• neurons
  • This result demonstrates that an increased activity of non-painful sensory neurons can enhance the production of reactive oxygen species within the central second order sensory nuclei. (unicampania.it)
  • Alonso A, Blanco MJ, Paino CL, Rubia FJ (1986) Distribution of neurons in the main cuneate nucleus projecting to the inferior olive in the cat. (springer.com)
  • Previous studies by our group have shown that vasopressin and oxytocin (OT) projections from parvocellular neurons of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) to the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) are involved in both reflex control of the heart and heart rate adjustments during dynamic exercise. (ahajournals.org)
  • The facial motor nucleus is a collection of neurons in the brainstem that belong to the facial nerve (cranial nerve VII). (wikipedia.org)
  • Like all lower motor neurons, cells of the facial motor nucleus receive cortical input from the primary motor cortex in the frontal lobe of the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Upper motor neurons of the cortex send axons that descend through the internal capsule and synapse on neurons in the facial motor nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • In other words, this means lower motor neurons of the facial nerve can leave either from the left anterior, left posterior, right anterior or right posterior facial motor nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • cerebellar nuclei
  • Clark GA, McCormick DA, Lavond DG, Baxter K, Gray W, Thompson RF (1982) Effects of electrolytic lesions of cerebellar nuclei on conditioned behavioral and hippocampal neuronal respnses. (springer.com)
  • Dietrichs E, Bjaalie J, Brodal P (1983) Do pontocerebellar fibers send collaterals to the cerebellar nuclei? (springer.com)
  • In this chapter, we will review the morphology and the circuitry of the cerebellar nuclei and the inferior olive and the recurrent pathways connecting them. (springer.com)
  • Embedded within the white matter-which is sometimes called the arbor vitae (Tree of Life) in the cerebellum because of its branched, tree-like appearance-are four deep cerebellar nuclei. (wikipedia.org)
  • parasympathetic
  • The Gi-LPGi also projects to spinal autonomic regions, i.e., both the intermediolateral cell column and the sacral parasympathetic nucleus, as well as to regions of the intermediate gray, which contain interneurons involved in the organization of pelvic floor reflexes. (jove.com)
  • The facial motor nucleus serve motor control of the muscles of facial expression and the stapedius muscle of the ear, while the superior salivary nucleus controls the secretion of saliva and tears through parasympathetic innervation of structures including the lacrimal gland and the mucosal glands of the nose, palate, and pharynx. (wikipedia.org)
  • nerve
  • In addition to the trigeminal nerve (CN V), the facial (CN VII), glossopharyngeal (CN IX), and vagus nerves (CN X) also convey pain information from their areas to the spinal trigeminal nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Spinal glial reaction and proinflammatory cytokine induction play an important role in the development of chronic pain states after tissue and nerve injury. (jneurosci.org)
  • The gray matter of this nucleus is covered by a layer of nerve fibers that form the spinal tract of the trigeminal nerve . (wikipedia.org)
  • The three major branches of the trigeminal nerve-the ophthalmic nerve (V1), the maxillary nerve (V2) and the mandibular nerve (V3)-converge on the trigeminal ganglion (also called the semilunar ganglion or gasserian ganglion), located within Meckel's cave and containing the cell bodies of incoming sensory-nerve fibers. (wikipedia.org)
  • The areas of cutaneous distribution (dermatomes) of the three branches of the trigeminal nerve have sharp borders with relatively little overlap (unlike dermatomes in the rest of the body, which have considerable overlap). (wikipedia.org)
  • The sensory function of the trigeminal nerve is to provide tactile, proprioceptive, and nociceptive afference to the face and mouth. (wikipedia.org)
  • The trigeminal nerve carries general somatic afferent fibers (GSA), which innervate the skin of the face via ophthalmic (V1), maxillary (V2) and mandibular (V3) divisions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The trigeminal nerve also carries special visceral efferent (SVE) axons, which innervate the muscles of mastication via the mandibular (V3) division. (wikipedia.org)
  • The motor component of the mandibular division (V3) of the trigeminal nerve controls the movement of eight muscles, including the four muscles of mastication: the masseter, the temporal and the medial and lateral pterygoids. (wikipedia.org)
  • The principal sensory nucleus of the trigeminal nerve represents touch and position information of the head and face, but not the neck or back of the head, which are innervated by the cervical nerves. (wikipedia.org)
  • The facial motor nucleus and the superior salivary nucleus of the facial nerve are located within the pontine tegmentum. (wikipedia.org)
  • cord
  • Our results demonstrated that, although a high density of arborizations from Gi-LPGi fibers appears to be in close apposition to pudendal MNs, this relationship also applies to other MNs throughout the entire spinal cord. (jove.com)
  • citation needed] It receives direct input from the mechanoreceptors of the upper body as well as indirect input from them via the spinal cord. (wikipedia.org)
  • KORs are widely distributed in the brain, spinal cord (substantia gelatinosa), and in peripheral tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • sensory
  • Thanks to the number of different nuclei located within the pontine tegmentum, it is a region associated with a range of functions including sensory and motor functions (due to the cranial nuclei and fiber tracts), control of stages of sleep and levels of arousal and vigilance (due to the ascending cholinergic systems), and some aspects of respiratory control. (wikipedia.org)
  • Projections
  • We have previously shown that exercise training activates nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) oxytocinergic projections, resulting in blunted exercise tachycardia. (ahajournals.org)
  • fibers
  • As a result of the corticobulbar input to the facial motor nucleus, an upper motor neuron lesion to fibers innervating the facial motor nucleus results in central seven. (wikipedia.org)
  • hippocampus
  • there is also a fairly high density of receptors located in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, nucleus accumbens and putamen", and "disruptions to other brain regions could also explain the consciousness-altering effects [of salvinorin A]". In supplementation of the above, according to Addy et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • cerebellum
  • At the level of gross anatomy, the cerebellum consists of a tightly folded and crumpled layer of cortex, with white matter underneath, several deep nuclei embedded in the white matter, and a fluid-filled ventricle in the middle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The four deep nuclei of the cerebellum are the dentate, emboliform, globose, and fastigii nuclei and they act as the main centers of communication, sending and receiving information to and from specific parts of the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • widely
  • The pontine tegmentum contains two predominately cholinergic nuclei, the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) and the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus, which project widely throughout the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • projection
  • Andersson G, Oscarsson O (1978) Climbing fiber microzones in cerebellar vermis and their projection to different groups of cells in the lateral vestibular nucleus. (springer.com)
  • muscles
  • By contrast, a lower motor neuron lesion to the facial motor nucleus results in paralysis of facial muscles on the same side of the injury. (wikipedia.org)