• neurons
  • Chronic treatment of male mice, but not female mice, with l -BOAA resulted in loss of complex I activity and vacuolation and dendritic swelling of neurons in the motor cortex and lumbar cord, paralleling the regionality of the aforementioned biochemical effects on CNS mitochondria. (jneurosci.org)
  • have shown the involvement of upper motor neurons, degeneration of anterior horn cells, and loss of axons in the pyramidal tracts in the lumbar spinal cord in humans affected by neurolathyrism. (jneurosci.org)
  • Spinal cord neurons active during locomotion are innervated by descending axons that release the monoamines serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE) and these neurons express monoaminergic receptor subtypes implicated in the control of locomotion. (frontiersin.org)
  • These gradual changes in space and time of monoamine concentrations high enough to strongly activate various receptors subtypes on locomotor activated neurons further suggest that during MLR-evoked locomotion, monoamine action is, in part, mediated by extrasynaptic neurotransmission in the spinal cord. (frontiersin.org)
  • The spinal cord functions primarily in the transmission of nerve signals from the motor cortex to the body, and from the afferent fibers of the sensory neurons to the sensory cortex. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumors
  • The study aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of intraoperative monitoring of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) for predicting changes in the neurological status of patients with cervical spinal cord tumors in the early postoperative period. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • The study included 74 patients with intradural cervical spinal cord tumors who were operated on using motor evoked potential monitoring in the period from 2013 to 2016. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Neuro-oncology is the study of brain and spinal cord neoplasms, many of which are (at least eventually) very dangerous and life-threatening (astrocytoma, glioma, glioblastoma multiforme, ependymoma, pontine glioma, and brain stem tumors are among the many examples of these). (wikipedia.org)
  • The rapid growth of fast-growing high-grade brain tumors may damage the subcortical network essential for electrical transmission, whereas slow-growing tumors have been suggested to induce partial deafferentation of cortical regions, causing denervation hypersensitivity and producing an epileptogenic milieu. (wikipedia.org)
  • canal
  • Cells which line the ventricles, and are located in the region of the obliterated central canal of the spinal cord. (brainscape.com)
  • This condition occurs in the presence of an osseous (bone), cartilaginous or fibrous septum in the central portion of the spinal canal which then produces a complete or incomplete sagittal division of the spinal cord into two hemicords. (wikipedia.org)
  • arise
  • Caudally, blood to the anterior cord is provided by radicular arteries which arise from the aorta at multiple levels and anastomose with dural branches posteriorly. (psychiatryadvisor.com)
  • Acquired or iatrogenic dermoids may arise from the implantation of epidermal tissue into the subdural space i.e. spinal cutaneous inclusion, during needle puncture (e.g. lumbar puncture) or during surgical procedures on closure of a dysraphic malformation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The subependymoma, a variant of the ependymoma, is apt to arise in the fourth ventricle but may occur in the septum pellucidum and the cervical spinal cord. (wikipedia.org)
  • These arise from the spinal cord. (wikipedia.org)
  • diagnosis
  • 18 years of age) who underwent surgery for closed spinal dysraphism and did not have FFT as the primary diagnosis. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Given the key role of electrodiagnostic testing in the diagnosis of acute and chronic radiculopathies, the American Association of Neuromuscular & Electrodiagnostic Medicine has issued evidence-based practice guidelines, for the diagnosis of both cervical and lumbosacral radiculopathies. (wikipedia.org)
  • dural
  • Arterial blood originating from the dural fistula enters the venous system, increasing pressure and impairing normal drainage from the cord parenchyma. (medscape.com)
  • Dural ectasia is widening or ballooning of the dural sac surrounding the spinal cord. (wikipedia.org)
  • The following definitions may help to understand some of the related entities: Diastematomyelia (di·a·stem·a·to·my·elia) is a congenital anomaly, often associated with spina bifida, in which the spinal cord is split into halves by a bony spicule or fibrous band, each half being surrounded by a dural sac. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diplomyelia (diplo.my.elia) is a true duplication of spinal cord in which these are two dural sacs with two pairs of anterior and posterior nerve roots. (wikipedia.org)
  • In most of the symptomatic patients, the spinal cord is split into halves by a bony spicule or fibrous band, each half being surrounded by a dural sac. (wikipedia.org)
  • segments
  • Smaller blood vessels with thickened fibrotic walls also are present within the affected spinal cord segments (see the image below). (medscape.com)
  • abnormalities
  • It is contraindicated in patients with clotting abnormalities, spinal dysraphism with tethered cord syndrome, meningomyelocele, and following spinal surgery with instrumentation. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • The onset in middle age suggests that the syndrome is acquired, in contrast to other vascular malformations, which are presumed to be congenital abnormalities, although the specificity for the spinal cord is not easily explained. (medscape.com)
  • vascular
  • Despite the highly vascular nature of the cord, there are several conditions that can result is reduced blood flow to the cord. (psychiatryadvisor.com)
  • Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM) is the standard of care during many spinal, vascular, and intracranial surgeries. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Spinal vascular malformations as a group are rare entities and coexistence of spinal arteriovenous malformation in or around the spinal dysraphism is extremely rare. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Herein, we report two cases of combined spinal dysraphism and vascular malformations of the spinal cord. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • meninges
  • Meninges Ten percent of patients with cancer spreading to different parts of the body develop meningeal carcinomatosis, where metastatic seedlings develop in the meninges (outer lining) of both the brain and spinal cord (with possible invasion of the brain or spinal cord). (wikipedia.org)
  • originates
  • citation needed] MPE is a localized and slow-growing low-grade tumor, which originates almost exclusively from the lumbosacral nervous tissue of young patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • dysfunction
  • Global hypotension is likely underappreciated due to the high degree of other end-organ injury and dysfunction that can mask the cord injury. (psychiatryadvisor.com)
  • however, there are a few aspects of the presentation that can suggest that ischemia has a major part in the presentation of spinal cord dysfunction. (psychiatryadvisor.com)
  • Exposure to l -BOAA, but not its optical enantiomer d -BOAA, causes mitochondrial dysfunction as evidenced by loss of complex I activity in vitro in male mouse brain slices and in vivo in selected regions of mouse CNS (lumbosacral cord and motor cortex). (jneurosci.org)
  • This might help to alleviate bladder dysfunction and chronic pain, two major side effects of spinal cord injury . (wvpersonalinjury.com)
  • This over-activity is part of the cause of bladder dysfunction and neuropathic pain in spinal cord injury patients. (wvpersonalinjury.com)
  • posterior
  • We show that, during organogenesis, P450c17 activity is regulated along the antero/posterior axis of the spinal cord concomitantly with the gradient of neurogenesis. (frontiersin.org)
  • In this report, we establish a correlation between the expression and activity of P450c17 and show that P450c17 activity, and thus most likely DHEA biosynthesis, are regulated along the antero/posterior (A/P) axis of the developing spinal cord concomitantly with the gradient of neurogenesis. (frontiersin.org)
  • Masses of enlarged, tortuous, thick-walled subarachnoid veins are observed overlying the surface of the cord (primarily on the posterior aspect). (medscape.com)
  • The lateral cord (fasciculus lateralis) is formed by the upper and middle trunk, all three trunks join to form the posterior cord (fasciculus posterior), the lower trunk continues to the medial trunk (fasciculus medialis). (wikipedia.org)
  • dermoids
  • Various hypotheses have been advanced to explain the pathogenesis of spinal dermoids, the origin of which may be acquired or congenital. (wikipedia.org)
  • cysts
  • Spinal dermoid cysts are benign ectopic growths thought to be a consequence of embryology errors during neural tube closure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fluid pressure may cause cysts to form in the spinal cord, a condition called syringomyelia. (wikipedia.org)
  • acute
  • The true prevalence of cord ischemia is not known, but it is suggested that fewer than 2% of central neurovascular events affect the cord and fewer than 8% of all acute myelopathies have an ischemic component. (psychiatryadvisor.com)
  • Urinary retention is also common, as is seen with other acute cord injuries. (psychiatryadvisor.com)
  • A systematic review found moderate quality evidence that spinal manipulation is effective for the treatment of acute lumbar radiculopathy and cervical radiculopathy. (wikipedia.org)
  • fibers
  • Gait disturbance is typically the initial and most prominent symptom of the triad and may be progressive, due to expansion of the ventricular system, particularly at the level of the lateral ventricles, leading to traction on the corticospinal tract motor fibers descending to the lumbosacral spinal cord. (wikipedia.org)
  • The dementia is thought to result from traction on frontal and limbic fibers that also run in the periventricular region. (wikipedia.org)
  • neural
  • Neural specification and patterning of the CNS are controlled by the combinatory expression of genes in the neural tube during development, establishing a code for neuronal identity in restricted specific regions ( Rubenstein and Beachy, 1998 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Tethered spinal cord syndrome appears to be the result of improper growth of the neural tube during fetal development, and is closely linked to spina bifida. (wikipedia.org)
  • Myeloschisis (my·elos·chi·sis) is a developmental anomaly characterized by a cleft spinal cord, owing to failure of the neural plate to form a complete neural tube or to rupture of the neural tube after closure. (wikipedia.org)
  • During development, the neural tube will considered the precursore to the spinal cord and the rest of the nervous system, eventually becoming the Central Nervous System. (wikipedia.org)
  • syringomyelia
  • For many, arachnoiditis is a disabling disease that causes chronic pain and neurological deficits, and may also lead to other spinal cord conditions, such as syringomyelia. (wikipedia.org)
  • spastic
  • A 39-year-old male, without a history of spinal dysraphism, presented with a progressive spastic quadriparesis. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • usually
  • Diastematomyelia (occasionally diastomyelia) is a congenital disorder in which a part of the spinal cord is split, usually at the level of the upper lumbar vertebra. (wikipedia.org)