• neurons
  • Chronic treatment of male mice, but not female mice, with l -BOAA resulted in loss of complex I activity and vacuolation and dendritic swelling of neurons in the motor cortex and lumbar cord, paralleling the regionality of the aforementioned biochemical effects on CNS mitochondria. (jneurosci.org)
  • have shown the involvement of upper motor neurons, degeneration of anterior horn cells, and loss of axons in the pyramidal tracts in the lumbar spinal cord in humans affected by neurolathyrism. (jneurosci.org)
  • Spinal cord neurons active during locomotion are innervated by descending axons that release the monoamines serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE) and these neurons express monoaminergic receptor subtypes implicated in the control of locomotion. (frontiersin.org)
  • These gradual changes in space and time of monoamine concentrations high enough to strongly activate various receptors subtypes on locomotor activated neurons further suggest that during MLR-evoked locomotion, monoamine action is, in part, mediated by extrasynaptic neurotransmission in the spinal cord. (frontiersin.org)
  • In the DRGs, some of the neurons that stained for MIF also stained for Substance P. In the lumbosacral spinal cord, MIF immunostaining was observed in the white mater, the dorsal horn, the intermediolateral region and in the area around the central canal. (nih.gov)
  • However, some cells in the lumbosacral dorsal horn were MIF positive, GFAP negative cells suggestive of neurons. (nih.gov)
  • The spinal cord functions primarily in the transmission of nerve signals from the motor cortex to the body, and from the afferent fibers of the sensory neurons to the sensory cortex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ventral roots consist of efferent fibers that arise from motor neurons whose cell bodies are found in the ventral (or anterior) gray horns of the spinal cord. (wikipedia.org)
  • Motor neurons are located in the ventral horn of the spinal cord and the brainstem. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumors
  • The study aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of intraoperative monitoring of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) for predicting changes in the neurological status of patients with cervical spinal cord tumors in the early postoperative period. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • The study included 74 patients with intradural cervical spinal cord tumors who were operated on using motor evoked potential monitoring in the period from 2013 to 2016. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Spinal cord ependymoma s are rare neoplasms, comprising approximately 5% of all CNS tumors and 15% of all spinal cord tumor s. (neurocirugia.com)
  • Ependymoma s are the most frequent spinal cord tumors in adult patients. (neurocirugia.com)
  • Neuro-oncology is the study of brain and spinal cord neoplasms, many of which are (at least eventually) very dangerous and life-threatening (astrocytoma, glioma, glioblastoma multiforme, ependymoma, pontine glioma, and brain stem tumors are among the many examples of these). (wikipedia.org)
  • The rapid growth of fast-growing high-grade brain tumors may damage the subcortical network essential for electrical transmission, whereas slow-growing tumors have been suggested to induce partial deafferentation of cortical regions, causing denervation hypersensitivity and producing an epileptogenic milieu. (wikipedia.org)
  • arise
  • It is a disease characterized by a bilateral retinoblastoma (rarely unilateral) occurred in association with an intracranial neuroblastic lesion, which usually arise in the pineal region. (clinmedjournals.org)
  • Acquired or iatrogenic dermoids may arise from the implantation of epidermal tissue into the subdural space i.e. spinal cutaneous inclusion, during needle puncture (e.g. lumbar puncture) or during surgical procedures on closure of a dysraphic malformation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The subependymoma, a variant of the ependymoma, is apt to arise in the fourth ventricle but may occur in the septum pellucidum and the cervical spinal cord. (wikipedia.org)
  • These arise from the spinal cord. (wikipedia.org)
  • posterior
  • Masses of enlarged, tortuous, thick-walled subarachnoid veins are observed overlying the surface of the cord (primarily on the posterior aspect). (medscape.com)
  • Diplomyelia (diplo.my.elia) is a true duplication of spinal cord in which these are two dural sacs with two pairs of anterior and posterior nerve roots. (wikipedia.org)
  • The lateral cord (fasciculus lateralis) is formed by the upper and middle trunk, all three trunks join to form the posterior cord (fasciculus posterior), the lower trunk continues to the medial trunk (fasciculus medialis). (wikipedia.org)
  • intracranial
  • Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM) is the standard of care during many spinal, vascular, and intracranial surgeries. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Trilateral retinoblastoma is a syndrome consisting of bilateral (rarely unilateral) hereditary retinoblastoma in association with an intracranial neuroblastic tumour arising usually in the pineal region, infrequently at the suprasellar or parasellar region. (clinmedjournals.org)
  • Less frequently, the intracranial neuroblastic lesion may be detected at the suprasellar or parasellar region as well [ 1 ]. (clinmedjournals.org)
  • Computed Tomography (CT) scan showed a lobulated, hyperdensed intraocular fundus lesion in the left eye (Figure 1a) as well as a hyperdensed mass with specks of coarse calcification in the suprasellar intracranial mid line region (Figure 1b). (clinmedjournals.org)
  • b) Brain CT shows a hyperdensed mass with specks of coarse calcifications in the suprasellar intracranial midline region. (clinmedjournals.org)
  • Usually, in pediatric cases the location is intracranial, while in adults it is spinal. (wikipedia.org)
  • cysts
  • Spinal dermoid cysts are benign ectopic growths thought to be a consequence of embryology errors during neural tube closure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fluid pressure may cause cysts to form in the spinal cord, a condition called syringomyelia. (wikipedia.org)
  • diagnosis
  • 18 years of age) who underwent surgery for closed spinal dysraphism and did not have FFT as the primary diagnosis. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Given the key role of electrodiagnostic testing in the diagnosis of acute and chronic radiculopathies, the American Association of Neuromuscular & Electrodiagnostic Medicine has issued evidence-based practice guidelines, for the diagnosis of both cervical and lumbosacral radiculopathies. (wikipedia.org)
  • dural
  • Arterial blood originating from the dural fistula enters the venous system, increasing pressure and impairing normal drainage from the cord parenchyma. (medscape.com)
  • Dural ectasia is widening or ballooning of the dural sac surrounding the spinal cord. (wikipedia.org)
  • sensory
  • The presence of neurological deficits and deterioration are not uncommonly associated with spinal cord ependymoma surgery, including sensory loss, dorsal column dysfunction, dysesthetic syndrome, and bowel and bladder dysfunction, particularly in the immediate postoperative period. (neurocirugia.com)
  • In cross-section, the peripheral region of the cord contains neuronal white matter tracts containing sensory and motor axons. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sensory nervous system is part of the somatic nervous system and transmits signals from senses such as taste and touch (including fine touch and gross touch) to the spinal cord and brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • A spinal nerve is a mixed nerve, which carries motor, sensory, and autonomic signals between the spinal cord and the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • segments
  • Smaller blood vessels with thickened fibrotic walls also are present within the affected spinal cord segments (see the image below). (medscape.com)
  • abnormalities
  • It is contraindicated in patients with clotting abnormalities, spinal dysraphism with tethered cord syndrome, meningomyelocele, and following spinal surgery with instrumentation. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • The onset in middle age suggests that the syndrome is acquired, in contrast to other vascular malformations, which are presumed to be congenital abnormalities, although the specificity for the spinal cord is not easily explained. (medscape.com)
  • meninges
  • Meninges Ten percent of patients with cancer spreading to different parts of the body develop meningeal carcinomatosis, where metastatic seedlings develop in the meninges (outer lining) of both the brain and spinal cord (with possible invasion of the brain or spinal cord). (wikipedia.org)
  • congenital
  • Various hypotheses have been advanced to explain the pathogenesis of spinal dermoids, the origin of which may be acquired or congenital. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diastematomyelia (occasionally diastomyelia) is a congenital disorder in which a part of the spinal cord is split, usually at the level of the upper lumbar vertebra. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diastematomyelia is a rare congenital anomaly that results in the "splitting" of the spinal cord in a longitudinal (sagittal) direction. (wikipedia.org)
  • fibers
  • Gait disturbance is typically the initial and most prominent symptom of the triad and may be progressive, due to expansion of the ventricular system, particularly at the level of the lateral ventricles, leading to traction on the corticospinal tract motor fibers descending to the lumbosacral spinal cord. (wikipedia.org)
  • The dementia is thought to result from traction on frontal and limbic fibers that also run in the periventricular region. (wikipedia.org)
  • neural
  • In a recent study, researchers placed neural precursor cells into mice's spinal cords two weeks after the spinal cords had been injured. (wvpersonalinjury.com)
  • Tethered spinal cord syndrome appears to be the result of improper growth of the neural tube during fetal development, and is closely linked to spina bifida. (wikipedia.org)
  • Myeloschisis (my·elos·chi·sis) is a developmental anomaly characterized by a cleft spinal cord, owing to failure of the neural plate to form a complete neural tube or to rupture of the neural tube after closure. (wikipedia.org)
  • During development, the neural tube will considered the precursore to the spinal cord and the rest of the nervous system, eventually becoming the Central Nervous System. (wikipedia.org)
  • syringomyelia
  • For many, arachnoiditis is a disabling disease that causes chronic pain and neurological deficits, and may also lead to other spinal cord conditions, such as syringomyelia. (wikipedia.org)