• somatic cell nuclear transf
  • In the United States, scientists at the Harvard Stem Cell Institute, the University of California San Francisco, the Oregon Health & Science University, Stemagen (La Jolla, CA) and possibly Advanced Cell Technology are currently researching a technique to use somatic cell nuclear transfer to produce embryonic stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • mouse embryos
  • A team led by Nikica Zaninovic of the Weill Medical College of Cornell University in New York used a harmless lentivirus to ferry, into human and mouse embryos, genes that make green or red fluorescent proteins, substances that glow green or red when exposed to ultraviolet light. (newscientist.com)
  • The mouse embryos survived a bit longer and yielded colonies of mouse embryonic stem cells which also glowed green or red, proving that the stem cells carried the same genetic alteration as the embryos. (newscientist.com)
  • organism
  • Researchers have also succeeded in deriving primordial germ cells from (murine) induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, 13 and in producing functional sperm 2 and eggs 3 from primordial germ cells generated from (murine) iPS cells, effectively removing the distinction between somatic and germ cells when it comes to the (technologically mediated) reproduction of the organism. (bmj.com)
  • As opposed to "strict" preformationism, it is the notion that "each embryo or organism is gradually produced from an undifferentiated mass by a series of steps and stages during which new parts are added" (Magner 2002, p. 154). (wikipedia.org)
  • Development will ensue normally and after many mitotic divisions, this single cell forms a blastocyst (an early stage embryo with about 100 cells) with an identical genome to the original organism (i.e. a clone). (wikipedia.org)
  • These cells genetically matched the donor organism from which they came.This gives them the ability to create patient specific pluripotent cells, which could then be used in therapies or disease research. (wikipedia.org)
  • SCNT
  • The measure was proposed to stop repeated attempts by the Missouri Legislature to ban certain types of stem cell research, namely SCNT. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was created using SCNT - a nucleus was taken from a man's leg cell and inserted into a cow's egg from which the nucleus had been removed, and the hybrid cell was cultured, and developed into an embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • In January 2008, Dr. Andrew French and Samuel Wood of the biotechnology company Stemagen announced that they successfully created the first five mature human embryos using SCNT. (wikipedia.org)
  • In genetics and developmental biology, somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is a laboratory strategy for creating a viable embryo from a body cell and an egg cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another application of SCNT stem cell research is using the patient specific stem cell lines to generate tissues or even organs for transplant into the specific patient. (wikipedia.org)
  • Only a handful of the labs in the world are currently using SCNT techniques in human stem cell research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Donors
  • Donors must meet certain criteria in order to be eligible for sperm, egg, or embryo donation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other than a screening for genetic disorders, donors are tested for HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C. Embryos must be donated by a woman between the ages of 18-35 years old, who has also undergone a medical screening and given informed consent (which can be revoked at any point up until the embryo is used). (wikipedia.org)
  • What right do children born from sperm 'donors' have to genetic information? (cwhn.ca)
  • viable
  • Alternatively, genes might be added to improve the chances of obtaining viable embryonic stem cells from human embryos. (newscientist.com)
  • Scientists describing the same processes used terminology such as, "insert an isolated nucleus from the donor to produce a dividing and viable embryo" into an enulceated egg" One reason why Christian fundamentalist pastors would be more apt to use terminology which includes "DNA" more prominently is that DNA is a "value-laden" term which carries religious significance. (wikipedia.org)
  • donor sperm
  • The Seebocks could have used donor sperm to fertilize Barbara's eggs. (reviewjournal.com)
  • Elizabeth Marquardt, an affiliate scholar at the Institute for American Values and the Director of the Centre for Marriages and Families, says it's possible that the emotional and psychological needs of children born using donor sperm or eggs have been over-looked. (imfcanada.org)
  • embryonic stem
  • The dominant thinking is that regime change, whether Republican or Democratic, will move the ball forward in terms of the federal funds embargo on human embryonic stem cell research," says Geoffrey Crouse, vice president of a life science unit. (medindia.net)
  • Some experts opine Washington brings about bad science when it limits federal funds to non-embryonic stem cell research. (medindia.net)
  • Scientists have now succeeded in producing sperm and oocytes from embryonic stem-cell lines in mice 2 , 3 , 7-11 and have used both the sperm 2 , 12 and the eggs 3 to produce offspring. (bmj.com)
  • Earlier in the campaign the Vitae Foundation,known for their non-confrontational,research based pro-life media, ran a series of educational ads to cause a greater understanding of the differences between adult and embryonic stem cell research. (wikipedia.org)
  • In August 2010, as part of preliminary motions in Sherley vs Sebelius, Judge Royce C. Lamberth granted an injunction against federally funded embryonic stem cell (ESC) research on the grounds that the guidelines for ESC research "clearly violate" the Dickey-Wicker Amendment. (wikipedia.org)
  • blastocyst
  • The embryos were developed only to the blastocyst stage, at which point they were studied in processes that destroyed them. (wikipedia.org)
  • This condition occurs through the fertilisation of two separate ova by two sperm, followed by aggregation of the two at the blastocyst or zygote stages. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleus
  • Hybrids made by taking animal egg cells (from a cow, for example), removing its nucleus and replacing it with the nucleus from a human cell are an extremely useful research tool for investigating a range of diseases, including Parkinson's. (newscientist.com)
  • In this case, each embryo was created by taking a nucleus from a skin cell (donated by Wood and a colleague) and inserting it into a human egg from which the nucleus had been removed. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the sperm fertilizes the egg, the sperm nucleus and centrosomes are deposited within the egg, which causes a cytoplasmic flux resulting in the movement of the sperm pronucleus and centrosomes towards one pole. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetically
  • By obtaining and growing genetically modified stem cells from diseased embryos, for example, it might be possible to track and understand genetic changes that would lead to disease in adult humans, providing new targets for possible treatments. (newscientist.com)
  • No-one is contemplating King's "nightmare" scenario: the creation of genetically-engineered babies. (newscientist.com)
  • Human cloning is the creation of a genetically identical copy (or clone) of a human. (wikipedia.org)
  • clinics
  • It created the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority which is in charge of human embryo research, along with monitoring and licensing fertility clinics in the United Kingdom. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gringrich Wants Scrutiny of IVF Clinics: What Should Happen to the More than 400,000 Excess Embryos in the U.S. (time.com)
  • In a survey of IVF clinics published in 2005, researchers found only one Canadian IVF clinic used donor consent documents that would make their 'leftover' embryos eligible for stem cell research under to the law (clinics are the only place researchers can obtain embryos). (imfcanada.org)
  • These techniques would eventually be developed into intracytoplasmic sperm injection, while Research Instruments would go on to provide IVF equipment and technology to clinics around the world. (wikipedia.org)
  • fertility treatment
  • The donor can donate for research purposes or fertility treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Equally, by adding, subtracting or disrupting genes, it should be possible to identify genes vital for healthy embryos to develop, and enable screening during fertility treatment for embryos doomed from the outset. (newscientist.com)
  • retain a duty to take account of the welfare of the child in providing fertility treatment, but replace the reference to "the need for a father" with "the need for supportive parenting"-hence valuing the role of all parents alter the restrictions on the use of HFEA-collected data to help enable follow-up research of infertility treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • stem-cell lines
  • The inner cell mass is extracted from the embryo and cultured in a nutrient rich environment in a Petri dish in order to create stem cell lines. (spusa.org)
  • Germany has restrictive policies for stem cell research, but a 2008 law authorizes "the use of imported stem cell lines produced before May 1, 2007. (wikipedia.org)
  • Italy has a 2004 law that forbids all sperm or egg donations and the freezing of embryos, but allows, in effect, using existing stem cell lines that have been imported. (wikipedia.org)
  • implant
  • b) No person shall knowingly (1) engage or assist, directly or indirectly, in the cloning of a human being, (2) implant human embryos created by nuclear transfer into a uterus or a device similar to a uterus, or (3) facilitate human reproduction through clinical or other use of human embryos created by nuclear transfer. (ct.gov)
  • They argued that the measure does not actually ban human cloning, but merely the attempt to implant cloned embryos into a human uterus. (wikipedia.org)
  • pregnancy
  • If the patient decides not to pursue another pregnancy, the eggs and embryos can be donated for research or to another couple for fertility treatments. (wikipedia.org)
  • A couple's additional embryos can be frozen to await the day when they're used to create another pregnancy, are discarded, or used for medical research. (reviewjournal.com)
  • Unlike traditional adoption, embryo adoption enabled the Seebocks to experience a traditional pregnancy. (reviewjournal.com)
  • Fishel demonstrated for the first time that human embryos secrete the pregnancy hormone hCG in a 1984 publication with Edwards and Chris Evans in Science that has been cited 196 times and identified by Outi Hovatta as the first description of the potential of IVF and stem cell technology in terms of medicinal benefit. (wikipedia.org)
  • frozen
  • They also share a history that would make them the talk of the playground if anybody their age remotely cared: They were adopted nine months before they were born, in the form of embryos created and frozen six years before that. (reviewjournal.com)
  • Legally speaking, transferring ownership of a frozen embryo from one couple to another is a mere property transfer. (reviewjournal.com)
  • As far back as 2003, researchers estimated there were 400,000 embryos frozen in the U.S. That number is undoubtedly far greater today, as more women delay childbearing and may inevitably need assistance having a baby. (time.com)
  • Once a woman decides her family is complete, she has limited options: destroy the frozen embryos by thawing them, offer them to research or, infrequently, donate them to another couple for adoption. (time.com)
  • The new Spanish law allows existing frozen embryos - of which there are estimated to be tens of thousands in Spain - to be kept for patient's future use, donated for another infertile couple, or used in research. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2003, Spain's laws state that embryos left over from IVF and donated by the couple that created them can be used in research, including ES cell research, if they have been frozen for more than five years. (wikipedia.org)
  • epigenetic
  • This reprogramming is likely required for totipotency of the newly formed embryo and erasure of acquired epigenetic changes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research into modes and mechanisms of epigenetic inheritance is still in its scientific infancy, however, this area of research has attracted much recent activity as it broadens the scope of heritability and evolutionary biology in general. (wikipedia.org)
  • prohibit
  • Whereas Germany, Austria, Italy, Finland, Ireland, Portugal and the Netherlands prohibit or severely restrict the use of embryonic stem cells, Greece, Sweden, Spain and the United Kingdom have created the legal basis to support this research. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the 2-1 opinion of April 29, 2011, the appeals panel said that the Dickey-Wicker Amendment was "ambiguous" and that the National Institutes of Health had "reasonably concluded" that although federal funds could not be used to directly destroy an embryo, the amendment does not prohibit funding a research project using embryonic stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • When sperm and egg cells are formed in animals, the process of meiosis occurs to create genetic variation. (icr.org)
  • Scientists from Monash University's Australian Stem Cell Center have announced the creation of a genetic tool that may open the way for production of unlimited amounts of a safe transfusable blood product in unlimited quantities. (medindia.net)
  • This would turn children into objects, designed just like other consumer commodities, and would lead to a new eugenics in which the rich are able to give their children genetic advantages over others," says King, whose organisation timed its publicity to coincide with a forthcoming vote by the UK parliament on new legislation which could legalise modification of human embryos for research purposes. (newscientist.com)
  • More importantly, as scientists themselves have recognised, genetic engineering of human babies is too dangerous to contemplate because such changes, whether in embryos, sperm or eggs, would be irreversible in a recipient and inherited by all the baby's descendants. (newscientist.com)
  • ensure regulation of "human-admixed" embryos created from a combination of human and animal genetic material for research. (wikipedia.org)
  • researchers
  • The problem with the Nazi research is that some of it was genuinely useful, as far as I understand - for example data gathered from experiments on the effects of extreme cold on bodies by the Nazis was used by Canadian researchers many years later. (newscientist.com)
  • Around the world, researchers and politicians have struggled to develop guidelines that will allow for ethical and socially responsible stem cell research. (spusa.org)
  • At this time researchers are still uncertain of what clinical differences may exist between iPS cells and embryonic stem cells, meaning that, at this time, further research on both kinds of stem cells is necessary to fully understand the medical potential of these new discoveries. (spusa.org)
  • University researchers enjoy special freedoms and privileges, which include freedom of inquiry and the right to disseminate the results thereof, freedom to challenge conventional thoughts, freedom from institutional censorship, and the privilege of conducting research on human participants with the trust and support of the general public, often with public funding. (sfu.ca)
  • This Policy provides a mechanism for ethics review of research involving human participants to protect those participants, researchers, support staff, students, and third parties, and to educate those involved in this type of research. (sfu.ca)
  • Last year, I wrote about Stanford researchers who were tackling the delicate issue of persuading more patients to donate their embryos to science. (time.com)
  • According to modern stem cell researchers, Spain is one of the leaders in stem cell research and currently has one of the most progressive legislations worldwide with respect to hESC research. (wikipedia.org)
  • uterus
  • Based on the belief that a fertilized egg is a person, some religious groups and conservative politicians say disrupting a fertilized egg's ability to attach to the uterus is abortion, "the moral equivalent of homicide," as Dr. Donna Harrison, who directs research for the American Association of Pro-life Obstetricians and Gynecologists , put it. (nytimes.com)
  • legally
  • No more than two eggs or embryos can be legally implanted in a woman in an IVF treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Legally, the company has the status of a scientific research organization, engaged in a non-mainstream activity, and its services are not subject to certification. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1990
  • They are in charge of reviewing information about human embryos and subsequent development, provision of treatment services, and activities governed by the Act of 1990. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • The purpose of the directives was to facilitate a safer and easier exchange of tissues and cells (including human eggs and sperm) between member states and to improve safety standards for European citizens. (wikipedia.org)
  • fertilized egg
  • This is why the offspring of two parents are always unique, except for identical twins where the fertilized egg cell splits into two embryos. (icr.org)
  • surrogacy
  • For starters, expect a ban on the buying and selling of the products of human reproduction: including eggs, sperm, zygotes, and so-called "surrogacy arrangements. (cwhn.ca)
  • legislation
  • But please - no more legislation regulating the future of egg and sperm. (time.com)
  • While the creation and passage of this legislation was fraught with disagreement, the need to create a federal level regulatory body was something all could agree on. (imfcanada.org)
  • The primary legislation in South Africa that deals with embryo research is the Human Tissue Act, which is set to be replaced by Chapter 8 of the National Health Act. (wikipedia.org)
  • fertilize
  • Scientists say the pills work up to five days after sex, primarily stalling an egg's release until sperm can no longer fertilize it. (nytimes.com)
  • Furthermore, sperm with mutant or absent centrosomes fail to establish a posterior pole, while enucleated sperm with intact centrosomes successfully fertilize the egg and set up the posterior pole. (wikipedia.org)
  • indirect
  • Specifically, Conn. Gen. Stat. 19a-32d (c)(3) provides that any person who donates human embryos or embryonic stem cells 1 remaining after receiving infertility treatment, or unfertilized human eggs or human sperm, shall not receive direct or indirect payment. (ct.gov)
  • The statute, however, provides no information defining what constitutes direct or indirect payment, nor does the statute expressly address whether the payment prohibition includes payment for products procured initially for use in in vitro if they subsequently were donated for stem cell research. (ct.gov)
  • 1991
  • The HFEA is the independent regulator for IVF treatment and human embryo research and came into effect on 1 August 1991. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fishel introduced embryo vitrification to the UK in 1991, with the first baby to be born in the country from this technique being delivered in October 1992. (wikipedia.org)
  • manipulation
  • In vitro manipulation of pre-implantation embryos has been shown to disrupt methylation patterns at imprinted loci and plays a crucial role in cloned animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • Evolutionists have speculated for years that homologous recombination is one of the key mechanisms associated with the creation of new genes and regulatory DNA sequences. (icr.org)
  • stage
  • This only concerns human embryos which have reached the two cell zygote stage, at which they are considered "fertilised" in the act. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pre-implantation embryos at this stage of development are called blastocysts, hollow microscopic balls of cells. (spusa.org)
  • A wave of methylation then takes place during the implantation stage of the embryo, with CpG islands protected from methylation. (wikipedia.org)
  • procedure
  • It also addresses licensing conditions, code of practice, and procedure of approval involving human embryos. (wikipedia.org)
  • If eggs are donated directly for use in stem cell research, e.g. by a family member of a person with an illness, is it permissible under the law to offset any of the costs of the procedure or any adverse events? (ct.gov)
  • creates
  • He creates a mutant mouse by taking a mouse embryo and replacing the DNA inside some of its stem cells. (crummy.com)
  • When IVF creates excess embryos, women are faced with a choice: store them indefinitely, donate them to others or offer them to research. (time.com)
  • ethics
  • Review of research proposals by a Research Ethics Board takes into account these freedoms and responsibilities and provides accountability and quality assurance both to colleagues and to society. (sfu.ca)
  • No more than three years after the implementation of this Policy, and no more than every five years thereafter, Senate will undertake a review of the Policy and Procedures for Ethics Review of Research Involving Human Participants, and make amendments should they be deemed necessary. (sfu.ca)
  • In 1979, an Ethics Advisory Board for the National Institutes of Health issued guidelines for research on early human embryos, but no action was taken. (wikipedia.org)