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  • neurological
  • This may be as small as a small gap between the 2 sides, with no buldging out of membranes or nerves, & no associated handicaps, to a large defect with part of the cord exposed outside the body, leading to paralysis and other neurological problems. (healthtap.com)
  • brain
  • Neural tube defects are a spectrum of disorders that can affect the brain or the spinal cord. (bmj.com)
  • Children's Research Institute and the Center for Neuroscience Research are studying neural stem cells and the development and dysfunction of the social brain. (childrensnational.org)
  • The majority of babies with open spina bifida have a variety of medical problems including nerve damage and problems with motor function, this may include some amount of paralysis of the lower part of their body (this ranges from very mild to quite severe), loss of control of their bowels and bladder, and abnormalities of the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • fetuses
  • Surgeons at Vanderbilt University, led by Dr. Joseph Bruner, attempted to close spina bifida in 4 human fetuses using a skin graft from the mother using specialized telescope called a laparoscope. (wikipedia.org)
  • birth
  • A spectrum of birth defects that result from abnormal neurulation during the first 4 weeks of embryogenesis. (bmj.com)
  • Historically, spina bifida was not detected before birth. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are divided into two main types: structural birth defects in which there is problems with the shape of a body part and functional birth defects in which there is problems with how a body part works. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some birth defects include problems of both types. (wikipedia.org)
  • Birth defects may result from genetic or chromosomal problems, exposure to certain medications or chemicals, or certain infections during pregnancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Birth defects may be visible at birth or diagnosed by screening tests. (wikipedia.org)
  • Birth defects affected about 96 million people as of 2015. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to the CDC, most birth defects are believed to be caused by a complex mix of factors including genetics, environment, and behaviors, though many birth defects have no known cause. (wikipedia.org)
  • An example of a birth defect is cleft palate, which occurs during the fourth and seventh week of gestation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Before birth if a blood test or amniocentesis finds a high level of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), there is a higher risk of spina bifida. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Vietnam and the United States, teratogenic or birth defects were observed in children of persons that were exposed to Agent Orange or 2,4,5-T that contained TCDD as an impurity out of the production process. (wikipedia.org)
  • However the scientific data supporting a causal link between Agent Orange/dioxin exposure and birth defects is controversial and weak, in part due to poor methodology. (wikipedia.org)
  • result
  • For example, mutation of ZIC2 is known to result in holoprosencephaly due to defect in the function of the organizer region (node), which leads to a defective anterior notochord (ANC). (wikipedia.org)
  • Recently ZIC2 has also been shown to be critical for establishment of the left-right axis, thus loss of ZIC2 function can result in defects in heart formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Approximately
  • Approximately 3 weeks after creation of the defect a reversed latissimus dorsi flap was used to cover the exposed neural placode and the animals were delivered by cesarean section just prior term. (wikipedia.org)