cell wall and a contractile vacuole. (wikipedia.org)
  • biomass
  • J. C. Ogbonna and H. Tanaka, "Night biomass loss and changes in biochemical composition of cells during light/dark cyclic culture of Chlorella pyrenoidosa ," Journal of Fermentation and Bioengineering , vol. 82, no. 6, pp. 558-564, 1996. (hindawi.com)
  • Algae Biomass. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, the production of the various organic macromolecules of interest (proteins, lipids, starch) differ depending on the technique used to create biomass and can be therefore targeted. (wikipedia.org)
  • Under more hostile conditions, the biomass decreases but lipids and starch contents increase. (wikipedia.org)
  • polysaccharides
  • The cell walls of most algae consist of a framework of fibrillar polysaccharides that are embedded in a matrix composed of neutral and charged polysaccharides along with various proteins, phenolics and complexed cations. (springer.com)
  • These load-bearing fibrillar components are inserted in complex networks of polysaccharides that include hemicelluloses and polyanionic polymers such as pectins, alginates, fucoidans and the sulfated galactans of red algae, agar and carageenan. (springer.com)
  • H. Takeda and T. Hirokawa, "Studies on the cell wall of Chlorella I. Quantitative changes in cell wall polysaccharides during the cell cycle of Chlorella ellipsoidea ," Plant and Cell Physiology , vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 591-598, 1978. (hindawi.com)
  • glucose
  • While the scientific nomenclature of carbohydrates is complex, the names of the monosaccharides and disaccharides very often end in the suffix -ose , as in the monosaccharides fructose (fruit sugar) and glucose (starch sugar) and the disaccharides sucrose ( cane or beet sugar) and lactose (milk sugar). (wikipedia.org)
  • mainly
  • Apart from the xylem and phloem in their vascular bundles, leaves are composed mainly of parenchyma cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • unlike
  • citation needed] Alginates do not react with these dyes and wash out easily, unlike starch-based thickeners. (wikipedia.org)
  • carbohydrate
  • In food science and in many informal contexts, the term "carbohydrate" often means any food that is particularly rich in the complex carbohydrate starch (such as cereals, bread and pasta) or simple carbohydrates, such as sugar (found in candy, jams, and desserts). (wikipedia.org)