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  • Hydrocarbon
  • Special boiling point (SBP) solvents are versatile fast to medium evaporating aliphatic hydrocarbon fluids with very low impurities and aromatics content and narrow boiling ranges. (shell.com)
  • Pentane is a high purity aliphatic hydrocarbon solvent primarily used as propellants in aerosols, as blowing agents in foams and as reaction media in polymerisation processes. (shell.com)
  • organic solvent or any material
  • A person shall not discharge into the atmosphere more than 3,000 pounds of organic materials in any one day, nor more than 450 pounds in any one hour, from any article, machine, equipment or other contrivance in which any non-photochemically reactive organic solvent or any material containing such solvent is employed or applied, unless said discharge has been reduced by at least 85 per-cent. (ca.gov)
  • Photochemically Reactive Solvent
  • Emissions of organic materials to the atmosphere from the cleanup with photochemically reactive solvent, as defined in section (J), of any article, machine, equipment or other contrivance described in sections (A), (B), or (C) shall be included with the other emissions or organic materials from that article, machine, equipment or other contrivance for determining compliance with this rule. (ca.gov)
  • toluene
  • The aromatic solvents available from Shell chemicals companies include pure aromatics like toluene and xylene (isomer mix) as well as a range of heavier C9 and C10 aromatic solvents sold under the ShellSol* name. (shell.com)
  • Ionic
  • They are classified as types of ionic solvents with special properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are four types of eutectic solvents: Type I Eutectics therefore also include the wide range of chlorometallate ionic liquids widely studied in the 1980s, such as the ever-popular imidazolium chloroaluminates which are based on mixtures of AlCl3 + 1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemical
  • This arrangement is mediated by the respective chemical properties of the solvent and solute, such as hydrogen bonding , dipole moment and polarizability . (princeton.edu)
  • Essentially, Breakthrough is a chemical solvent that is based on petroleum, but thanks to new technology has been distilled to the point where all the hazardous waste and carcinogens have been removed. (mountsplus.com)
  • Exposure to solvents and other organic liquids is one of the most common chemical health risk at places of work. (ilo.org)
  • Dry cleaning is any cleaning process for clothing and textiles that use a chemical solvent rather than water. (sgs.com)
  • Whenever any organic solvent or any constituent of an organic solvent may be classified from its chemical structure into more than one (1) of the above groups of organic compounds, it shall be considered as a member of the most reactive chemical group, that is, that group having the least allowable percentage of the total volume of solvents. (ca.gov)
  • Commercial Solvents Corporation (CSC) was an American chemical and biotechnology company created in 1919. (wikipedia.org)
  • Solvents find various applications in chemical, pharmaceutical, oil, and gas industries, including in chemical syntheses and purification processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because solvents are used by chemists to carry out chemical reactions or observe chemical and biological phenomena, more specific measures of polarity are required. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Grunwald-Winstein mY scale measures polarity in terms of solvent influence on buildup of positive charge of a solute during a chemical reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thermodynamically, the excess chemical potential of mixing between a polymer and a theta solvent is zero. (wikipedia.org)
  • Solvents can have an effect on solubility, stability and reaction rates and choosing the appropriate solvent allows for thermodynamic and kinetic control over a chemical reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, solvents can actually influence reaction rates and order of a chemical reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Solvent exposure occurs when a chemical, material, or person comes into contact with a solvent. (wikipedia.org)
  • These solvents are used in chemical research and industry for reactions that cannot occur in aqueous solutions or require a special environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • solutes
  • Solvent drag, also known as bulk transport, refers to solutes in the ultrafiltrate that are transported back from the renal tubule by the flow of water rather than specifically by ion pumps or other membrane transport proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • solubility
  • Incorporating microwave heating with deep eutectic solvent can efficiently increase the solubility power of DES and reduce the time required for complete dissolution of biological samples at atmospheric pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • polarity
  • Kosower's Z scale measures polarity in terms of the influence of the solvent on UV-absorption maxima of a salt, usually pyridinium iodide or the pyridinium zwitterion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Donor number and donor acceptor scale measures polarity in terms of how a solvent interacts with specific substances, like a strong Lewis acid or a strong Lewis base. (wikipedia.org)
  • In general, these solvents have high dielectric constants and high polarity. (wikipedia.org)
  • These solvents generally have intermediate dielectric constants and polarity. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is no one measure of solvent polarity and so classification of solvents based on polarity can be carried out using different scales. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a result, solvents of low polarity that do not readily form H bonds allow cis enolic stabilization by intramolecular H bonding. (wikipedia.org)
  • intermolecular
  • The intramolecular H bond formed in the cis enol form is more pronounced when there is no competition for intermolecular H bonding with the solvent. (wikipedia.org)
  • DMSO
  • Other solvents meeting IUPAC's criteria include DMF, HMPA, and DMSO. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the table above, it can be seen that water is the most polar-solvent, followed by DMSO, and then acetonitrile. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consider the following acid dissociation equilibrium: HA ⇌ A− + H+, Water, being the most polar-solvent listed above, stabilizes the ionized species to a greater extent than does DMSO or Acetonitrile. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the hydroxide ion is often a much stronger base in nonaqueous solvents (e.g. liquid ammonia, DMSO) than in water. (wikipedia.org)
  • acidities
  • Few quantitative studies on acidities in nonaqueous solvents have been carried out, although some qualitative data are available. (wikipedia.org)
  • Generally
  • Implicit models are generally computationally efficient and can provide a reasonable description of the solvent behaviour, but fail to account for the local fluctuations in solvent density around a solute molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Generally speaking, for implicit solvents, a calculation proceeds by encapsulating a solute in a tiled cavity (See the figure below). (wikipedia.org)
  • Generally speaking, hydrophobic amino acids will be buried inside the protein and thus shielded from the solvent, while hydrophilic amino acids will be close to the surface and thus exposed to the solvent. (wikipedia.org)
  • pesticides
  • DigiPath Labs will analyze samples of products sold by Euphoria Wellness for unsafe levels of contaminants such as heavy metals, microbes, mycotoxins, pesticides, and solvents, which can exacerbate patient health issues," says Todd Denkin, president of DigiPath Labs. (crrh.org)
  • substance
  • Breakthrough is a revolutionary, state of the art solvent that actually has used new technology to create a substance that is now quicker to use and safer than ever before. (mountsplus.com)
  • water
  • 4.5.1 The volatile content of material consists only of water and organic solvents, and 4.5.2 The organic solvents content comprises not more than 20 percent by volume of the total volatile content, and 4.5.3 The volatile content is not photochemically reactive, and 4.5.4 The organic solvent does not come into contact with flame. (ca.gov)
  • Water is a solvent for sugar. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • showed that water can be present as part of the solvent, being strongly retained in the liquid and which cannot be evaporated. (wikipedia.org)
  • The density fluctuation behaviour is due to solvent ordering around a solute and is particularly prevalent when one is considering water as the solvent. (wikipedia.org)
  • In biology, the solvent exposure of an amino acid in a protein measures to what extent the amino acid is accessible to the solvent (usually water) surrounding the protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • In another case, the solvation of the polymer Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) in DES is distinct from water, whereby the DES appear to be a better solvent for the polymer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Likewise, the limiting base in a given solvent is the solvate ion, such as OH− (hydroxide) ion, in water. (wikipedia.org)
  • petroleum
  • Cleaning firearms has always been a tricky process as standard solvents contain petroleum and other toxic chemicals that may do harm when exposed to over a long period of time. (mountsplus.com)
  • The most common cold solvent operation, this is usually used in small maintenance degreasers using a petroleum or mineral solvent. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is a high danger of fire when using petroleum and mineral solvents. (wikipedia.org)
  • residue
  • Effective: This solvent will remove all residue and fouling in your firearms as well as from different materials as well such as copper, brass and carbon. (mountsplus.com)
  • Exposure
  • Exposure to large doses of solvents may slow down reaction- time and affect rational judgement. (ilo.org)
  • Solvent exposure can be numerically described by several measures, the most popular measures being accessible surface area and relative accessible surface area. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hamelryck T. (2005) An amino acid has two sides: A new 2D measure provides a different view of solvent exposure. (wikipedia.org)
  • substances
  • With Breakthrough, you can put away the old toxic solvents of the past and now rely upon one that works better while containing very few harmful substances. (mountsplus.com)
  • It is used as a solvent in many areas of industries, such as rubber and shoe manufacturing, and in the production of other important substances such as styrene, phenol and cyclohexane. (ilo.org)
  • A solvent cabinet should be positioned separately from acid cabinet or base cabinet (used for storing acids and caustic bases respectively, as solvents are not compatible with these substances. (wikipedia.org)
  • chemicals
  • Shell Chemicals are leading global suppliers of solvents, with strategically located plants offering continuous long term supply. (shell.com)
  • Shell Chemicals have in-depth knowledge of solvents products, their applications, and health, safety and environment issues. (shell.com)
  • Some carts for transporting containers of chemicals come equipped with a built in solvent cabinet). (wikipedia.org)
  • acid
  • A human solvent would be sulfuric acid. (usingenglish.com)
  • The ionization equilibrium of an acid or a base is affected by a solvent change. (wikipedia.org)
  • An acid which has more of a tendency to donate a hydrogen ion than the limiting acid will be a strong acid in the solvent considered, and will exist mostly or entirely in its dissociated form. (wikipedia.org)
  • There exists a large corpus of data concerning acid strengths in aqueous solution (pKa values), and it is tempting to transfer this to other solvents. (wikipedia.org)
  • HPLC
  • UltimAR solvents meet or exceed ACS specifications for HPLC and UV spectrophotometry applications, and give you the mobile phase purity you need for success in general lab use as well. (jtbaker.com)
  • Perform liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrometry (LC-MS) applications with this 99.5%-pure DMF solvent (MW 73.09, CAS 68-12-2) with low UV-absorptivity. (fishersci.com)