• clonal
  • If the BCR can bind strongly to self-antigen, then the B cell undergoes one of four fates: clonal deletion, receptor editing, anergy, or ignorance (B cell ignores signal and continues development). (wikipedia.org)
  • Immortalized cell lines can also be cloned giving rise to a clonal population which can, in turn, be propagated indefinitely. (wikipedia.org)
  • this disorder is a form of plasma cell dyscrasia in which no myeloma protein is detected in serum or urine (at least as determined by conventional laboratory methods) of individuals who have clear evidence of an increase in clonal bone marrow plasma cells and/or evidence of clonal plasma cell-mediated tissue injury (e.g. plasmacytoma tumors). (wikipedia.org)

Warning: preg_replace(): Compilation failed: unmatched parentheses at offset 8 in /home/lookformedical/www/faq.php on line 152
  • immunoglobulin
  • During B cell division the immunoglobulin variable region DNA is transcribed and translated. (wikipedia.org)
  • If these gene alterations are successful in coding for a functional antibody (termed Ig for immunoglobulin), the maturing B cells and to a greater extent their plasma cell descendants make and secrete an intact antibody, initially IgM but after class switch recombinations, either IgG, IgA, IgE, or IgD. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutation
  • Compared to spermatocytes, the mutation frequency is about 5 to 10-fold higher in Sertoli cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This may reflect the need for greater efficiency of DNA repair and mutation avoidance in the germ line than in somatic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to the prevailing accepted theory of carcinogenesis, the somatic mutation theory, mutations in DNA and epimutations that lead to cancer disrupt these orderly processes by disrupting the programming regulating the processes, upsetting the normal balance between proliferation and cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • An immortalized cell line is a population of cells from a multicellular organism which would normally not proliferate indefinitely but, due to mutation, have evaded normal cellular senescence and instead can keep undergoing division. (wikipedia.org)
  • A defining characteristic of MCL is mutation and overexpression of cyclin D1, a cell cycle gene, that contributes to the abnormal proliferation of the malignant cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike germline mutation, SHM affects only an organism's individual immune cells, and the mutations are not normally transmitted to the organism's offspring except in those circumstances associated with the antigen-driven somatic and germline evolution of germline V segment arrays, so called soma-to-germline feedback or Lamarckian inheritance effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • During proliferation, the B cell receptor locus undergoes an extremely high rate of somatic mutation that is at least 105-106 fold greater than the normal rate of mutation across the genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • antigens
  • This negative selection process leads to a state of central tolerance, in which the mature B cells don't bind with self antigens present in the bone marrow. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antigens that activate B cells with the help of T-cell are known as T cell-dependent (TD) antigens and include foreign proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • B cell response to these antigens takes multiple days, though antibodies generated have a higher affinity and are more functionally versatile than those generated from T cell-independent activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Post-revision peripheral T cell repertoire is strengthening all essential features of self-tolerant and self-MHC-restricted T cell repertoire generated in the thymus while keeping all its hallmarks - reactivity towards foreign antigens and homeostatic proliferation in response to self-MHC, so-called tonic signaling. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plasma cells develop from B lymphocytes which are stimulated to undergo this maturational development by T lymphocytes during the latter cells' processing of these antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • fetal
  • Despite the importance of peritubular myoid (PM) cells in the histogenesis of the fetal testis, understanding the origin and function of these cells has been hampered by the lack of suitable markers. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Using these cells, Shahdadfar showed that serum from the bone marrow donor could be used for in vitro cell expansion in stead of fetal calf serum, thus avoiding the risk of transfer of zoonoses and immune-stimulating xenogeneic proteins. (uio.no)
  • Sertoli cells secrete the following substances: anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) - secreted during the early stages of fetal life. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been suggested that Sertoli cells may derive from the fetal mesonephros. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human embryonic stem cells are often grown in fibroblastic growth factor-2 containing, fetal bovine serum supplemented media. (wikipedia.org)
  • Postnatal
  • It is established that the luteinizing hormone (LH) produced by the anterior pituitary is required to maintain the structure and function of the Leydig cells in the postnatal testis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • genes
  • A series of several mutations to certain classes of genes is usually required before a normal cell will transform into a cancer cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tumor suppressor genes are genes that inhibit cell division, survival, or other properties of cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The second way is found in birds and mammals, where germ cells are not specified by such determinants but by signals controlled by zygotic genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • iPSCs are typically derived by introducing products of specific sets of pluripotency-associated genes, or "reprogramming factors", into a given cell type. (wikipedia.org)
  • Upon introduction of reprogramming factors, cells begin to form colonies that resemble pluripotent stem cells, which can be isolated based on their morphology, conditions that select for their growth, or through expression of surface markers or reporter genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Embryo
  • In many animals, the germ cells originate in the primitive streak and migrate via the gut of an embryo to the developing gonads. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are two mechanisms to establish the germ cell lineage in the embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] In the model organism Drosophila, pole cells passively move from the posterior end of the embryo to the posterior midgut because of the infolding of the blastoderm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Somatic embryogenesis is an artificial process in which a plant or embryo is derived from a single somatic cell or group of somatic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • No endosperm or seed coat is formed around a somatic embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this area of study, SSPs are used as markers to determine the embryogenic potential and competency of the embryogenic system to produce a somatic embryo biochemically similar to its zygotic counterpart (Flinn et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, since the generation of embryonic stem cells involves destruction (or at least manipulation) of the pre-implantation stage embryo, there has been much controversy surrounding their use. (wikipedia.org)
  • organism
  • A germ cell is any biological cell that gives rise to the gametes of an organism that reproduces sexually. (wikipedia.org)
  • An immortalized cell line should not be confused with stem cells, which can also divide indefinitely, but form a normal part of the development of a multicellular organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • In Drosophila , intestinal stem cells (ISCs) are essential for homeostatic turnover of the intestinal epithelium and ensure epithelial regeneration after tissue damage. (biologists.org)
  • The signaling networks that control stem cell maintenance and proliferation govern the balance between tissue regeneration and tumor prevention in aging animals and are therefore crucial to understand. (biologists.org)
  • The means is stem cells or differentiated organ specific cells, with or without scaffolds to ensure that the new tissue acquires the right shape. (uio.no)
  • He identified mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in adipose tissue, and defined their phenotype and gene expression. (uio.no)
  • The alternative, performing an analysis on primary cells from multiple tissue donors, does not have this advantage. (wikipedia.org)
  • While immortalized cell lines often originate from a well-known tissue type, they have undergone significant mutations to become immortal. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, supposed thyroid lines were actually melanoma cells, supposed prostate tissue was actually bladder cancer, and supposed normal uterine cultures were actually breast cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] A Nature Insight review defines niche as follows: "Stem-cell populations are established in 'niches' - specific anatomic locations that regulate how they participate in tissue generation, maintenance and repair. (wikipedia.org)
  • It constitutes a basic unit of tissue physiology, integrating signals that mediate the balanced response of stem cells to the needs of organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells derived from competent source tissue are cultured to form an undifferentiated mass of cells called a callus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Certain compounds excreted by plant tissue cultures and found in culture media have been shown necessary to coordinate cell division and morphological changes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Various other somatic cells in the interstitial tissue support Sertoli cells such as Leydig cells and peritubular myoid cells therefore indirectly influencing SSCs and the location of their niche. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanisms
  • Hanadie Yousef is a trained neurobiologist and stem cell biologist with a focus on the mechanisms of aging, with pending and issued patents, several publications, a PhD from Berkeley, a 4-year postdoc at Stanford, experience leading research teams, and has worked in R&D at Regeneron and Genentech. (stanford.edu)
  • Activation-dependent T cell revision process is part of peripheral tolerance mechanisms if the new TCR specificity loses its autoractive specificity as described in mouse transgenic and knock-in mouse models or in self-reactive conventional T cells in mouse or man. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, end-stage renal failure and heart disease are caused by different mechanisms that are not related to stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • proliferate
  • The absence of FGF9 tends to cause a female to develop Once fully differentiated, the Sertoli cell has been considered to be terminally differentiated, and is unable to proliferate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells affected by MCL proliferate in a nodular or diffuse pattern with two main cytologic variants, typical or blastic. (wikipedia.org)
  • When a B cell recognizes an antigen, it is stimulated to divide (or proliferate). (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanism
  • Stem cells display a fundamentally different mechanism of proliferation control when compared to somatic cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, the precise mechanism underlying miRNA-mediated regulation of cell cycle in stem cells is still incompletely understood. (springer.com)
  • This process can lead either to continuous appearance of potentially self-reactive T cells in the body, not controlled by the central tolerance mechanism in the thymus or better eliminate such self-reactive T cells on the other hand and thus contributing to peripheral tolerance - the extent of each has not been completely understood yet. (wikipedia.org)
  • The number of stem cells in young people is very much higher than older people and this cause a better and more efficient replacement mechanism in the young contrary to the old. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptor
  • Here, we show that the EGF Receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway plays a crucial role in the regulation of ISC proliferation. (biologists.org)
  • PURPOSE: Expression and cellular localization of the androgen receptor (AR) and estrogen receptor (ER) isoforms were determined using antibodies specific to these receptors and to specific cell types. (biomedsearch.com)
  • B cell activation is enhanced through the activity of CD21, a surface receptor in complex with surface proteins CD19 and CD81 (all three are collectively known as the B cell coreceptor complex). (wikipedia.org)
  • Once a BCR binds a TD antigen, the antigen is taken up into the B cell through receptor-mediated endocytosis, degraded, and presented to T cells as peptide pieces in complex with MHC-II molecules on the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • T helper (TH) cells, typically follicular T helper (TFH) cells, that were activated with the same antigen recognize and bind these MHC-II-peptide complexes through their T cell receptor (TCR). (wikipedia.org)
  • Follicular B helper T cells (also known as just follicular helper T cells or TFH), are antigen-experienced CD4+ T cells found in the periphery within B cell follicles of secondary lymphoid organs such as lymph nodes, spleens and Peyer's patches, and are identified by their constitutive expression of the B cell follicle homing receptor CXCR5. (wikipedia.org)
  • In germinal centers, antigen-experienced TFH cells rapidly upregulate the expression of CD40L, which binds and stimulates the B cell surface receptor CD40. (wikipedia.org)
  • T cell receptor revision (alternative term: antigen receptor editing) is a process in the peripheral immune system which is used by mature T cells to alter their original antigenic specificity based on rearranged T cell receptors (TCR). (wikipedia.org)
  • It is not correct since dual receptor T cells do exist in the periphery and the single receptor T cells can modify its specificity or regain a second TCR there. (wikipedia.org)
  • The current knowledge on antigen receptor editing both in T cells and B cells is far from complete, but it has an essential impact on the central dogma of immunology - the control of adaptive immune cells, their specificity and regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Receptor revision in T cells: an open question? (wikipedia.org)
  • T-cell receptor revision: friend or foe? (wikipedia.org)
  • mutations
  • The introduction of mutations in the rapidly proliferating population of B cells ultimately culminates in the production of thousands of B cells, possessing slightly different receptors and varying specificity for the antigen, from which the B cell with highest affinities for the antigen can be selected. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tumor
  • However, in some cancer types KLF4 may act as a tumor promoter where increased KLF4 expression has been reported, such as in oral squamous cell carcinoma and in primary breast ductal carcinoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • The tumor cells accumulate in the lymphoid system, including lymph nodes and the spleen, with non-useful cells eventually rendering the system dysfunctional. (wikipedia.org)
  • survival
  • However, some studies have revealed that under certain conditions KLF4 may switch its role from pro-cell survival to pro-cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • GDNF and FGF2 are both required to activate the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt pathway, and the mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK1 kinase1 (MEK) pathway, which potentiate SSC proliferation and survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • follicle
  • Ordinarily, hair follicle renewal is maintained by the stem cells associated with each follicle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aging of the hair follicle appears to be primed by a sustained cellular response to the DNA damage that accumulates in renewing stem cells during aging. (wikipedia.org)
  • This damage response involves the proteolysis of type XVII collagen by neutrophil elastase in response to the DNA damage in the hair follicle stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteolysis of collagen leads to elimination of the damaged cells and then to terminal hair follicle miniaturization. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • We describe how specific miRNAs may control cell cycle associated molecules and checkpoints in embryonic, somatic and cancer stem cells. (springer.com)
  • A range of techniques are applied to these problems including HTS screening (of both siRNA and small molecules), cell and molecular biology, proteomics and animal models. (searlescholars.net)
  • On the migratory path of the PGCs, the orientation of underlying cells and their secreted molecules such as fibronectin play an important role. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several factors are important to regulate stem-cell characteristics within the niche: cell-cell interactions between stem cells, as well as interactions between stem cells and neighbouring differentiated cells, interactions between stem cells and adhesion molecules, extracellular matrix components, the oxygen tension, growth factors, cytokines, and the physicochemical nature of the environment including the pH, ionic strength (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells present in the testes express molecules that play key roles in the regulation of SSC self-renewal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biology
  • Hanadie Yousef earned her bachelors in Chemistry with honors and a minor in Spanish from Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) in 2008 and went on to obtain a Ph.D. in Molecular and Cell Biology at the University of California, Berkeley in 2013. (stanford.edu)
  • The Department reflects this pervasiveness, with research interests encompassing several high impact themes, including functional genomics and systems biology, developmental genetics, epigenetic Inheritance, evolution and population genetics, microbial genetics, and cell biology. (findamasters.com)
  • Immortal cell lines are a very important tool for research into the biochemistry and cell biology of multicellular organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immortalized cell lines are widely used as a simple model for more complex biological systems, for example for the analysis of the biochemistry and cell biology of mammalian (including human) cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This simplifies analysis of the biology of cells which may otherwise have a limited lifetime. (wikipedia.org)
  • This can alter the biology of the cell and must be taken into consideration in any analysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • undergo
  • In this end, stem cells undergo an asymmetric cell division during which only one of the two daughter cells differentiates. (springer.com)
  • Germ cells produce gametes and are the only cells that can undergo meiosis as well as mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Migration starts with 3-4 cells that undergo three rounds of cell division so that about 30 PGCs arrive at the gonads. (wikipedia.org)
  • B cells undergo two types of selection while developing in the bone marrow to ensure proper development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Of the three B cell subsets, FO B cells preferentially undergo T cell-dependent activation while MZ B cells and B1 B cells preferentially undergo T cell-independent activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Major examples include human HeLa cells that were obtained from a cervical cancer, mouse Raw 264.7 cells that were subjected to mutagenesis and then selected for cells which are able to undergo division. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulate
  • How these different types of biological information are integrated to regulate proliferation rates of ISCs is unclear. (biologists.org)
  • Emerging evidence suggests that miRNAs regulate critical pathways involved in stem cell function. (springer.com)
  • inhibin and activins - secreted after puberty, and work together to regulate FSH secretion androgen binding protein (also called testosterone binding globulin) - increases testosterone concentration in the seminiferous tubules to stimulate spermatogenesis estradiol - aromatase from Sertoli cells convert testosterone to 17 beta estradiol to direct spermatogenesis glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) - has been demonstrated to function in promoting undifferentiating spermatogonia, which ensures stem cell self-renewal during the perinatal period. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stem-cell niche refers to a microenvironment, within the specific anatomic location where stem cells are found, which interacts with stem cells to regulate cell fate. (wikipedia.org)
  • transcription
  • Also Bcl-6 is a transcription factor identified in TFH cells, but it may have roles that extend beyond this subset, because it has also been implicated in memory CD8+ T cell development. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is also a minor sub-class within this population of GC Tfh cells that express the gene Foxp3, encoding for a transcription factor. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene expression
  • Recent studies have however shown that TFH have distinct gene expression profiles, supporting the theory that TFH are a subset of CD4+ T cells distinct from Th-1, Th-2, Th-17 or Tregs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Heat shock is used to induce Flp recombinase marker gene expression is activated in dividing cells due to recombination. (wikipedia.org)
  • recombination
  • T cell revision is achieved via reactivation of recombination enzymes RAG1 and/or RAG2 after T cell activation in the periphery and random recombination of their CDR sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • In eukaryotes, the cell division cycle includes four discrete phases: Gap 1 (G1), Synthesis (S), Gap 2 (G2) and Mitosis (M). During the G1 phase, which is known as the first interphase, the cell synthesizes proteins that are needed for DNA replication and continuous growth. (springer.com)
  • Wunen proteins are chemorepellents that lead the germ cells away from the endoderm and into the mesoderm. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cells are used for a wide variety of purposes, from testing toxicity of compounds or drugs to production of eukaryotic proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Artificial expression of key proteins required for immortality, for example telomerase which prevents degradation of chromosome ends during DNA replication in eukaryotes Hybridoma technology, specifically used for the generation of immortalized antibody-producing B cell lines, where an antibody-producing B cell is fused with a myeloma (B cell cancer) cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plant transformations Mass propagation The development of somatic embryogenesis procedures has given rise to research on seed storage proteins (SSPs) of woody plants for tree species of commercial importance, i.e., mainly gymnosperms, including white spruce. (wikipedia.org)
  • The overproduced Ig's, termed myeloma proteins, commonly circulate in blood, may accumulate in urine, and are the hallmarks of plasma cell dyscrasias including their most malignant forms viz. (wikipedia.org)
  • abnormal
  • These results indicate that human colorectal carcinogenesis is accompanied by a progressive dysregulation of DNMT1 expression and suggest that abnormalities in DNMT1 expression may contribute to the abnormal CpG dinucleotide methylation changes characteristic of human colorectal carcinoma cell DNA. (aacrjournals.org)
  • How do cancer cells acquire abnormal CpG dinucleotide methylation patterns? (aacrjournals.org)
  • Plasma cell dyscrasias (also termed plasma cell disorders and plasma cell proliferative diseases) are a spectrum of progressively more severe monoclonal gammopathies in which a clone or multiple clones of pre-malignant or malignant plasma cells (sometimes in association with lymphoplasmacytoid cells or B lymphocytes) over-produce and secrete into the blood stream a myeloma protein, i.e. an abnormal monoclonal antibody or portion thereof. (wikipedia.org)
  • occur
  • Somatic changes in CpG dinucleotide methylation occur quite commonly in human cancer cell DNA. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Somatic embryogenesis has served as a model to understand the physiological and biochemical events that occur during plant developmental processes as well as a component to biotechnological advancement. (wikipedia.org)
  • Somatic embryogenesis has been described to occur in two ways: directly or indirectly. (wikipedia.org)
  • First, different cells may have different lifespans even though they are originated from the same stem cells (See T-cells and erythrocytes), meaning that aging can occur differently in cells that have longer lifespans as opposed to the ones with shorter lifespans. (wikipedia.org)
  • telomere
  • Deficiency in telomere function can cause genomic alterations found in cancer, and the gradual loss of telomeres contributes to aging of human cells. (rockefeller.edu)
  • protein
  • When a cell enters the G1 phase, a protein called cyclin D increases in response to mitogenic stimuli. (springer.com)
  • Development of Sertoli cells is directed by the testis-determining factor protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • transferrin - a blood plasma protein for iron ion delivery The occluding junctions of Sertoli cells form the blood-testis barrier, a structure that partitions the interstitial blood compartment of the testis from the adluminal compartment of the seminiferous tubules. (wikipedia.org)
  • When a BCR binds an antigen tagged with a fragment of the C3 complement protein, CD21 binds the C3 fragment, co-ligates with the bound BCR, and signals are transduced through CD19 and CD81 to lower the activation threshold of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Following TCR-MHC-II-peptide binding, T cells express the surface protein CD40L as well as cytokines such as IL-4 and IL-21. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the other end of this spectrum, detection of the myeloid protein indicates the presence of a hematological malignancy, i.e. multiple myeloma, Waldenström's macroglobulinemia, or other B cell-associated neoplasm, that derives stepwise from its MGUS precursors. (wikipedia.org)
  • progression
  • Because of the apical progression of the spermatogonia (sperm stem cells), the occluding junctions must be dynamically reformed and broken to allow the immunoidentical spermatogonia to cross through the blood-testis barrier so they can become immunologically unique. (wikipedia.org)
  • precise
  • In normal somatic cells, the precise patterns of CpG dinucleotide methylation in the genome can be maintained with fidelity through DNA replication and mitosis via the action of a maintenance DNA methyltransferase. (aacrjournals.org)
  • evidence
  • We present here visual evidence for the existence of a new type of interstitial cells in human atrial myocardium: interstitial Cajal-like cells (ICLC). (biomedsearch.com)
  • induces
  • KLF4 is highly expressed in non-dividing cells and its overexpression induces cell cycle arrest. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, it has been shown that ICOS induces the secretion of IL-21 cytokine by activated CD4+ T cells and that IL-21 plays a crucial role in the development of TFH cells and germinal centers. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibition
  • Effect of myxothiazol on Leydig cell steroidogenesis: inhibition of luteinizing hormone-mediated testosterone synthesis but stimulation of basal steroidogenesis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In contrast to the inhibition of LH-stimulated testosterone production by MYX, the incubation of Leydig cells with MYX in the absence of LH stimulated testosterone production. (biomedsearch.com)
  • bone marrow
  • In mammals, B cells mature in the bone marrow, which is at the core of most bones. (wikipedia.org)
  • The "B" from B cells comes from the name of this organ, where it was first discovered by Chang and Glick, and not from bone marrow as commonly believed). (wikipedia.org)
  • B cells develop from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) that originate from bone marrow. (wikipedia.org)
  • To complete development, immature B cells migrate from the bone marrow to the spleen as well as pass through two transitional stages: T1 and T2. (wikipedia.org)
  • After B cells mature in the bone marrow, they migrate through the blood to SLOs, which receive a constant supply of antigen through circulating lymph. (wikipedia.org)
  • MCL may also replace normal cells in the bone marrow, which impairs normal blood cell production. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mantle cell lymphoma is a systemic disease with frequent involvement of the bone marrow and gastrointestinal tract (generally showing polyposis in the lining). (wikipedia.org)
  • For this reason, both the peripheral blood and bone marrow are evaluated for the presence of malignant cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • lineages
  • Since this process is random, it might also lead to de novo appearance of autoreactive TCRs on initially non-self reactive T cells or even switch between T cell lineages such as T regulatory cells and Th17 cells or gamma/delta and alpha/beta T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • processes
  • OPCs receive preferred somatic contacts from fast-spiking GABAergic neurons, while non-fast spiking interneurons have a preference for contacting the processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • An elevated mitotic index indicates more cells are dividing, and thus obvious in cancer cells, The mitotic index may be elevated during necessary processes to life, such as the normal growth of plants or animals, as well as cellular repair the site of an injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • ligand
  • The EGF ligand Vein is expressed in the muscle surrounding the intestinal epithelium, providing a permissive signal for ISC proliferation. (biologists.org)
  • If these receptors do not bind to their ligand, B cells do not receive the proper signals and cease to develop. (wikipedia.org)
  • Upon cellular interaction and cross-signaling with their cognate follicular (Fo B) B cells, TFH cells trigger the formation and maintenance of germinal centers through the expression of CD40 ligand (CD40L) and the secretion of IL-21 and IL-4. (wikipedia.org)