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  • molecular
  • 30-40% of the molecular species have the polynucleotide-binding property and 60-70% lack affinity for the polynucleotide ligand. (pnas.org)
  • As this field progresses, this synthesis of functional biology and evolutionary studies will provide insight into the molecular basis of the species barriers that maintain the enormous diversity seen in flowering plants. (valpo.edu)
  • genes
  • A reference genome (also known as a reference assembly) is a digital nucleic acid sequence database, assembled by scientists as a representative example of a species' set of genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mups are encoded by a cluster of genes, located adjacent to each other on a single stretch of DNA, that varies greatly in number between species: from at least 21 functional genes in mice to none in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2008 a more precise number of Mup genes in a range of species was determined by analyzing the DNA sequence of whole genomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene families
  • The prolactin (PRL) and growth hormone (GH) gene families represent species-specific expansions of pregnancy-associated hormones/cytokines. (kumc.edu)
  • However, this occurred independently of the duplications in mice, meaning that both rodent species expanded their Mup gene families separately, but in parallel. (wikipedia.org)
  • high
  • An NtcA peptide was found to target multiple cyanobacteria species, whereas a P-II peptide showed specificity to the high-light Prochlorococcus ecotype. (mblwhoilibrary.org)
  • Invasive species can quickly transform biological communities due to their high abundance and strong impacts on native species, in part because they can be released from the ecological forces that limit native populations. (mendeley.com)
  • As is common with parasitic species C. fasciculata requires a high nutrient content broth (including heme and folic acid) in which to grow under laboratory conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • importance
  • These patterns are consistent with the finding of slowing A. petiolata population growth and rebounding native species abundance across a separate chronosequence in Illinois, U.S. These results suggest that this invader is developing evolutionary limits in its introduced range and highlight the importance of understanding the long-term processes that shape species invasions and their impacts. (mendeley.com)
  • Type
  • Initially the functionality and specificity of all the primer pairs were confirmed by amplifying all the loci in singleplex 12.5 μl reactions using 10 ng of S. haematobium reference gDNA obtained from the Schistosomiasis Collection at the Natural History Museum (SCAN [ 5 ]) and the Type-it Microsatellite PCR Kit (Qiagen) according to the manufacturer's protocol. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The hepatitis B virus is classified as the type species of the Orthohepadnavirus, which contains three other species: the Ground squirrel hepatitis virus, Woodchuck hepatitis virus, and the Woolly monkey hepatitis B virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The binding specificity of Type I interaction was well studied by structural and mutagenesis studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Article
  • Journal Article] Species difference in myocardial excitation-contraction coupling featuring the mouse. (nii.ac.jp)
  • example
  • In some species (for example, in hydroids like Campanularia or tunicate like Ciona), the swimming direction of the spermatozoa changes abruptly towards the chemoattractant source. (wikipedia.org)
  • In some species (for example, herring or the ascidian Ciona) activation of motility precedes chemotaxis. (wikipedia.org)
  • male
  • Females of both species showed no attraction to the odors of conspecific individuals, male or female, and C. glomerata females even appeared to be repelled by mated males. (mdpi.com)
  • The only species with which the male is easily confused is the Eurasian tree sparrow, which differs in its black cheek spot and brown back. (wikipedia.org)
  • cats
  • In some species, such as cats and pigs, Mups appear not to be expressed in urine at all and are mainly found in saliva. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although
  • Although the pistil is a great facilitator of pollen function, it can also be viewed as an elaborate barrier that shields ovules from access from inappropriate pollen, such as pollen from other species. (valpo.edu)
  • found
  • Moreover, the pheromones were found to be highly specific, as males were not attracted by females of the other species. (mdpi.com)
  • genus
  • Species belonging to the largest genus, Sphecodes, exhibit especially aggressive parasitism, attacking and sometimes killing solitary or social nest host female(s) before ovipositing eggs into pollen-provisioned host cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most species belong to the genus Lasioglossum, which encompasses a variety of nocturnal and diurnal, socially parasitic, solitary, eusocial, and communal bees. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Vespidae include the extinct genus Palaeovespa, seven species of which are known from the Eocene rocks of the Florissant fossil beds of Colorado and from fossilised Baltic amber in Europe. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2010 these two species were moved to the new genus Hamiltosporidium. (wikipedia.org)
  • high
  • Mexalictus includes six described species of rare bees observed in humid areas of high elevation ranging from southeast Arizona to northern Guatemala. (wikipedia.org)
  • A high specificity and potency ensure that a drug will have few side effects and thus low toxicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Estimates for the true biodiversity of myrmecochorous plants range from 11,000 to as high as 23,000 species worldwide, or approximately 5% of all flowering plant species. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • the scientists also identified a variety of important genes for the animal's way of life - genes involved in the production of venoms, genes likely responsible for the origin of each species, and genes that regulate the action of other genes in modifying DNA by adding (or removing) methyl groups. (technologynetworks.com)
  • They found distinct, correlated changes in nuclear and mitochondrial genes that seem to have occurred around the time of each species lineage's evolution, suggesting the coevolution of these nuclear and mitochondrial genes could have played a role in the origins of each species. (technologynetworks.com)
  • DNA microarrays used in a variety of next-gen sequencing can identify thousands of genes simultaneously, with analytical software looking at gene expression patterns, and orthologous genes in model species to identify function. (wikipedia.org)
  • adaptation
  • Higher Michaelis-Menten constants (Km) and catalytic rate constants (kcat) distinguish orthologs of Antarctic from those of South American species, but no relationship exists between adaptation temperature and the rate at which activity is lost because of heat denaturation. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • found
  • Most Patellapis s. l. species inhabit southern Africa and Madagascar, though species are also found in tropical Asia and northern Australia. (wikipedia.org)
  • While its host D. magna is found all over the northern hemisphere, the two Hamiltosporidium species seem to have a limited geographic distribution. (wikipedia.org)
  • plant
  • Twelve of the 56 Thrinchostoma species are native to Madagascar and exhibit some host-plant specificity. (wikipedia.org)
  • N121, 2, and 3 of the A. thaliana species are examples of the first group of plant nitrilases (arylacetonitrilases) which hydrolyze the nitriles produced during the synthesis or degradation of cyanogenic glycosides and glucosinolates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Myrmecochory is exhibited by more than 3,000 plant species worldwide and is present in every major biome on all continents except Antarctica. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, phylogenetic comparison of myrmecochorous plant groups reveal that more than half of the lineages in which myrmecochory evolved are more species rich than their non-myrmecochorous sister groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • Gene delivery in therapeutic settings utilizes non-immunogenic vectors capable of cell specificity that can deliver an adequate amount of transgene expression to cause the desired effect. (wikipedia.org)
  • similar
  • Species of the tribe Caenohalictini inhabit areas in only the New World and are similar in physical appearance to Augochlorini. (wikipedia.org)
  • Australia
  • Seed dispersal by ants is particularly common in the dry heath and sclerophyll woodlands of Australia (1,500 species) and the South African fynbos (1,000 species). (wikipedia.org)
  • likely
  • Parathrincostoma species, two of which are native to Madagascar, are likely cleptoparasites, indicated by a lack of pollen-collecting structures in their female morphology. (wikipedia.org)
  • body
  • Both species H. magnivora and H. tvaerminnensis infect the fat body, the hypodermis and the ovaries of the crustacean. (wikipedia.org)
  • host
  • Both parasite species are vertically transmitted to asexual host offspring with a transmission rate of up to 100% and a somewhat lower transmission rate to sexual offspring (transmission rates have only been reported for H. tvaerminnensis). (wikipedia.org)
  • range
  • Augochlorini sociality, though not well understood, is significantly polymorphic across its range, as well as between and within species and genera. (wikipedia.org)