• cellular
  • When a cancer cell divides, both daughter cells inherit the genetic and epigenetic abnormalities of the parent cell, and may also acquire new genetic and epigenetic abnormalities in the process of cellular reproduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • PURPOSE: Expression and cellular localization of the androgen receptor (AR) and estrogen receptor (ER) isoforms were determined using antibodies specific to these receptors and to specific cell types. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Smg6‐null embryonic fibroblasts are viable as well, but are refractory to cellular reprograming into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). (embopress.org)
  • The process is characterized by changes at the cellular, genetic, and epigenetic levels and abnormal cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was also shown that the two SC compartments acted in accord to maintain a constant cell population and a steady cellular turnover. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aging of the hair follicle appears to be primed by a sustained cellular response to the DNA damage that accumulates in renewing stem cells during aging. (wikipedia.org)
  • Upon cellular interaction and cross-signaling with their cognate follicular (Fo B) B cells, TFH cells trigger the formation and maintenance of germinal centers through the expression of CD40 ligand (CD40L) and the secretion of IL-21 and IL-4. (wikipedia.org)
  • The purpose of the mitotic index is to measure cellular proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • An elevated mitotic index indicates more cells are dividing, and thus obvious in cancer cells, The mitotic index may be elevated during necessary processes to life, such as the normal growth of plants or animals, as well as cellular repair the site of an injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • immunoglobulin
  • During B cell division the immunoglobulin variable region DNA is transcribed and translated. (wikipedia.org)
  • If these gene alterations are successful in coding for a functional antibody (termed Ig for immunoglobulin), the maturing B cells and to a greater extent their plasma cell descendants make and secrete an intact antibody, initially IgM but after class switch recombinations, either IgG, IgA, IgE, or IgD. (wikipedia.org)
  • antigens
  • This negative selection process leads to a state of central tolerance, in which the mature B cells don't bind with self antigens present in the bone marrow. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antigens that activate B cells with the help of T-cell are known as T cell-dependent (TD) antigens and include foreign proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • B cell response to these antigens takes multiple days, though antibodies generated have a higher affinity and are more functionally versatile than those generated from T cell-independent activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Post-revision peripheral T cell repertoire is strengthening all essential features of self-tolerant and self-MHC-restricted T cell repertoire generated in the thymus while keeping all its hallmarks - reactivity towards foreign antigens and homeostatic proliferation in response to self-MHC, so-called tonic signaling. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plasma cells develop from B lymphocytes which are stimulated to undergo this maturational development by T lymphocytes during the latter cells' processing of these antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • Here, we describe an integrated phenotypic screening approach, employing a combination of in vitro and in vivo PDD models to identify a small molecule increasing stem cell proliferation. (frontiersin.org)
  • In order to ensure the best results from tissue engineering treatment strategies, the cells used need to be characterized in detail, and in vitro cell expansion protocols need to be optimalized. (uio.no)
  • He showed that these cells could differentiate to several different lineages, and characterized the changes in gene expression induced in these cells by in vitro cell culture. (uio.no)
  • Using these cells, Shahdadfar showed that serum from the bone marrow donor could be used for in vitro cell expansion in stead of fetal calf serum, thus avoiding the risk of transfer of zoonoses and immune-stimulating xenogeneic proteins. (uio.no)
  • However, in the course of in vitro culture these cells lose the ability to produce the right constituents of hyaline extracellular matrix. (uio.no)
  • Isolation and transcription profiling of purified uncultured human stromal stem cells: alteration of gene expression after in vitro cell culture. (uio.no)
  • The cells can therefore be grown for prolonged periods in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other immortalised cell lines are the in vitro equivalent of cancerous cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immortalized cell lines find use in biotechnology where they are a cost-effective way of growing cells similar to those found in a multicellular organism in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • The word 'niche' can be in reference to the in vivo or in vitro stem-cell microenvironment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Somatic embryos are mainly produced in vitro and for laboratory purposes, using either solid or liquid nutrient media which contain plant growth regulators (PGR's). (wikipedia.org)
  • Postnatal
  • It is established that the luteinizing hormone (LH) produced by the anterior pituitary is required to maintain the structure and function of the Leydig cells in the postnatal testis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • organism
  • A germ cell is any biological cell that gives rise to the gametes of an organism that reproduces sexually. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] In the model organism Drosophila, pole cells passively move from the posterior end of the embryo to the posterior midgut because of the infolding of the blastoderm. (wikipedia.org)
  • An immortalized cell line should not be confused with stem cells, which can also divide indefinitely, but form a normal part of the development of a multicellular organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • In either case, expression of these genes promotes the malignant phenotype of cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The second way is found in birds and mammals, where germ cells are not specified by such determinants but by signals controlled by zygotic genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The iPSC technology was pioneered by Shinya Yamanaka's lab in Kyoto, Japan, who showed in 2006 that the introduction of four specific genes encoding transcription factors could convert adult cells into pluripotent stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • iPSCs are typically derived by introducing products of specific sets of pluripotency-associated genes, or "reprogramming factors", into a given cell type. (wikipedia.org)
  • Upon introduction of reprogramming factors, cells begin to form colonies that resemble pluripotent stem cells, which can be isolated based on their morphology, conditions that select for their growth, or through expression of surface markers or reporter genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • In graduate school, Yousef studied the role of adult stem cells in the biology of aging and developed methods for tissue rejuvenation in brain and muscle. (stanford.edu)
  • Yousef studied the role of adult stem cells in the biology of aging and developed methods for tissue rejuvenation in brain and muscle (4, 1st author publications, 1 issued patent, 1 pending). (stanford.edu)
  • In Drosophila , intestinal stem cells (ISCs) are essential for homeostatic turnover of the intestinal epithelium and ensure epithelial regeneration after tissue damage. (biologists.org)
  • The means is stem cells or differentiated organ specific cells, with or without scaffolds to ensure that the new tissue acquires the right shape. (uio.no)
  • He identified mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in adipose tissue, and defined their phenotype and gene expression. (uio.no)
  • The alternative, performing an analysis on primary cells from multiple tissue donors, does not have this advantage. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, supposed thyroid lines were actually melanoma cells, supposed prostate tissue was actually bladder cancer, and supposed normal uterine cultures were actually breast cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] A Nature Insight review defines niche as follows: "Stem-cell populations are established in 'niches' - specific anatomic locations that regulate how they participate in tissue generation, maintenance and repair. (wikipedia.org)
  • It constitutes a basic unit of tissue physiology, integrating signals that mediate the balanced response of stem cells to the needs of organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Somatic embryos are formed from plant cells that are not normally involved in the development of embryos, i.e. ordinary plant tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells derived from competent source tissue are cultured to form an undifferentiated mass of cells called a callus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Certain compounds excreted by plant tissue cultures and found in culture media have been shown necessary to coordinate cell division and morphological changes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Various other somatic cells in the interstitial tissue support Sertoli cells such as Leydig cells and peritubular myoid cells therefore indirectly influencing SSCs and the location of their niche. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptor
  • Here, we show that the EGF Receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway plays a crucial role in the regulation of ISC proliferation. (biologists.org)
  • B cell activation is enhanced through the activity of CD21, a surface receptor in complex with surface proteins CD19 and CD81 (all three are collectively known as the B cell coreceptor complex). (wikipedia.org)
  • Once a BCR binds a TD antigen, the antigen is taken up into the B cell through receptor-mediated endocytosis, degraded, and presented to T cells as peptide pieces in complex with MHC-II molecules on the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • T helper (TH) cells, typically follicular T helper (TFH) cells, that were activated with the same antigen recognize and bind these MHC-II-peptide complexes through their T cell receptor (TCR). (wikipedia.org)
  • T cell receptor revision (alternative term: antigen receptor editing) is a process in the peripheral immune system which is used by mature T cells to alter their original antigenic specificity based on rearranged T cell receptors (TCR). (wikipedia.org)
  • It is not correct since dual receptor T cells do exist in the periphery and the single receptor T cells can modify its specificity or regain a second TCR there. (wikipedia.org)
  • The current knowledge on antigen receptor editing both in T cells and B cells is far from complete, but it has an essential impact on the central dogma of immunology - the control of adaptive immune cells, their specificity and regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Receptor revision in T cells: an open question? (wikipedia.org)
  • T-cell receptor revision: friend or foe? (wikipedia.org)
  • Follicular B helper T cells (also known as just follicular helper T cells or TFH), are antigen-experienced CD4+ T cells found in the periphery within B cell follicles of secondary lymphoid organs such as lymph nodes, spleens and Peyer's patches, and are identified by their constitutive expression of the B cell follicle homing receptor CXCR5. (wikipedia.org)
  • In germinal centers, antigen-experienced TFH cells rapidly upregulate the expression of CD40L, which binds and stimulates the B cell surface receptor CD40. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 12 (CXCL12) signaling via its receptor C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) is also involved in regulation of SSC fate decisions.CXCL12 is found in Sertoli cells in the basement membrane of the seminiferous tubules in adult mouse testes, and its receptor is expressed in undifferentiated spermatogonial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene expression
  • Heat shock is used to induce Flp recombinase marker gene expression is activated in dividing cells due to recombination. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent studies have however shown that TFH have distinct gene expression profiles, supporting the theory that TFH are a subset of CD4+ T cells distinct from Th-1, Th-2, Th-17 or Tregs. (wikipedia.org)
  • survival
  • At the level of the cell, there is selection for increased cell proliferation and survival, such that a mutant cell that acquires one of the hallmarks of cancer (see below), will have a competitive advantage over cells that have not acquired the hallmark. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, some studies have revealed that under certain conditions KLF4 may switch its role from pro-cell survival to pro-cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within germinal centers, TFH cells play a critical role in mediating the selection and survival of B cells that go on to differentiate either into special plasma cells capable of producing high affinity antibodies against foreign antigen, or memory B cells capable of quick immune re-activation in the future if ever the same antigen is re-encountered. (wikipedia.org)
  • GDNF and FGF2 are both required to activate the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt pathway, and the mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK1 kinase1 (MEK) pathway, which potentiate SSC proliferation and survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanism
  • Stem cells display a fundamentally different mechanism of proliferation control when compared to somatic cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • This process can lead either to continuous appearance of potentially self-reactive T cells in the body, not controlled by the central tolerance mechanism in the thymus or better eliminate such self-reactive T cells on the other hand and thus contributing to peripheral tolerance - the extent of each has not been completely understood yet. (wikipedia.org)
  • The number of stem cells in young people is very much higher than older people and this cause a better and more efficient replacement mechanism in the young contrary to the old. (wikipedia.org)
  • promotes
  • Using cell viability and colony size phenotype measurement we characterize the structure activity relationship of the lead molecule, and identify that the small molecule inhibits phosphorylation of ERK2 and promotes stem cell proliferation. (frontiersin.org)
  • We find that the AP-1 transcription factor FOS serves as a convergence point for this signal and for the Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway, which promotes ISC proliferation in response to stress. (biologists.org)
  • differentiate
  • HSCs first differentiate into multipotent progenitor (MPP) cells, then common lymphoid progenitor (CLP) cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • T2 B cells differentiate into either follicular (FO) B cells or marginal zone (MZ) B cells depending on signals received through the BCR and other receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • This means that they can differentiate in any cell type in the body and thus germ cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Endodermal cells differentiate and together with Wunen proteins they induce the migration through the gut. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stem cells decrease in number and tend to lose the ability to differentiate into progenies or lymphoid lineages and myeloid lineages. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aal spermatogonia differentiate and thus are no longer classed as stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • When they move past the basal membrane they differentiate due to cell signals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Around 50% of the SSC population undergo self-renewal to maintain stem cell numbers, and the other 50% become committed progenitor cells that will differentiate into spermatozoa during spermatogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The B cells with the greatest affinity will then be selected to differentiate into plasma cells producing antibody and long-lived memory B cells contributing to enhanced immune responses upon reinfection. (wikipedia.org)
  • evolutionary
  • Early mathematical modeling of cancer, by Armitage and Doll , set the stage for the future development of the somatic evolutionary theory of cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Evolutionary regularities of somatic polyploidy manifestation in salivary glands of gastropod mollusks. (deepdyve.com)
  • mechanisms
  • Hanadie Yousef is a trained neurobiologist and stem cell biologist with a focus on the mechanisms of aging, with pending and issued patents, several publications, a PhD from Berkeley, a 4-year postdoc at Stanford, experience leading research teams, and has worked in R&D at Regeneron and Genentech. (stanford.edu)
  • There are two mechanisms to establish the germ cell lineage in the embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activation-dependent T cell revision process is part of peripheral tolerance mechanisms if the new TCR specificity loses its autoractive specificity as described in mouse transgenic and knock-in mouse models or in self-reactive conventional T cells in mouse or man. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, end-stage renal failure and heart disease are caused by different mechanisms that are not related to stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biology
  • Hanadie Yousef earned her bachelors in Chemistry with honors and a minor in Spanish from Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) in 2008 and went on to obtain a Ph.D. in Molecular and Cell Biology at the University of California, Berkeley in 2013. (stanford.edu)
  • The Department reflects this pervasiveness, with research interests encompassing several high impact themes, including functional genomics and systems biology, developmental genetics, epigenetic Inheritance, evolution and population genetics, microbial genetics, and cell biology. (findamasters.com)
  • Immortal cell lines are a very important tool for research into the biochemistry and cell biology of multicellular organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immortalized cell lines are widely used as a simple model for more complex biological systems, for example for the analysis of the biochemistry and cell biology of mammalian (including human) cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This simplifies analysis of the biology of cells which may otherwise have a limited lifetime. (wikipedia.org)
  • This can alter the biology of the cell and must be taken into consideration in any analysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • fetal
  • Insulin-like 3 (INSL3) is a hormone produced by fetal and adult Leydig cells of the testis and by theca and luteal cells of the adult ovary. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Despite the importance of peritubular myoid (PM) cells in the histogenesis of the fetal testis, understanding the origin and function of these cells has been hampered by the lack of suitable markers. (biomedsearch.com)
  • primordial
  • Treatment with FST288 delayed germ cell nest breakdown, particularly near the periphery of the ovary, and dramatically decreased the percentage of primordial follicles. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Recent studies have demonstrated that it is possible to give rise to primordial germ cells from ES. (wikipedia.org)
  • In mammals, a few cells of the early embryo are induced by signals of neighboring cells to become primordial germ cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specification of primordial germ cells in the laboratory mouse is initiated by high levels of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling, which activates expression of the transcription factors Blimp-1/Prdm1 and Prdm14. (wikipedia.org)
  • Primordial germ cells, germ cells that still have to reach the gonads, also known as PGCs, precursor germ cells or gonocytes, divide repeatedly on their migratory route through the gut and into the developing gonads. (wikipedia.org)
  • During foetal development gonocytes develop from primordial germ cells and following this SSCs develop from gonocytes in the testis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Progenitor Cells
  • Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs), also known as oligodendrocyte precursor cells, NG2-glia or polydendrocytes, are a subtype of glial cells in the central nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells are a subtype of glial cells in the central nervous system, characterized by expression of the proteoglycans PDGFRA, and CSPG4. (wikipedia.org)
  • recombination
  • T cell revision is achieved via reactivation of recombination enzymes RAG1 and/or RAG2 after T cell activation in the periphery and random recombination of their CDR sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • involved in the regulation
  • Because of this special anatomical arrangement, teleosts are a unique experimental model for determining putative brain peptides or monoamines involved in the regulation of pituitary endocrine cells (Peter et al . (scielo.org.ar)
  • Gonads
  • In many animals, the germ cells originate in the primitive streak and migrate via the gut of an embryo to the developing gonads. (wikipedia.org)
  • After transport, involving passive movements and active migration, germ cells arrive at the developing gonads. (wikipedia.org)
  • After splitting into two populations, the germ cells continue migrating laterally and in parallel until they reach the gonads. (wikipedia.org)
  • Migration starts with 3-4 cells that undergo three rounds of cell division so that about 30 PGCs arrive at the gonads. (wikipedia.org)
  • Methods
  • Kirsanova, I. 2016-07-03 00:00:00 The histological organization and ploidy levels of the digestive gland cells in 34 species of prosobranch gastropod mollusks that belong to the subclasses Patellogastropoda, Vetigastropoda, and Caenogastropoda (orders Littorinimorpha and Neogastropoda) were investigated using histochemical methods and cytophotometry of nuclear DNA. (deepdyve.com)
  • There are several methods for generating immortalized cell lines: Isolation from a naturally occurring cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • abnormal
  • These results indicate that human colorectal carcinogenesis is accompanied by a progressive dysregulation of DNMT1 expression and suggest that abnormalities in DNMT1 expression may contribute to the abnormal CpG dinucleotide methylation changes characteristic of human colorectal carcinoma cell DNA. (aacrjournals.org)
  • How do cancer cells acquire abnormal CpG dinucleotide methylation patterns? (aacrjournals.org)
  • Plasma cell dyscrasias (also termed plasma cell disorders and plasma cell proliferative diseases) are a spectrum of progressively more severe monoclonal gammopathies in which a clone or multiple clones of pre-malignant or malignant plasma cells (sometimes in association with lymphoplasmacytoid cells or B lymphocytes) over-produce and secrete into the blood stream a myeloma protein, i.e. an abnormal monoclonal antibody or portion thereof. (wikipedia.org)
  • occur
  • Somatic changes in CpG dinucleotide methylation occur quite commonly in human cancer cell DNA. (aacrjournals.org)
  • First, different cells may have different lifespans even though they are originated from the same stem cells (See T-cells and erythrocytes), meaning that aging can occur differently in cells that have longer lifespans as opposed to the ones with shorter lifespans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Somatic embryogenesis has served as a model to understand the physiological and biochemical events that occur during plant developmental processes as well as a component to biotechnological advancement. (wikipedia.org)
  • Somatic embryogenesis has been described to occur in two ways: directly or indirectly. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulate
  • How these different types of biological information are integrated to regulate proliferation rates of ISCs is unclear. (biologists.org)
  • Stem-cell niche refers to a microenvironment, within the specific anatomic location where stem cells are found, which interacts with stem cells to regulate cell fate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several factors are important to regulate stem-cell characteristics within the niche: cell-cell interactions between stem cells, as well as interactions between stem cells and neighbouring differentiated cells, interactions between stem cells and adhesion molecules, extracellular matrix components, the oxygen tension, growth factors, cytokines, and the physicochemical nature of the environment including the pH, ionic strength (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • accumulation
  • This dysplasia phenotype is characterized by an accumulation of misdifferentiated cells at the basal membrane and by disruption of the apicobasal organization of the epithelium. (biologists.org)
  • induces
  • KLF4 is highly expressed in non-dividing cells and its overexpression induces cell cycle arrest. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, it has been shown that ICOS induces the secretion of IL-21 cytokine by activated CD4+ T cells and that IL-21 plays a crucial role in the development of TFH cells and germinal centers. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • Wunen proteins are chemorepellents that lead the germ cells away from the endoderm and into the mesoderm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Artificial expression of key proteins required for immortality, for example telomerase which prevents degradation of chromosome ends during DNA replication in eukaryotes Hybridoma technology, specifically used for the generation of immortalized antibody-producing B cell lines, where an antibody-producing B cell is fused with a myeloma (B cell cancer) cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several signaling molecules known to influence or control the formation of somatic embryos have been found and include extracellular proteins, arabinogalactan proteins and lipochitooligosaccharides. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plant transformations Mass propagation The development of somatic embryogenesis procedures has given rise to research on seed storage proteins (SSPs) of woody plants for tree species of commercial importance, i.e., mainly gymnosperms, including white spruce. (wikipedia.org)
  • The overproduced Ig's, termed myeloma proteins, commonly circulate in blood, may accumulate in urine, and are the hallmarks of plasma cell dyscrasias including their most malignant forms viz. (wikipedia.org)
  • bone marrow
  • In mammals, B cells mature in the bone marrow, which is at the core of most bones. (wikipedia.org)
  • The "B" from B cells comes from the name of this organ, where it was first discovered by Chang and Glick, and not from bone marrow as commonly believed). (wikipedia.org)
  • B cells develop from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) that originate from bone marrow. (wikipedia.org)
  • B cells undergo two types of selection while developing in the bone marrow to ensure proper development. (wikipedia.org)
  • To complete development, immature B cells migrate from the bone marrow to the spleen as well as pass through two transitional stages: T1 and T2. (wikipedia.org)
  • After B cells mature in the bone marrow, they migrate through the blood to SLOs, which receive a constant supply of antigen through circulating lymph. (wikipedia.org)
  • MCL may also replace normal cells in the bone marrow, which impairs normal blood cell production. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mantle cell lymphoma is a systemic disease with frequent involvement of the bone marrow and gastrointestinal tract (generally showing polyposis in the lining). (wikipedia.org)
  • For this reason, both the peripheral blood and bone marrow are evaluated for the presence of malignant cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Telomerase
  • Beyond unicellular organisms) Telomerase is active in normal stem cells and most cancer cells, but is normally absent from, or at very low levels in, most somatic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The role of telomeres and telomerase in cell aging and cancer was established by scientists at biotechnology company Geron with the cloning of the RNA and catalytic components of human telomerase and the development of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based assay for telomerase activity called the TRAP assay, which surveys telomerase activity in multiple types of cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Telomerase replaces short bits of DNA known as telomeres, which are otherwise shortened when a cell divides via mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • In normal circumstances, absent telomerase, if a cell divides recursively, at some point the progeny reach their Hayflick limit, which is believed to be between 50-70 cell divisions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Telomerase allows each offspring to replace the lost bit of DNA allowing the cell line to divide without ever reaching the limit. (wikipedia.org)
  • In adults, telomerase is highly expressed only in cells that need to divide regularly especially in male sperm cells[citation needed] but also in epidermal cells, in activated T cell and B cell lymphocytes, as well as in certain adult stem cells, but in the great majority of cases somatic cells do not express telomerase. (wikipedia.org)
  • processes
  • OPCs receive preferred somatic contacts from fast-spiking GABAergic neurons, while non-fast spiking interneurons have a preference for contacting the processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • undergo
  • Of the three B cell subsets, FO B cells preferentially undergo T cell-dependent activation while MZ B cells and B1 B cells preferentially undergo T cell-independent activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Germ cells produce gametes and are the only cells that can undergo meiosis as well as mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Major examples include human HeLa cells that were obtained from a cervical cancer, mouse Raw 264.7 cells that were subjected to mutagenesis and then selected for cells which are able to undergo division. (wikipedia.org)
  • ligand
  • The EGF ligand Vein is expressed in the muscle surrounding the intestinal epithelium, providing a permissive signal for ISC proliferation. (biologists.org)
  • If these receptors do not bind to their ligand, B cells do not receive the proper signals and cease to develop. (wikipedia.org)
  • induce
  • They are named as such because they are unable to induce a humoral response in organisms that lack T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The stem cells and niche may induce each other during development and reciprocally signal to maintain each other during adulthood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Yet the niche may also induce pathologies by imposing aberrant function on stem cells or other targets. (wikipedia.org)
  • markers
  • In adenomatous polyps, although DNMT1 expression coincided with the expression of other cell proliferation markers, many DNMT1-expressing cells also expressed p21. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In this area of study, SSPs are used as markers to determine the embryogenic potential and competency of the embryogenic system to produce a somatic embryo biochemically similar to its zygotic counterpart (Flinn et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • germline
  • Unlike the first generation of iPSCs, these second generation iPSCs produced viable chimeric mice and contributed to the mouse germline, thereby achieving the 'gold standard' for pluripotent stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Normally
  • However, the cited gene changes can go awry in plasma cells by, for example, placing a gene that ordinarily controls cell growth adjacent to the normally highly active antibody gene promotor thereby creating a cancer-causing oncogene or, more commonly, by forming extra chromosomes (see trisomy) or chromosomes that have deleted or repetitive sections, any of which such changes may promote malignancy in more complex and less well understood ways. (wikipedia.org)
  • absence
  • In contrast to the inhibition of LH-stimulated testosterone production by MYX, the incubation of Leydig cells with MYX in the absence of LH stimulated testosterone production. (biomedsearch.com)