• fluorescence
  • R&D responsibilities involve designing and executing experiments to evaluate biological applications for novel fluorescence-based dyes and reagents developed by Biotium's chemistry R&D group, with the goal of developing innovative research products based on these technologies. (biotium.com)
  • Additional product applications may include cell based assays or reagents for flow cytometry or fluorescence microscopy. (biotium.com)
  • More particularly but not exclusively, the present invention relates to the detection of fluorescence, and especially the detection of fluorescence- labelled biological samples. (google.co.uk)
  • Traditional porous nitrocellulose signal to noise is limited by auto-fluorescence of the nitrocellulose at the respective required wavelengths of excitation and emission for standard organic fluorescent detection probes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Marie‐Laure Schneider, Adriana Marquez‐ Lagraulet, Richard Pasquesi, Michael Shultz - (2014), "Infrared detection decreases nitrocellulose auto-fluorescence and improves RPPA assays signal‐to‐noise ratio over visible wavelength detection", Innopsys Inc. Chicago, Illinois,[self-published source? (wikipedia.org)
  • Measurement
  • Here, we confirm earlier results showing that this inference is not always valid and suggest instead using biological measurement diversity derived from multiplexed profiling in the construction of libraries with diverse assay performance patterns for cell-based screens. (jove.com)
  • Increasingly, multiplexed small-molecule profiling assays allow simultaneous measurement of many biological response parameters for the same compound (e.g., expression levels for many genes or binding constants against many proteins). (jove.com)
  • Certified Reference Materials (CRMs) are 'controls' or standards used to check the quality and metrological traceability of products, to validate analytical measurement methods, or for the calibration of instruments. (wikipedia.org)
  • A certified reference material is a particular form of measurement standard. (wikipedia.org)
  • The assay usually aims to measure an intensive property of the analyte and express it in the relevant measurement unit (e.g. molarity, density, functional activity in enzyme international units, degree of some effect in comparison to a standard, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • measurements
  • The Pruitt microsystems lab works on custom measurements and analysis systems for small scale metrologies including scanning probe microscopy, biomechanics and mechanotransduction assays. (stanford.edu)
  • and (3) we mitigate the fact that loss-of-signal assay measurements may not distinguish between multiple mechanisms that can lead to certain phenotypes (e.g., cell death). (jove.com)
  • Although biological assays have been the cornerstone of endocrinologic measurements, the development of the radioimmunoassay (RIA) completely changed the field of endocrinology (1). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In addition, commercial producers adhering to criteria and protocols defined by NIST may use the trademark "NIST traceable reference material" to designate certified reference materials with a well-defined traceability linkage to existing NIST standards for chemical measurements. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the number of IUs contained in a new substance is arbitrarily set, there is no equivalence between IU measurements of different biological agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • Lack of biological assays to measure many of these contaminants in tissue specimens, the high cost of using these assays in large epidemiologic studies when they were available, and challenges related to the interpretation of the results when exposures were measured after the adverse reproductive event occurred limit the conclusions that can be drawn from these investigations. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • citation needed] Different types of radiation have different biological effectiveness mainly because they transfer their energy to the tissue in different ways. (wikipedia.org)
  • Radiation weighting factors that go from physical energy to biological effect must not be confused with tissue weighting factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • The relative biological effectiveness for radiation of type R on a tissue of type T is traditionally defined as the ratio R B E = D X D R {\displaystyle RBE={\frac {D_{X}}{D_{R}}}} where DX is a reference absorbed dose of radiation of a standard type X, and DR is the absorbed dose of radiation of type R that causes the same amount of biological damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • procedure
  • To do so, the WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization provides a reference preparation of the agent, arbitrarily sets the number of IUs contained in that preparation, and specifies a biological procedure to compare other preparations of the same agent to the reference preparation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such industrial scale assays as these are often done in well equipped laboratories and with automated organization of the procedure-from ordering an assay to pre-analytic sample processing (sample collection, necessary manipulations e.g. spinning for separation or other processes, aliquoting if necessary, storage, retrieval, pipetting/aspiration etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • The difference in meaning between this and the probabilistic sense can be seen from an example: if careful assays before and after indicate that a procedure has inactivated 90% of the biological agents in some unit, then the procedure can be correctly reported to have achieved a 1-log reduction, even though the probability that the unit is sterile is not 90% but 0. (wikipedia.org)
  • biology
  • The individual minimum information standards are brought by the communities of cross-disciplinary specialists focused on the problematic of the specific method used in experimental biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzyme
  • To eliminate possible interference of DTNB with enzyme hydrolysis, we introduce a modification of the standard Ellman's assay. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The iu should not be confused with the enzyme unit, also known as the international unit of enzyme activity and abbreviated as U. To define the IU for a substance, an international collaborative study is organized by the WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization using various assay systems in several laboratories. (wikipedia.org)
  • dose
  • In a direct dilution assay the amount of dose needed to produce a specific (fixed) response is measured, so that the dose is a stochastic variable defining the tolerance distribution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conversely, in an indirect dilution assay the dose levels are administered at fixed dose levels, so that the response is a stochastic variable. (wikipedia.org)
  • An antibiotic standard (shown in red) and test preparation (shown in blue) are applied at three dose levels to sensitive microorganisms on a layer of agar in petri dishes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In dosimetry (the practical attempt to apply RBE realistically and uniformly to human and animal experience), the RBE is represented in regulations by the radiation weighting factor, (WR), or formerly, the quality factor (Q). These weighting factors, arrived at by consensus of governments, industry, and regulators, convert absorbed dose (measured in units of grays or rads) into formal biological equivalent dose for radiation exposure (measured in units of sieverts or rem). (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • The higher the RBE or weighting factor numbers for a type of radiation, the more damaging is the type of radiation, per unit of energy deposited in biological tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • MIAME contains a number of extensions to cover specific biological domains, including MIAME-env, MIAME-nut and MIAME-tox, covering environmental genomics, nutritional genomics and toxogenomics, respectively Electrophysiology is a technology used to study the electrical properties of biological cells and tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • laboratories
  • The BSC is a non-profit organization, incorporated in the State of New York, for the purpose of ensuring a supply of high quality stains (mostly dyes) for use in biological and medical laboratories. (wikipedia.org)
  • activity
  • Ellman's assay is the most commonly used method to measure cholinesterase activity. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Early estimates of CCK-like activity in blood were based on biological assays such as pancreatic secretion or gallbladder contraction. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • MacLeod, over a number of years of research, had resolved several thorny technical issues to render the experimental system somewhat more reliable as an assay for biological activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • the mass or volume that constitutes one international unit varies based on which substance is being measured, and the variance is based on the biological activity or effect, for the purpose of easier comparison across substances. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vitamin C: 1 IU is 50 μg L-ascorbic acid Vitamin D: The biological activity of 40 IU is equal to 1 μg Vitamin E: 1 IU is the biological equivalent of about 0.667 mg d-alpha-tocopherol (2/3 mg exactly), or of 0.45 mg of dl-alpha-tocopherol acetate. (wikipedia.org)
  • involve
  • But generally, assays involve biological material or phenomena which tend to be intrinsically more complex either in composition or in behavior or both. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus reading of an assay may be quite noisy and may involve greater difficulties in interpretation than an accurate chemical titration. (wikipedia.org)
  • measurable
  • The biological response u {\displaystyle u} is in this case the zone of inhibition and the diameter of this zone f ( u ) {\displaystyle f(u)} can be used as the measurable response. (wikipedia.org)
  • The stimulus/standard sufficiently produces measurable and specific response. (wikipedia.org)
  • microorganisms
  • The biological material in which the effect is measured can range from subcellular components and microorganisms to groups of animals. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • ATCC or the American Type Culture Collection is a nonprofit organization which collects, stores, and distributes standard reference microorganisms, cell lines and other materials for research and development. (wikipedia.org)
  • ATCC's collections include a wide range of biological materials for research, including cell lines, microorganisms and bioproducts. (wikipedia.org)
  • dyes
  • Its origins date from 1922, when vendors of biological stains in the USA had exhausted their stocks of pre-war dyes imported from Germany. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • Typically, digoxigenin is introduced chemically (conjugation) into biomolecules (proteins, nucleic acids) to be detected in further assays. (wikipedia.org)
  • intensive
  • Rather than using results from tens or hundreds of completed assays, which is resource intensive and not easily extensible, we use high-dimensional image-based cell morphology and gene expression profiles. (jove.com)
  • material
  • This includes the 18,000 sq ft (1,700 m2) biological material repository which contains 200 freezers to store biomaterials, including vapor-phase liquid nitrogen freezers, mechanical freezers, and cold rooms for storage at 4°C. Electricity at the repository is backed up by on-site generators. (wikipedia.org)
  • The tests include "fingerprinting" using spectroscopy or chromatography, chemical or biological assays, and process controls on raw material collection and processing. (wikipedia.org)
  • The United States National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses the trade marked term Standard Reference Material (SRM) to denote a certified reference material that satisfies additional NIST-specific criteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • experiments
  • The standards then provide specifications what information about the experiments (metadata) is crucial and important to be reported together with the resultant data to make it comprehensive. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was published by the FGED Society in 2001 and was the first published minimum information standard for high-throughput experiments in the life sciences. (wikipedia.org)
  • laboratory
  • These standards are used by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the U.S. Department of Agriculture, as well as organizations such as AOAC International, the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, the U.S. Pharmacopeia, and the World Health Organization. (wikipedia.org)
  • Quality management systems involving laboratory accreditation under national and international accreditation/certification standards such as ISO/IEC 17025 require metrological traceability to Certified Reference Materials (where possible) when using reference materials for calibration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the assay itself (the analytic step) gets much attention, steps that get less attention by the chain of users, i.e. the preanalytic and the post analytic steps, are often less stringently regulated and generally more prone to errors - e.g. preanalytic steps in medical laboratory assays may contribute to 32-75% of all lab errors. (wikipedia.org)
  • The assays and other tests used in the Commission's laboratory are all published, making the required standards known to both vendors and users of biological stains (Penney et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • routine
  • Assays have become a routine part of modern medical, environmental, pharmaceutical, forensic and many other businesses at various scales from industrial to curbside or field level. (wikipedia.org)
  • modification
  • Part of this workstream's task is to explore the existing standard space and perhaps find a way to bootstrap this project by simple modification of existing standards if they indeed exist or are available. (pistoiaalliance.org)
  • We do not intend to create a new standard where there is already an existing one or where a simple modification could do the job. (pistoiaalliance.org)
  • Typically
  • Typically, nitrocellulose slides have a thin, opaque film of nitrocellulose on a standard 25mm × 75 mm glass microscope slide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Typically the evaluation of relative biological effectiveness is done on various types of living cells grown in culture medium, including prokaryotic cells such as bacteria, simple eukaryotic cells such as single celled plants, and advanced eukaryotic cells derived from organisms such as rats. (wikipedia.org)
  • Development
  • Overall, this one-day immersive symposium will outline a product life cycle approach for developing and implementing biological assays from preclinical studies to clinical development. (immunogenicitysummit.com)
  • I certainly can see the need to develop systems to integrate different data types into a "biomarker signature", the creation of controlled vocabularies for metadata which might work as part of existing standards, or the development of other meta-standards. (pistoiaalliance.org)
  • ATCC-produced standards are used in a wide range of applications including the development of therapeutic and diagnostic medical products, food safety, water and environmental testing, and to obtain actionable forensic information. (wikipedia.org)
  • Those assays that are very highly commercially demanded have been well investigated in research and development sectors of professional industries, undergone generations of development and sophistication, and become copyrighted intellectual properties via highly competitive process patenting. (wikipedia.org)
  • The development of minimum information standards of different methods is since 2008 being harmonized by "Minimum Information about a Biomedical or Biological Investigation" (MIBBI) project. (wikipedia.org)
  • novel
  • We applied our method to data from novel cell-based gene-expression and imaging assays collected on more than 30,000 small molecules. (jove.com)
  • efficacy
  • The BSC's certification label on a bottle of dye indicates that the contents are from a batch that passed the tests for chemical purity and for efficacy as a biological stain. (wikipedia.org)
  • often
  • It is often assumed that chemical structure diversity leads to diverse biological performance of a library. (jove.com)
  • Standard solutions and gas mixtures, often prepared gravimetrically from pure substances. (wikipedia.org)
  • In radiobiology, the relative biological effectiveness (often abbreviated as RBE) is the ratio of biological effectiveness of one type of ionizing radiation relative to another, given the same amount of absorbed energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • quality
  • test the quality of", from Anglo-French assaier, from assai (n.), from Old French essai "trial", and the noun assay thus means "trial, test of quality, test of character", mid-14th century, from Anglo-French assai and the meaning "analysis" is from the late 14th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • methods
  • The minimum information standard is a set of guidelines for reporting data derived by relevant methods in biosciences. (wikipedia.org)
  • data
  • If that is the case I am wondering why we are focusing on data exchange standards. (pistoiaalliance.org)
  • Since pharma is now more focused on managing large amounts of parallel collaborations, managing all of these data without standards is a problem. (pistoiaalliance.org)
  • We propose the Minimum Information About a Cellular Assay (MIACA) for reporting a cellular assay, and CA-OM, the modular cellular assay object model, to facilitate exchange of data and accompanying information, and to compare and integrate data that originate from different, albeit complementary approaches, and to elucidate higher order principles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Medical
  • There are also informal presentations and exchanges of information among academic biologists, medical scientists, pathologists, and representatives of companies that manufacture and sell biological stains. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1935. (with Frank Yates) Statistical Tables for Biological Agricultural and Medical Research. (wikipedia.org)
  • preparations
  • For example, "three international units per litre" may be abbreviated "3 U/L".) Many biological agents exist in different forms or preparations (e.g. vitamin A in the form of retinol or beta-carotene). (wikipedia.org)
  • The goal of the IU is to be able to compare these, so that different forms or preparations with the same biological effect will contain the same number of IUs. (wikipedia.org)
  • further
  • The information communication (e.g. request to perform an assay and further information processing) or specimen handling (e.g. collection, transport and processing) that are done until the beginning of an assay are the preanalytic steps. (wikipedia.org)