• solute
  • The IUPAC further recommends "partition ratio" for cases where transfer activity coefficients can be determined, and "distribution ratio" for the ratio of total analytical concentrations of a solute between phases, regardless of chemical form. (wikipedia.org)
  • The partition coefficient, abbreviated P, is defined as a particular ratio of the concentrations of a solute between the two solvents (a biphase of liquid phases), specifically for un-ionized solutes, and the logarithm of the ratio is thus log P. When one of the solvents is water and the other is a non-polar solvent, then the log P value is a measure of lipophilicity or hydrophobicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Substitution
  • However, the HOMO-LUMO energy gap is such that the roles can be reversed by switching the substitution pattern: i.e. the diene's Ψ3 might be considered the LUMO if electron withdrawing group (EWG) substituents make it sufficiently electron-deficient and electron donating groups (EDGs) raise the dienophile's filled π orbital's energy sufficiently to make it the HOMO. (wikipedia.org)
  • silica
  • Thin-layer chromatography is performed on a sheet of glass, plastic, or aluminium foil, which is coated with a thin layer of adsorbent material, usually silica gel, aluminium oxide (alumina), or cellulose. (wikipedia.org)
  • mobile phase
  • The solvent is allowed to completely evaporate off to prevent it from interfering with sample's interactions with the mobile phase in the next step. (wikipedia.org)
  • The addition of micelles to the mobile phase introduces a third phase into which the solutes may partition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Overall, the interface is a mechanically simple part of the LC-MS system that transfers the maximum amount of analyte, removes a significant portion of the mobile phase used in LC and preserves the chemical identity of the chromatography products (chemically inert). (wikipedia.org)
  • In the capillary inlet interface, the evaporation of the mobile phase inside the capillary was one of the main issues. (wikipedia.org)
  • The eluate is the mobile phase leaving the column. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mobile phase is the phase that moves in a definite direction. (wikipedia.org)
  • detection
  • In this webinar, Łukasz Rajski, who works in the laboratory of Dr. Amadeo R. Fernández-Alba at the University of Almería in Spain, talks about the application and evaluation of ion chromatography coupled to Orbitrap mass spectrometry for multiresidue detection of polar pesticides in fruits and vegetables. (thermofisher.com)
  • capabilities
  • This pioneer interface for LC-MS had the same analysis capabilities of GC-MS and was limited to rather volatile analytes and non-polar compounds with low molecular mass (below 400 Da). (wikipedia.org)
  • capillary
  • To run a thin layer chromatography plate, the following procedure is carried out: Using a capillary, a small spot of solution containing the sample is applied to a plate, about 1.5 centimeters from the bottom edge. (wikipedia.org)
  • interaction
  • A corresponding partition coefficient for ionizable compounds, abbreviated log P I, is derived for cases where there are dominant ionized forms of the molecule, such that one must consider partition of all forms, ionized and un-ionized, between the two phases (as well as the interaction of the two equilibria, partition and ionization). (wikipedia.org)
  • Regardless of which situation pertains, the HOMO and LUMO of the components are in phase and a bonding interaction results as can be seen in the diagram below. (wikipedia.org)
  • partition
  • Partition coefficients can also be defined when one of the phases is solid, for instance, when one phase is a molten metal and the second is a solid metal, or when both phases are solids. (wikipedia.org)
  • paper
  • A strip of filter paper (aka "wick") is put into the chamber so that its bottom touches the solvent and the paper lies on the chamber wall and reaches almost to the top of the container. (wikipedia.org)
  • highly
  • For example, the micelles are, by nature, spatially heterogeneous with a hydrocarbon, nearly anhydrous core and a highly solvated, polar head group. (wikipedia.org)