• protein
  • Viral sequences from healthy cats were distinct from sick cats on the basis of genetic distances observed in the membrane and nonstructural protein 7b genes. (cdc.gov)
  • In addition, 5 membrane protein amino acid residues with functional potential differentiated healthy cats from cats with FIP. (cdc.gov)
  • Feline and human cells lines show identical rates of cleavage for a known furin target protein (PSCK-9), which contains an active furin cleavage site (Technical Appendix Figure 2). (nih.gov)
  • Cleavage of the mouse hepatitis coronavirus strain A59 spike protein was blocked in a concentration-dependent manner by a peptide furin inhibitor, indicating that furin or a furin-like enzyme is responsible for this process. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • While cell-cell fusion was clearly affected by preventing spike protein cleavage, virus-cell fusion was not, indicating that these events have different requirements. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The mouse hepatitis coronavirus (MHV) spike (S) protein is responsible for attachment to the viral receptor, for virus-cell fusion during viral entry, and for cell-cell fusion during infection. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The combined results directly correlated the extent of cleavage of the spike protein with its ability to induce fusion of cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • A domain in the S spike protein is recognized by pAPN, and transfection of pAPN occurs to nonpermissive cells and infects them with TGEV. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some coronaviruses (specifically the members of Betacoronavirus subgroup A) also have a shorter spike-like protein called hemagglutinin esterase (HE). (wikipedia.org)
  • Coronaviruses also have a protein known as a replicase encoded in its genome which allows the RNA viral genome to be transcribed into new RNA copies using the host cell's machinery. (wikipedia.org)
  • Toroviruses and a select subset of coronaviruses (in particular the members of subgroup A in the genus Betacoronavirus) possess, in addition to the peplomers composed of S, a second type of surface projections composed of the hemagglutinin-esterase protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viral
  • such as younger kittens, old cats, immunosuppression due to viral-FIV (Feline immunodeficiency virus) and/or FeLV Feline leukemia virus and stress, including the stress of separation and adoption. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our studies are focused on a structure-function analysis of the viral spike (S) and its role in virus entry and membrane fusion. (cornell.edu)
  • Coronaviruses can cause pneumonia, either direct viral pneumonia or a secondary bacterial pneumonia, and bronchitis, either direct viral bronchitis or a secondary bacterial bronchitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • Although the expression of MX1 and viperin genes was variable between cats, the expression of these two genes was relatively higher in cats having peritoneal effusion compared to cats without clinically obvious effusion. (beds.ac.uk)
  • genome
  • On April 12, 2003, scientists working at the Michael Smith Genome Sciences Centre in Vancouver, British Columbia finished mapping the genetic sequence of a coronavirus believed to be linked to SARS. (wikipedia.org)
  • SARS is similar to other coronaviruses in that its genome expression starts with translation of two large ORFs, 1a and 1b, both of which are polyproteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Coronaviruses are enveloped viruses with a positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome and with a nucleocapsid of helical symmetry. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Coronavirus genome has a 5' methylated cap and a 3'polyadenylated tail. (wikipedia.org)
  • shed in feces
  • Feline coronavirus is typically shed in feces by healthy cats and transmitted by the fecal-oral route to other cats. (wikipedia.org)
  • The virus is shed in feces and cats become infected by ingesting or inhaling the virus, usually by sharing cat litter trays, or by the use of contaminated litter scoops or brushes transmitting infected microscopic cat litter particles to uninfected kittens and cats. (wikipedia.org)
  • neurological
  • In cases of FIP, almost 10% of the cats develop neurological signs due to development of pyogranulomatous meningoencephalitis and meningomyelitis. (winnfelinefoundation.org)
  • In this study, the goal was to determine sensitivity and specificity of a real-time RT-PCR in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to diagnose FIP in cats with or without neurological and/or ocular signs. (winnfelinefoundation.org)
  • The sensitivity was not as high, 85.7%, for real-time RT-PCR of CSF in cats with neurological and/or ocular signs. (winnfelinefoundation.org)
  • If cats with only neurological and/or ocular FIP are evaluated, then the sensitivity of real-time RT-PCR on CSF is also high enough to where this may be an interesting tool for the diagnosis of neurological FIP. (winnfelinefoundation.org)
  • Typically a cat with dry FIP will show ocular or neurological signs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Kittens
  • When 4 kittens (6 cats in total) are born into this house, the risk increases exponentially from 2 to 30 (62−6). (wikipedia.org)
  • One hot summer day in the clinic where I used to work, a man left a mother cat and her kittens in his car while he came in to ask the receptionist a few questions. (littlebigcat.com)
  • Non-effusive FIP diagnosis should be considered when the following criteria are met: History: the cat is young (under 2 years old) and purebred: over 70% of cases of FIP are in pedigree kittens. (wikipedia.org)
  • viruses
  • Dr Whittaker's laboratory is focused on the entry of influenza viruses, rhaboviurses and coronaviruses into host cells and is funded by research grants from the National Institutes of Health. (cornell.edu)
  • The SARS coronavirus is one of several viruses identified by WHO as a likely cause of a future epidemic in a new plan developed after the Ebola epidemic for urgent research and development before and during an epidemic toward new diagnostic tests, vaccines and medicines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phylogenetic analysis of these viruses indicated a high probability that SARS coronavirus originated in bats and spread to humans either directly or through animals held in Chinese markets. (wikipedia.org)
  • SARS-CoV
  • Prior to the discovery of SARS-CoV, MHV had been the best-studied coronavirus both in vivo and in vitro as well as at the molecular level. (wikipedia.org)
  • causative agent
  • Scientists at Erasmus University in Rotterdam, the Netherlands demonstrated that the SARS coronavirus fulfilled Koch's postulates thereby confirming it as the causative agent. (wikipedia.org)
  • recombinant
  • The most commonly available antiviral drugs for treating FIP are either feline recombinant interferon omega (Virbagen Omega, Virbac) or human interferon. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • Originally, the importance of HCoVs in the burden of human disease was underestimated and as a result, no general therapy exists to treat coronavirus induced disease in humans. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Coronaviruses cause colds in humans primarily in the winter and early spring seasons. (wikipedia.org)
  • typically
  • The particles are typically decorated with large (~20 nm), club- or petal-shaped surface projections (the "peplomers" or "spikes"), which in electron micrographs of spherical particles create an image reminiscent of the solar corona. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetics
  • the immune response of the cat may be able to prevent the development of FIP, and breed and genetics may play a role. (vin.com)
  • disease
  • Isolation of feline coronavirus from two cats with diverse disease manifestations. (nii.ac.jp)
  • No cure for FIP exists and it is an extremely distressing disease to deal with, for both cat owners and veterinary surgeons. (vin.com)
  • Because the median survival time of cats with FIP is 9 days and a FIP diagnosis usually leads to euthanasia of the patient, a reliable diagnostic test is important to be able to confirm the presence of the disease. (winnfelinefoundation.org)
  • Twenty-five control cats were definitively diagnosed with a disease other than FIP. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • The bats did not show any visible signs of disease, but are the likely natural reservoirs of SARS-like coronaviruses. (wikipedia.org)