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  • Proteins
  • In SDSL, sites for attachment of spin labels are introduced into recombinantly expressed proteins by site-directed mutagenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Today, researchers focus on specialized topics, such as the design and synthesis of molecular magnets or other model systems in order to understand and harness the fundamental principles behind phenomena such as the relation between magnetism and chemical reactivity as well as microstructure related mechanical properties of metals and the biochemical impact of spin (e. g. photoreceptor proteins) and spin transport. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nucleic acids also tend to have resonances distributed over a smaller range than proteins, making the spectra potentially more crowded and difficult to interpret. (wikipedia.org)
  • nuclei
  • All nuclei that have nonzero spin also possess a nonzero magnetic moment and vice versa, although the connection between the two quantities is not straightforward or easy to calculate. (wikipedia.org)
  • The magnetic moment is calculated through j, l and s of the unpaired nucleon, but nuclei are not in states of well defined l and s. (wikipedia.org)
  • The quantized difference between energy levels corresponding to different orientations of the nuclear spin Δ E = γ ℏ B {\displaystyle \Delta E=\gamma \hbar B} . The ratio of nuclei in the lower energy state, with spin aligned to the external magnetic field, is determined by the Boltzmann distribution. (wikipedia.org)
  • physics
  • Whereas the physics of spin engineering dates back to the groundbreaking findings of quantum chemistry and physics within the first decades of the 20th century, the chemical aspects of spin engineering have received attention especially within the last twenty years. (wikipedia.org)
  • novel
  • In addition, spin engineering exploits the functionality of spin to design materials with novel properties as well as to provide a better understanding and advanced applications of conventional material systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • external magnetic field
  • If the spin-orbit interaction dominates over the effect of the external magnetic field, L → {\displaystyle \scriptstyle {\vec {L}}} and S → {\displaystyle \scriptstyle {\vec {S}}} are not separately conserved, only the total angular momentum J → = L → + S → {\displaystyle \scriptstyle {\vec {J}}={\vec {L}}+{\vec {S}}} is. (wikipedia.org)
  • displaystyle
  • In ultra-strong magnetic fields, the magnetic-field interaction may exceed H 0 {\displaystyle H_{0}} , in which case the atom can no longer exist in its normal meaning, and one talks about Landau levels instead. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gyromagnetic ratio, expressed in Larmor precession frequency f = γ 2 π B {\displaystyle f={\frac {\gamma }{2\pi }}B} , is of great relevance to nuclear magnetic resonance analysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolic
  • In particular, we found that compared with metabolite concentrations and metabolite spin-spin relaxation time, the metabolic ratios presented the highest sensitivity in differentiating normal tissue from tumors, as well as in distinguishing between tumor groups. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Here, we have used Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy directly on cells (metabolic fingerprinting) to monitor bacterial response to the absence and presence of toluene, along with the influence of divalent cations present in the growth media. (mdpi.com)
  • detect
  • MRFM uses a cantilever tipped with a ferromagnetic (iron cobalt) particle to directly detect a modulated spin gradient force between sample spins and the tip. (wikipedia.org)
  • static magnetic
  • Dutch pronunciation: [ˈzeːmɑn]), named after the Dutch physicist Pieter Zeeman, is the effect of splitting a spectral line into several components in the presence of a static magnetic field. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mechanical Field Cycling moves the sample between two positions with different (static) magnetic fields. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mechanical Field Cycling can be done using static magnetic fields whereas switchable fields are needed for Electrical Field Cycling. (wikipedia.org)
  • quantum
  • Heteronuclear single quantum coherence spectroscopy (HSQC) Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy Triple-resonance nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy Witanowski, M (1974). (wikipedia.org)
  • Spin engineering describes the control and manipulation of quantum spin systems to develop devices and materials. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of the basic importance of quantum spin for physical and chemical processes, spin engineering is relevant for a wide range of scientific and technological applications. (wikipedia.org)
  • The aim of this article is to provide an outline of fields of research and development where the focus is on the properties and applications of quantum spin. (wikipedia.org)
  • As spin is one of the fundamental quantum properties of elementary particles it is relevant for a large range of physical and chemical phenomena. (wikipedia.org)
  • Spin engineering in its generic sense became possible only after the first experimental characterization of spin in the Stern-Gerlach experiment in 1922 followed by the development of relativistic quantum mechanics by Paul Dirac. (wikipedia.org)
  • uses
  • Field Cycling (FC) is a measurement method which uses variable magnetic fields to measure the magnetization of a sample. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fast Field Cycling describes the same method but uses fast switchable magnetic fields. (wikipedia.org)
  • field
  • In the rapidly growing field of metabolomics, a comprehensive book describing the state of the art in the application of NMR spectroscopy will be a key title for practitioners. (rsc.org)
  • Since the distance between the Zeeman sub-levels is a function of the magnetic field, this effect can be used to measure the magnetic field, e.g. that of the Sun and other stars or in laboratory plasmas. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conventional MRI employs an inductive coil as an antenna to sense resonant nuclear or electronic spins in a magnetic field gradient. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, multiplying the dimensionless g-factor by the nuclear magneton (6992315245125500000♠3.1524512550(15)×10−8 eV·T−1) and the applied magnetic field, and dividing by Boltzmann's constant (6995861733030000000♠8.6173303(50)×10−5 eV⋅K−1) and the Kelvin temperature. (wikipedia.org)
  • ferromagnetic
  • Thus, the engineering of ferromagnetic materials like mu-metals or Alnico at the beginning of the last century can be considered as early examples of spin engineering, although the concept of spin was not yet known at that time. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • It is useful for molecules of up to 100 nucleotides, and as of 2003, nearly half of all known RNA structures had been determined by NMR spectroscopy. (wikipedia.org)
  • spectrum
  • Because spin labels are exquisitely sensitive to motion, this has profound effects on its EPR spectrum. (wikipedia.org)
  • chemical
  • Many chemical reactions are devised to create bulk materials or single molecules with well defined spin properties, such as a single-molecule magnet. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbon-13 NMR overcomes this disadvantage by larger range of chemical shifts and special techniques allowing to block carbon-proton spin coupling, thus making all carbon signals high and narrow singlets distinguishable from each other. (wikipedia.org)
  • sense
  • With the spin precession phenomenon, the sign of γ determines the sense (clockwise vs counterclockwise) of precession. (wikipedia.org)
  • radical
  • The radical pair mechanism is a leading hypothesis in animal magnetic navigation. (searxiv.org)
  • Magnetic field effect in the geminate recombination of radical ion pairs: possible pitfalls in microsecond measurements of triplet reaction products. (mpg.de)
  • EPR can also be used in conjunction with a spin-labeled protein, in which a stable radical is used to label a specific location within a protein, which can then be monitored dynamically for changes in structure. (news-medical.net)
  • The intermediate has been produced by reaction of oxygen radical anions with acetone and studied by photoelectron spectroscopy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ferromagnetic
  • Thus, the engineering of ferromagnetic materials like mu-metals or Alnico at the beginning of the last century can be considered as early examples of spin engineering, although the concept of spin was not yet known at that time. (wikipedia.org)
  • fields
  • Fast Field Cycling describes the same method but uses fast switchable magnetic fields. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mechanical Field Cycling moves the sample between two positions with different (static) magnetic fields. (wikipedia.org)
  • He pioneered the use of infra-red gas lasers combined with high magnetic fields to carry out cyclotron resonance and impurity spectroscopy measurements. (wikipedia.org)
  • The aim of this article is to provide an outline of fields of research and development where the focus is on the properties and applications of quantum spin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Spintronics is probably one of the most advanced fields of spin engineering with many important inventions which can be found in end-user devices like the reading heads for magnetic hard disk drives. (wikipedia.org)
  • particle
  • For instance, the orbit and spin of a single particle can interact through spin-orbit interaction, in which case the complete physical picture must include spin-orbit coupling. (wikipedia.org)
  • properties
  • He also investigated the spin and giant magnetoresistance properties of the narrow gap III-V compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, spin engineering exploits the functionality of spin to design materials with novel properties as well as to provide a better understanding and advanced applications of conventional material systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • importance
  • Because of the basic importance of quantum spin for physical and chemical processes, spin engineering is relevant for a wide range of scientific and technological applications. (wikipedia.org)
  • Current
  • Current projects in astrochemistry involve both laboratory microwave spectroscopy and observations made using modern radiotelescopes such as the Atacama Large Millimetre Array (ALMA). (wikipedia.org)