• compounds
  • CFCs, also known as chlorofluorocarbons, are compounds that are most commonly used as refrigerants, propellants and solvents. (reference.com)
  • Introduction This paper presents the results of a scaled and phased approach to source remediation of high concentrations of recalcitrant chlorinated solvent compounds via soil vapor extraction (SVE) and vapor treatment at a Site in Southern California. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Supercritical carbon dioxide as solvent for organic compounds present in aqueous salt solutions (G. Sieder, G. Maurer). (elsevier.com)
  • The CAR/PDMS SPME fiber in combination with the Supel-Q PLOT GC column provided the selectivity for the solvents analyzed, and could be used for lists including lighter compounds, such as butane and propane. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Quantum solvation has so far been achieved with a number of organic, inorganic and organometallic compounds, and it has been speculated that as well as the obvious use in the field of spectroscopy, quantum solvents could be used as tools in nanoscale chemical engineering, perhaps to manufacture components for use in nanotechnology. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast with ordinary solvents, such as Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC), DESs have a very low vapour pressure, and thus are non-flammable. (wikipedia.org)
  • acetone
  • Common uses for organic solvents are in dry cleaning (e.g. tetrachloroethylene), as paint thinners (e.g. toluene, turpentine), as nail polish removers and glue solvents (acetone, methyl acetate, ethyl acetate), in spot removers (e.g. hexane, petrol ether), in detergents (citrus terpenes) and in perfumes (ethanol). (wikipedia.org)
  • organic solvent
  • A person shall not discharge into the atmosphere more than 3,000 pounds of organic materials in any one day, nor more than 450 pounds in any one hour, from any article, machine, equipment or other contrivance in which any non-photochemically reactive organic solvent or any material containing such solvent is employed or applied, unless said discharge has been reduced by at least 85 per-cent. (ca.gov)
  • Any person using organic solvents or any materials containing organic solvents shall supply the Air Pollution Control Officer, upon request and in the manner and form prescribed by him, written evidence of the chemical compositions, physical properties and amount consumed for each organic solvent used. (ca.gov)
  • It is usually used as a solution in an organic solvent. (wikipedia.org)
  • mixtures
  • Fluid phase equilibria of binary mixtures with supercritical solvents with in-situ concentration measurements by Raman spectroscopy (A. Stratmann, G. Schweiger). (elsevier.com)
  • The first generation eutectic solvents were based on mixtures of quaternary ammonium salts with hydrogen bond donors such as amines and carboxylic acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are four types of eutectic solvents: Type I Eutectics therefore also include the wide range of chlorometallate ionic liquids widely studied in the 1980s, such as the ever-popular imidazolium chloroaluminates which are based on mixtures of AlCl3 + 1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride. (wikipedia.org)
  • solubility
  • Solvents can have an effect on solubility, stability and reaction rates and choosing the appropriate solvent allows for thermodynamic and kinetic control over a chemical reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Incorporating microwave heating with deep eutectic solvent can efficiently increase the solubility power of DES and reduce the time required for complete dissolution of biological samples at atmospheric pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • intermolecular
  • The intermolecular interactions between polymer chain segments and coordinated solvent molecules have an associated energy of interaction which can be positive or negative. (wikipedia.org)
  • The intramolecular H bond formed in the cis enol form is more pronounced when there is no competition for intermolecular H bonding with the solvent. (wikipedia.org)
  • DMSO
  • Other solvents meeting IUPAC's criteria include DMF, HMPA, and DMSO. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the table above, it can be seen that water is the most polar-solvent, followed by DMSO, and then acetonitrile. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consider the following acid dissociation equilibrium: HA ⇌ A− + H+, Water, being the most polar-solvent listed above, stabilizes the ionized species to a greater extent than does DMSO or Acetonitrile. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the hydroxide ion is often a much stronger base in nonaqueous solvents (e.g. liquid ammonia, DMSO) than in water. (wikipedia.org)
  • acidities
  • Few quantitative studies on acidities in nonaqueous solvents have been carried out, although some qualitative data are available. (wikipedia.org)
  • Generally
  • Generally speaking, hydrophobic amino acids will be buried inside the protein and thus shielded from the solvent, while hydrophilic amino acids will be close to the surface and thus exposed to the solvent. (wikipedia.org)
  • substances
  • Solvents are substances that are capable of dissolving or dispersing one or more other substances. (cdc.gov)
  • A solvent cabinet should be positioned separately from acid cabinet or base cabinet (used for storing acids and caustic bases respectively, as solvents are not compatible with these substances. (wikipedia.org)
  • reactions
  • Thus, equilibrium-solvent effects are observed in reactions that tend to have sharp barriers and weakly dipolar, rapidly relaxing solvents. (wikipedia.org)
  • These solvents are used in chemical research and industry for reactions that cannot occur in aqueous solutions or require a special environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sulfuryl chloride fluoride is the solvent of choice for many reactions that deal with extreme oxidants. (wikipedia.org)
  • aqueous
  • Aplogies for the cross posting, but where can I find a list of solvents (organic/aqueous) which could be added to the human system? (bio.net)
  • There exists a large corpus of data concerning acid strengths in aqueous solution (pKa values), and it is tempting to transfer this to other solvents. (wikipedia.org)
  • reactive
  • Emissions of organic materials to the atmosphere from the cleanup with photochemically reactive solvent, as defined in section (J), of any article, machine, equipment or other contrivance described in sections (A), (B), or (C) shall be included with the other emissions or organic materials from that article, machine, equipment or other contrivance for determining compliance with this rule. (ca.gov)
  • contaminants
  • DigiPath Labs will analyze samples of products sold by Euphoria Wellness for unsafe levels of contaminants such as heavy metals, microbes, mycotoxins, pesticides, and solvents, which can exacerbate patient health issues," says Todd Denkin, president of DigiPath Labs. (crrh.org)
  • bases
  • LOCATION: Dover, DelawarePROJECT DATE: October 1999 to presentCLIENT: Air Force Center for Environmental Excellence (AFCEE) BACKGROUND: Groundwater contaminated with chlorinated solvents is a common problem to many US Air Force Bases. (environmental-expert.com)
  • The classic example is a mixture of antimony pentafluoride and liquid hydrogen fluoride: SbF5 + HF ⇌ H+ + SbF6− The limiting base, the hexfluoroantimonate anion SbF6−, is so weakly attracted to the hydrogen ion that virtually any other base will bind more strongly: hence, this mixture can be used to protonate organic molecules which would not be considered bases in other solvents. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • Organic solvents are carbon-based solvents (i.e., they contain carbon in their molecular structure). (cdc.gov)
  • M is the molecular weight of the polymer R is the gas constant T is the absolute temperature B is the second virial coefficient This relationship with osmotic pressure is one way to determine the theta condition or theta temperature for a solvent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemical
  • Eastman Omnia solvent from the Eastman Chemical Company adheres to state and federal regulations and even carries third-party certifications for safety and environmental friendliness, yet it cleans more effectively than even harsh products on the market. (trendhunter.com)
  • It is based on the research program 'Supercritical fluids as solvents and reaction media' on the initiative of the 'GVC-Fachausschuß Hochdruckverfahrenstechnik' (i.e. the German working party on High Pressure Chemical Engineering of the Society of Chemical Engineers). (elsevier.com)
  • Contains results of projects within the research program on 'Supercritical fluids as solvents and reaction media' on the initiative of the German working party on High Pressure Chemical Engineering of the Society of Chemical Engineers. (elsevier.com)
  • Commercial Solvents Corporation (CSC) was an American chemical and biotechnology company created in 1919. (wikipedia.org)
  • Solvents find various applications in chemical, pharmaceutical, oil, and gas industries, including in chemical syntheses and purification processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thermodynamically, the excess chemical potential of mixing between a polymer and a theta solvent is zero. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, solvents can actually influence reaction rates and order of a chemical reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Solvent exposure occurs when a chemical, material, or person comes into contact with a solvent. (wikipedia.org)
  • exposure
  • In biology, the solvent exposure of an amino acid in a protein measures to what extent the amino acid is accessible to the solvent (usually water) surrounding the protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Solvent exposure can be numerically described by several measures, the most popular measures being accessible surface area and relative accessible surface area. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hamelryck T. (2005) An amino acid has two sides: A new 2D measure provides a different view of solvent exposure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Water
  • Chlorinated solvent contamination of groundwater is a recognized barrier to both potable water use and brownfield site redevelopment in Canada. (environmental-expert.com)
  • showed that water can be present as part of the solvent, being strongly retained in the liquid and which cannot be evaporated. (wikipedia.org)
  • In another case, the solvation of the polymer Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) in DES is distinct from water, whereby the DES appear to be a better solvent for the polymer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Likewise, the limiting base in a given solvent is the solvate ion, such as OH− (hydroxide) ion, in water. (wikipedia.org)
  • However
  • However, when a theta solvent is used, the measured characteristics are independent of the solvent. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the work piece may also be sprayed or have solvent directly whipped on it. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, such differential solvation requires rapid reorientational relaxation of the solvent (from the transition state orientation back to the ground-state orientation). (wikipedia.org)
  • Any superfluid can theoretically act as a quantum solvent, however in practice the only viable superfluid medium that can currently be used is helium-4, and it has been successfully accomplished in controlled conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • dipole
  • Stabilization of the reactant or product can occur through any of the different non-covalent interactions with the solvent such as H-bonding, dipole-dipole interactions, van der waals interactions etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • solvation
  • In essence, the reaction rates are influenced by differential solvation of the starting material and transition state by the solvent. (wikipedia.org)
  • often
  • they are often used as solvents. (wikipedia.org)
  • Red and yellow solvent dyes are often azo dyes, green and blue ones tend to be anthraquinone dyes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Explicit models are often less computationally economical, but can provide a physical spatially resolved description of the solvent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Often, reactivity and reaction mechanisms are pictured as the behavior of isolated molecules in which the solvent is treated as a passive support. (wikipedia.org)
  • Solvent suppression techniques are particularly important in protein NMR where the solvent often includes H2O as well as D2O. (wikipedia.org)