• nuclei
  • iii) Developing nuclei with small magnetic moments - termed low-g - especially those from Group IIA ( 25 Mg, 43 Ca, 87 Sr) which have application to many chemically interesting problems. (lancaster.ac.uk)
  • All nuclei that have nonzero spin also possess a nonzero magnetic moment and vice versa, although the connection between the two quantities is not straightforward or easy to calculate. (wikipedia.org)
  • The magnetic moment is calculated through j, l and s of the unpaired nucleon, but nuclei are not in states of well defined l and s. (wikipedia.org)
  • The quantized difference between energy levels corresponding to different orientations of the nuclear spin Δ E = γ ℏ B {\displaystyle \Delta E=\gamma \hbar B} . The ratio of nuclei in the lower energy state, with spin aligned to the external magnetic field, is determined by the Boltzmann distribution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins
  • In SDSL, sites for attachment of spin labels are introduced into recombinantly expressed proteins by site-directed mutagenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Today, researchers focus on specialized topics, such as the design and synthesis of molecular magnets or other model systems in order to understand and harness the fundamental principles behind phenomena such as the relation between magnetism and chemical reactivity as well as microstructure related mechanical properties of metals and the biochemical impact of spin (e. g. photoreceptor proteins) and spin transport. (wikipedia.org)
  • physics
  • Whereas the physics of spin engineering dates back to the groundbreaking findings of quantum chemistry and physics within the first decades of the 20th century, the chemical aspects of spin engineering have received attention especially within the last twenty years. (wikipedia.org)
  • novel
  • In addition, spin engineering exploits the functionality of spin to design materials with novel properties as well as to provide a better understanding and advanced applications of conventional material systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • cobalt
  • MRFM uses a cantilever tipped with a ferromagnetic (iron cobalt) particle to directly detect a modulated spin gradient force between sample spins and the tip. (wikipedia.org)
  • detection
  • To lift the restraint of spin 1 found in 14N, 15N NMR is employed in samples for detection since it has a ground-state spin of ½. (wikipedia.org)
  • quantum
  • Heteronuclear single quantum coherence spectroscopy (HSQC) Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy Triple-resonance nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy Witanowski, M (1974). (wikipedia.org)
  • Spin engineering describes the control and manipulation of quantum spin systems to develop devices and materials. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of the basic importance of quantum spin for physical and chemical processes, spin engineering is relevant for a wide range of scientific and technological applications. (wikipedia.org)
  • The aim of this article is to provide an outline of fields of research and development where the focus is on the properties and applications of quantum spin. (wikipedia.org)
  • As spin is one of the fundamental quantum properties of elementary particles it is relevant for a large range of physical and chemical phenomena. (wikipedia.org)
  • Spin engineering in its generic sense became possible only after the first experimental characterization of spin in the Stern-Gerlach experiment in 1922 followed by the development of relativistic quantum mechanics by Paul Dirac. (wikipedia.org)
  • static magnetic
  • Dutch pronunciation: [ˈzeːmɑn]), named after the Dutch physicist Pieter Zeeman, is the effect of splitting a spectral line into several components in the presence of a static magnetic field. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mechanical Field Cycling moves the sample between two positions with different (static) magnetic fields. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mechanical Field Cycling can be done using static magnetic fields whereas switchable fields are needed for Electrical Field Cycling. (wikipedia.org)
  • ratio
  • Moreover, our results strongly indicate that the resonance ratio of inositol (at 4.05 ppm) to creatine may help distinguish tumor type. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The signal to noise ratio for 1H is about 300 fold greater than 15N at the same magnetic field. (wikipedia.org)
  • dynamics
  • Since then, a variety of nitroxide spin labels have enjoyed widespread use for the study of macromolecular structure and dynamics because of their stability and simple EPR signal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Spin Dynamics. (wikipedia.org)
  • temperature
  • Thus, multiplying the dimensionless g-factor by the nuclear magneton (6992315245125500000♠3.1524512550(15)×10−8 eV·T−1) and the applied magnetic field, and dividing by Boltzmann's constant (6995861733030000000♠8.6173303(50)×10−5 eV⋅K−1) and the Kelvin temperature. (wikipedia.org)
  • relaxation
  • In particular, we found that compared with metabolite concentrations and metabolite spin-spin relaxation time, the metabolic ratios presented the highest sensitivity in differentiating normal tissue from tumors, as well as in distinguishing between tumor groups. (aacrjournals.org)
  • measurement
  • Twenty-eight endurance-trained and 27 sedentary adults, aged 40-65 years, underwent general health assessment, cardiorespiratory fitness measurement, neuropsychological testing, and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H MRS). 1 H MRS was used to examine N -acetyl-aspartate (NAA), creatine (Cr), myo-inositol (mI), choline (Cho), and glutamate (Glu) concentrations in frontal and occipitoparietal grey matter. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Field Cycling (FC) is a measurement method which uses variable magnetic fields to measure the magnetization of a sample. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • Thus, the engineering of ferromagnetic materials like mu-metals or Alnico at the beginning of the last century can be considered as early examples of spin engineering, although the concept of spin was not yet known at that time. (wikipedia.org)
  • theory
  • A theory about the magnetic sense of birds assumes that a protein in the retina is changed due to the Zeeman effect. (wikipedia.org)
  • The theory of SDSL is based on the specific reaction of spin labels with amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • techniques
  • Carbon-13 NMR overcomes this disadvantage by larger range of chemical shifts and special techniques allowing to block carbon-proton spin coupling, thus making all carbon signals high and narrow singlets distinguishable from each other. (wikipedia.org)
  • field
  • Since the distance between the Zeeman sub-levels is a function of the magnetic field, this effect can be used to measure the magnetic field, e.g. that of the Sun and other stars or in laboratory plasmas. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fast Field Cycling describes the same method but uses fast switchable magnetic fields. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conventional MRI employs an inductive coil as an antenna to sense resonant nuclear or electronic spins in a magnetic field gradient. (wikipedia.org)
  • functional
  • Fourier Transformer Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) has been utilized for studying the functional groups of the prepared structures. (mdpi.com)
  • Functional groups contained within the spin label determine their specificity. (wikipedia.org)
  • chemical
  • Many chemical reactions are devised to create bulk materials or single molecules with well defined spin properties, such as a single-molecule magnet. (wikipedia.org)
  • sense
  • With the spin precession phenomenon, the sign of γ determines the sense (clockwise vs counterclockwise) of precession. (wikipedia.org)
  • local
  • Once incorporated into the protein, a spin label's motions are dictated by its local environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • moments
  • The methods for measuring nuclear magnetic moments can be divided into two broad groups in regard to the interaction with internal or external applied fields. (wikipedia.org)
  • fields
  • At higher magnetic fields the effect ceases to be linear. (wikipedia.org)
  • Spintronics is probably one of the most advanced fields of spin engineering with many important inventions which can be found in end-user devices like the reading heads for magnetic hard disk drives. (wikipedia.org)