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  • motility
  • Sperm acquire motility in a subsequent activation step. (biologists.org)
  • and inverse associations between DiNP metabolites and testosterone, between polychlorinated biphenyl-153 and progressive sperm motility, and between a DEHP metabolite and neutral α-glucosidase, a marker of epididymal function. (forskningsdatabasen.dk)
  • The sample should never be obtained through coitus interruptus for several reasons: Some part of ejaculation could be lost, bacterial contamination could happen and the acid vaginal pH could be detrimental for sperm motility. (wikipedia.org)
  • Examples of parameters measured in a semen analysis are: sperm count, motility, morphology, volume, fructose level and pH. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, if the sperm count is very high, then a low motility (for example, less than 60%) might not matter, because the fraction might still be more than 8 million per millilitre. (wikipedia.org)
  • The other way around, a man can have a sperm count far less than 20 million sperm cells per millilitre and still have good motility, if more than 60% of those observed sperm cells show good forward movement. (wikipedia.org)
  • A more specified measure is motility grade, where the motility of sperm are divided into four different grades: Grade a: Sperm with progressive motility. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although it is possible for men to father children into old age, the genetic quality of sperm, as well as its volume and motility, all typically decrease with age. (wikipedia.org)
  • In men with a normal level of sperm production (normozoospermia), the percentage of sperm DNA fragmentation is positively correlated with age, and inversely correlated with progressive sperm motility. (wikipedia.org)
  • While advanced age can be a possible factor in sperm motility and health, the sperm of men below 20 years of age has likewise been linked to an increase in birth defects such as neural tube defects, hypospadias, cystic kidney, and Down syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • spermatogenesis
  • Even with an elevation in temperature of 0.8-1° caused by wearing constrictive underwear, no changes in sperm parameters, no decrease in spermatogenesis, and no changes in sperm function are observed [dubious - discuss] A blow from outside does not affect the sperm quality of already produced sperm cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • LH promotes leydig cell secretion of testosterone into the testes and blood, which induce spermatogenesis and aid the formation of secondary sex characteristics. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosomal
  • In other words, older sperm are less likely to result in a successful pregnancy and, moreover, the cumulative fragmentation of sperm DNA over time increases the likelihood that a small fraction of men will pass on achondroplasia and transmit multiple genetic and chromosomal defects. (wikipedia.org)
  • semen
  • A semen analysis (plural: semen analyses), also called "seminogram" evaluates certain characteristics of a male's semen and the sperm contained therein. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is also commonly used for testing human donors for sperm donation, and for animals semen analysis is commonly used in stud farming and farm animal breeding. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the laboratory level this is rare, as most healthcare providers will not test the semen and sperm unless specifically requested or there is a strong suspicion of a pathology in one of these areas discovered during the medical history or during the physical examination. (wikipedia.org)
  • One source states that 30% of men with a normal semen analysis actually have abnormal sperm function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such a chip may measure the concentration of sperm in a semen sample against a control liquid filled with polystyrene beads. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is the sperm in the semen that are of importance, and therefore semen quality involves both sperm quantity and quality. (wikipedia.org)
  • haploid
  • Recent theoretical models have postulated a role for haploid-diploid conflict and for kin selection favouring sperm cooperation and altruism in the diversification and specialization of sperm form. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • A critical assumption of these models-that haploid gene expression contributes to variation in sperm form-has never been demonstrated and remains contentious. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • By quantifying within-male variation in sperm length using crosses between males and females from populations that had been subjected to divergent experimental selection, we demonstrate that haploid gene expression does not contribute to variation in sperm length in both Drosophila melanogaster and Scathophaga stercoraria . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This finding casts doubt on the importance of haploid-diploid conflict and kin selection as evolutionary influences of sperm phenotypes. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Applying social evolution theory, Immler (2008) , Pizzari & Foster (2008) and Pizzari & Parker (2009) consider the role of haploid-diploid conflict, arising from the disparate fitness interests of males and of individual sperm they produce, and postulate adaptive variation in sperm form arising through selection for sperm altruism, cooperation and spite at the level of individual spermatozoa (also see Parker & Begon 1993 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • These authors correctly point out that critical testing of these ideas includes demonstration that some among-sperm morphological variation is attributable to haploid gene expression. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The extent to which within-ejaculate variation in sperm form and function is a consequence of haploid gene expression, and the target of haploid selection, is an open question ( Joseph & Kirkpatrick 2004 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • After meiosis, the haploid sperm reassemble nuclear envelopes and differentiate into mature sperm. (biologists.org)
  • proteins
  • In mouse ESCs, Sall4 was found to bind the essential stem cell factor, octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (Oct4), in two separate unbiased mass spectrometry (spec) screens Sall4 can also bind other important pluripotency proteins such as Nanog and sex determining region Y (SRY)-box 2 protein (Sox2). (wikipedia.org)
  • precursor
  • Any problems during the progression from precursor cell to sperm or egg can result in infertility or impaired child development, but the signals governing this progression are still incompletely understood. (grantome.com)
  • cells
  • A man can have a total number of sperm far over the limit of 20 million sperm cells per milliliter, but still have bad quality because too few of them are motile. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Xist chromatin binding region was first elucidated in female mouse fibroblastic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The chromatin-binding region was functionally mapped and evaluated by using an approach for studying noncoding RNA function in living cells called peptide nucleic acid (PNA) interference mapping. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • Thus, PSR-induced elimination of the sperm-derived genome compliment converts female-destined embryos into males that carry and transmit PSR. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Secondary
  • Secondary sex ratio, or sex ratio at birth, was evaluated as a function of maternal serum concentrations using log-binomial and logistic regression, controlling for hormonally active medications taken during pregnancy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • concentration
  • Levels of reproductive hormones, the length of the CAG repeat of the androgen receptor gene, sperm concentration, abstinence period and biochemical parameters of epididymal and accessory sex gland secretions were correlated to the SCSA parameters, DNA fragmentation index (DFI) and highly. (lu.se)
  • Sperm count, or sperm concentration to avoid confusion with total sperm count, measures the concentration of sperm in a man's ejaculate, distinguished from total sperm count, which is the sperm count multiplied with volume. (wikipedia.org)
  • males
  • Homozygous mutant males were sub-fertile and both sexes had a decreased number of lumbar and sacral vertebrae. (wikipedia.org)
  • hormones
  • There is suspicion that many toxic substances, including several types of medication and hormones, and also constituents of the diet, influence sperm quality. (wikipedia.org)
  • researchers
  • Most sex researchers still live in fear that the biologically uninformed masses will learn that homosexual orientation is nothing more than another variation of what happens in the context of transgenerational epigenetic inheritance. (rna-mediated.com)
  • Rarely do sex researchers address the ongoing philosophical debate between canonical neo-Darwinism and Biblical creation. (rna-mediated.com)
  • relation
  • This paper examines sex ratio in births occurring between 1964 and 1967 in the San Francisco Bay Area in relation to concentrations of serum polychlorinated biphenyls in archived serum specimens that were collected during the pregnancies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • exposure
  • Few studies at lower environmental exposure levels have reported on sex ratio, and most have not used direct measurements of individual PCBs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 2017
  • A 2017 review and meta-analysis found sperm counts among Western men (i.e. men in Australia, Europe, New Zealand, and North America) declined 50-60% between 1973 and 2011, with an average decline of 1.4% per year. (wikipedia.org)
  • factors
  • CHROMATIN structure can influence transcriptional activity by mediating the accessibility of regulatory factors and polymerase to the gene and surrounding DNA. (genetics.org)
  • There are many factors that influence the sperm quality. (wikipedia.org)
  • reproductive
  • Neutering, from the Latin neuter ("of neither sex"), is the removal of an animal's reproductive organ, either all of it or a considerably large part. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • A vasectomy is considered successful if the sample is azoospermic (zero sperm of any kind found). (wikipedia.org)
  • Flagellate sperm, however, are found in stoneworts (Charales) and Coleochaetales, orders of parenchymatous charophytes that are the closest relatives of the land plants, where flagellate sperm are also present in all except the conifers and flowering plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, the percentage of sperm with highly damaged DNA, comet extent, DNA break number, and other comet measures has been found to be significantly higher in men aged 36-57 years than in those aged 20-35 years. (wikipedia.org)
  • ChIP
  • Through chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) followed by next-generation sequencing or microarray, some SALL4 targets have been identified. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • BET inhibitors such as JQ1 block the region of BRDT responsible for chromatin binding, and cause a reversible reduction of sperm production, sperm quality, and size of the testis in mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • An additional copy of DAX1 in mice leads to sex reversal. (wikipedia.org)
  • different
  • These observations suggest that the interaction of HP1 with chromatin in cis is fundamentally different from that in trans . (genetics.org)
  • Chips for home use are emerging that can give an accurate estimation of sperm count after three samples taken on different days. (wikipedia.org)
  • No age related effects on sperm were noted in separate control groups recruited in different geographical locations, indicating that dietary habits, lifestyle or ethnicity could play a part in the quality of sperm. (wikipedia.org)
  • male
  • Neutering" is often used incorrectly to refer only to male animals, but the term actually applies to both sexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • however
  • however, a hard enough hit can close or crush the capillaries that supply the sperm producing tissue, resulting in permanent or temporary and partial or total inability to produce sperm in the affected testicle. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, others use the concept in a narrower sense, to refer to the individualized portions of chromatin during cell division, visible under light microscopy due to high condensation. (wikipedia.org)
  • less
  • Sometimes symptoms are more prominent and may include weaker muscles, greater height, poor coordination, less body hair, breast growth, and less interest in sex. (wikipedia.org)
  • The decline in sperm count among men in South America, Asia, and Africa is less than men in Western countries, though the amount of decline in these regions is uncertain. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene expression
  • To determine how ploidy level and sex-locus genotype affect gene expression during development, we compared expression patterns between diploid males, haploid males and females (queens) at three developmental timepoints in Solenopsis invicta . (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The finding that ploidy level effects on early gene expression override sex effects (including genes implicated in sperm production and pheromone production/perception) may explain diploid male sterility and lack of worker discrimination against them during development. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Chromatin remodeling in rodent offspring and altered gene expression within the limbic brain regions that may contribute to depression, stress, and anxiety-related disorders in future generations. (wikipedia.org)
  • research group studies the regulation of chromatin structure and function in gene expression and genome organization using the nematode C. elegans as a model to understand development and disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mechanism of action of JQ1 could be explained by considering Brdt's functions as a driver of testis-specific gene expression and post-meiotic chromatin reorganization. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells
  • Other binding partners of SALL4 include promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger protein (PLZF) in sperm precursor cells, Rad50 during DNA damage repair, and b-catenin downstream of the Wnt signaling pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • 47,XYY is not inherited, but usually occurs as a random event during the formation of sperm cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • eggs
  • Although various definitions have been used for ART, the definition includes all infertility treatments in which both eggs and sperm are handled. (arizonafertility.com)
  • In general, ART procedures involve surgically removing eggs from a woman's ovaries, combining them with sperm in the laboratory, and returning them to the woman's body or donating them to another woman. (arizonafertility.com)
  • They do NOT include treatments in which only sperm are handled (i.e., intrauterine-or artificial-insemination) or procedures in which a woman takes medicine only to stimulate egg production without the intention of having eggs retrieved. (arizonafertility.com)
  • Ants, bees and wasps have a haplodiploid mechanism of sex determination whereby unfertilized eggs become males while fertilized eggs become females. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • metabolic
  • DNA methylation marking chromatin, self-sustaining metabolic loops, gene silencing by RNA interference, and the three dimensional conformation of proteins (such as prions) are areas where epigenetic inheritance systems have been discovered at the organismic level. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • In mouse ESCs, Sall4 was found to bind the essential stem cell factor, octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (Oct4), in two separate unbiased mass spectrometry (spec) screens Sall4 can also bind other important pluripotency proteins such as Nanog and sex determining region Y (SRY)-box 2 protein (Sox2). (wikipedia.org)
  • Structural
  • Targeted disruption of the mitochondrial GPx4 isoform (mGPx4) caused infertility in male mice and disruption of the nuclear GPx4 isoform (nGPx4) reduced the structural stability of sperm chromatin, yet both knockout mouse models (for mGPx4 and nGPx4) were fully viable. (wikipedia.org)
  • males
  • Even though aquaculture can provide a supply of sturgeon-derived products, such as caviar and meat, and can also help in conservation efforts providing offspring for repopulation [ 7 ], the early sex identification of individuals could further help the aquaculture efforts through correctly separating the males from more economically profitable females. (hindawi.com)
  • Reduced fertility is a common potential problem among males with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), with nearly half experiencing impaired sperm production. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • cell
  • The condition is generally not inherited from a person's parents but rather occurs as a result of a random event during sperm cell development. (wikipedia.org)
  • testis
  • Chapter 20 reviews the critical points of sperm surgical retrieval techniques from epididymis and testis. (jri.ir)
  • BET inhibitors such as JQ1 block the region of BRDT responsible for chromatin binding, and cause a reversible reduction of sperm production, sperm quality, and size of the testis in mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore
  • Therefore, studies of the possible sex-determining mechanisms are important for identifying a starting point. (hindawi.com)
  • male
  • Chapter 16 focuses on the impact of infection on male infertility and sperm fertilizing capacity. (jri.ir)
  • Neutering" is often used incorrectly to refer only to male animals, but the term actually applies to both sexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • structure
  • suggested that fast and transient decondensation of chromatin structure by polyADP-ribosylation enables the transcription needed to form long-term memory without strand-breaks in DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • involve
  • Some charophyte groups, such as Zygnematophyceae or conjugating green algae, flagella are absent and sexual reproduction does not involve free-swimming flagellate sperm. (wikipedia.org)
  • development
  • Long-suspected connection between female sex hormones and development of cancer identified for the first time. (cshlpress.com)
  • nuclear
  • Estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), also known as NR3A1 (nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group A, member 1), is one of two main types of estrogen receptor, a nuclear receptor that is activated by the sex hormone estrogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • function
  • Most men produce millions of sperm each day, however, many of these may be abnormal either in their shape, movement, or function. (arizonafertility.com)
  • Chapters 8 and 9 discuss the tests such as antisperm antibodies, seminal fluid analysis, acrosomal integrity and function, sperm cervical mucus interaction and sperm chromatin. (jri.ir)
  • Growth
  • Sometimes symptoms are more prominent and may include weaker muscles, greater height, poor coordination, less body hair, breast growth, and less interest in sex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plants
  • Flagellate sperm, however, are found in stoneworts (Charales) and Coleochaetales, orders of parenchymatous charophytes that are the closest relatives of the land plants, where flagellate sperm are also present in all except the conifers and flowering plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Often
  • A. californica has the ability to store and digest allosperm (sperm from a partner) and often mates with multiple partners. (wikipedia.org)
  • either
  • Neutering, from the Latin neuter ("of neither sex"), is the removal of an animal's reproductive organ, either all of it or a considerably large part. (wikipedia.org)