• ligand
  • It serves as a non-ligand-binding accessory component of the receptors for IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, and IL-33 (6, 7). (rndsystems.com)
  • It interacts with Janus kinases to elicit an intracellular signal following receptor interaction with its ligand. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ligand for ST2 is the cytokine Interleukin-33(IL-33). (wikipedia.org)
  • Upon ligand binding, receptor recruitment in specialized membrane compartments, formation of receptor-ligand clusters and internalisation processes constitute key regulatory elements. (mdpi.com)
  • Receptor-ligand systems of this group are critically involved in various cellular signalling pathways such as inflammation, lymphocyte homeostasis, apoptosis and tissue development [ 2 , 3 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • At the time of discovery, a subgroup of the TNFRSF, the so-called death receptors (DR), attracted considerable interest as robust cell-death induction upon ligand binding was recognised and triggered the ambitious goal for exploitation in therapeutic settings such as cancer therapy. (mdpi.com)
  • Depending on individual (patho-) physiological circumstances, cell-type and involved receptor-ligand system, cellular responses range from activation of pro-inflammatory and potentially pro-tumoural pathways such as nuclear factor κB (NFκB), to caspase-dependent and -independent mechanisms of cell death induction. (mdpi.com)
  • Interaction of LFA-1 with its main ligand, ICAM-1 (CD54), is important for a variety of adhesion-dependent functions of leukocytes ( 3 , 4 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Another related ligand, IL-1R antagonist (IL-1ra and IL-1F3), competes with IL-1α and -1β for binding to IL-1R. (rupress.org)
  • IL-18 (IL-1F4) is another IL-1 ligand family member involved in inflammation ( 7 , 8 ). (rupress.org)
  • Several IL-1 ligand and receptor family members have been implicated in cutaneous inflammation. (rupress.org)
  • Stimulation of CXCR1 in neutrophils by its primary ligand, Interleukin 8, leads to neutrophil chemotaxis and activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fas forms the death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) upon ligand binding. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • 1991). "Organization of the murine and human interleukin-7 receptor genes: two mRNAs generated by differential splicing and presence of a type I-interferon-inducible promoter. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Even in Caenorhabditis elegans , genes displaying homology to the mammalian C-type lectin-like receptors have been detected. (hindawi.com)
  • In this paper, we conduct a comprehensive phylogenetic survey and give an up-to-date overview of the currently available data on the evolutionary emergence of the DECTIN-1 cluster genes. (hindawi.com)
  • It comprises genes encoding well-studied proteins like DC-associated C-type lectin-1 (DECTIN-1), lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1), C-type lectin-like receptor-1 (CLEC-1), and CLEC-2 [ 18 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Genes encoding several IL-1-related ligands (from IL1F5 to IL1F10 ) have been discovered and map to human chromosome 2q, the same locus as IL1A , -1B , and -1RN ( 1 , 19 - 25 ). (rupress.org)
  • lymphocyte
  • The levels of other cytokines such as IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-13 and transforming growth factor β, as well as soluble cell adhesion molecules lymphocyte function-associated antigen 3 and intercellular adhesion molecule 1, were not significantly different compared with controls. (springer.com)
  • 1997). "Bcl-2 can rescue T lymphocyte development in interleukin-7 receptor-deficient mice but not in mutant rag-1-/- mice. (thefullwiki.org)
  • IL-1α is also known as fibroblast-activating factor (FAF), lymphocyte-activating factor (LAF), B-cell-activating factor (BAF), leukocyte endogenous mediator (LEM), epidermal cell-derived thymocyte-activating factor (ETAF), serum amyloid A inducer or hepatocyte-stimulating factor (HSP), catabolin, hemopoetin-1 (H-1), endogenous pyrogen (EP), and proteolysis-inducing factor (PIF). (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, the Fas receptor also mediates tumor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) anti-tumor cytotoxicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Characterized Type 1 cells include H9, CH1, SKW6.4 and SW480, all of which are lymphocyte lineages except the latter, which is a colon adenocarcinoma lineage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some interleukins are classified as lymphokines, lymphocyte-produced cytokines that mediate immune responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • PMID
  • Interleukin-1 alpha and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta) are cytokines that participate in the regulation of immune responses, inflammatory reactions, and hematopoiesis [ PMID: 2969618 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Two types of IL-1 receptor, each with three extracellular immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domains, limited sequence similarity (28%) and different pharmacological characteristics have been cloned from mouse and human cell lines: these have been termed type I and type II receptors [ PMID: 8702856 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Both IL-1 receptors appear to be well conserved in evolution, and map to the same chromosomal location [ PMID: 1833184 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The crystal structures of IL1A and IL1B [ PMID: 2602367 ] have been solved, showing them to share the same 12-stranded beta-sheet structure as both the heparin binding growth factors and the Kunitz-type soybean trypsin inhibitors [ PMID: 1738162 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • A novel method for virus immune evasion has been proposed in which the product of one or both of these proteins may bind interleukin-1 and/or interleukin-6, preventing these cytokines reaching their natural receptors [ PMID: 1826022 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • This entry represents Interleukin-1 receptor type 1 (IL1R1), the crystal structure of the soluble extracellular part of type-I IL1R complexed with IL1RA has been determined to 2.7A resolution [ PMID: 9062194 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • murine
  • 1996). "Interleukin-7 signaling in human B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells and murine BAF3 cells involves activation of STAT1 and STAT5 mediated via the interleukin-7 receptor alpha chain. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Wild-type SHIP and a phosphatase-deficient mutant SHIP were overexpressed in the murine myeloid cell line, DA-ER, and the effects on LFA-1-mediated cell adhesion to ICAM-1 (CD54) were tested. (jimmunol.org)
  • Tumor
  • Germline mutations of the extracellular domains of this receptor were found to be associated with the human genetic disorder called tumor necrosis factor associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS) or periodic fever syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • TGF-β1, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1, nerve growth factor, and keratinocyte growth factor are factors that have been shown to regulate TN-C. Other extracellular matrix components such as matrix metalloproteins and integrins are also frequently co-expressed with TN-C. In the developing central nervous system, TN-C is involved in regulating the proliferation of both oligodendrocyte precursor cells and astrocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • CSCs are therefore tumorigenic (tumor-forming), perhaps in contrast to other non-tumorigenic cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • As CSCs form a small proportion of the tumor, this may not necessarily select for drugs that act specifically on the stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The theory suggests that conventional chemotherapies kill differentiated or differentiating cells, which form the bulk of the tumor but do not generate new cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In different tumor subtypes, cells within the tumor population exhibit functional heterogeneity and tumors are formed from cells with various proliferative and differentiation capacities. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • This complex of 3 proteins then homodimerizes to form a hexameric complex which can produce downstream signals. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are many other proteins which associate with gp130, such as cardiotrophin 1 (CT-1), leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), oncostatin M (OSM), and IL-11. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this study, we investigate whether a cascade of events (including death receptor activation, alteration in the ratio of proapoptosis- and antiapoptosis-regulating proteins in mitochondria, altered mitochondrial activity and location, cytochrome c accumulation, and cleavage of caspases into active subunits) leads to apoptotic neurodegeneration in the thalamus after neonatal hypoxia-ischemia. (jneurosci.org)
  • The present invention provides novel proteins which show homology to interleukin-10 (IL-10) and polynucleotides encoding such proteins, along with therapeutic, diagnostic and research utilities for these polynucleotides and proteins. (google.com.au)
  • Evolutionarily, these proteins evolved with or soon after the divergence of bony fish and tetrapods, approximately 350-450 million years ago [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Pattern recognition receptors are crucial in initiating and shaping innate and adaptive immune responses and often belong to families of structurally and evolutionarily related proteins. (hindawi.com)
  • C-type lectin receptors were originally defined by their carbohydrate-binding function, which enables them to bind to complex oligosaccharides displayed on various biological structures such as cell surfaces, circulating proteins, and extracellular matrices. (hindawi.com)
  • It was not until 1985 that interleukin 1 was discovered to consist of two distinct proteins, now called interleukin-1 alpha and interleukin-1 beta. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 31 kDa IL-1α precursor is synthesized in association with cytoskeletal structures (microtubules), unlike most secreted proteins, which are translated on ribosomes associated with rough endoplasmic reticulum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Greek: big eaters, from Greek μακρός (makrós) = large, φαγείν (phageín) = to eat) are a type of white blood cell that engulfs and digests cellular debris, foreign substances, microbes, cancer cells, and anything else that does not have the types of proteins specific to healthy body cells on its surface in a process called phagocytosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • They can be identified using flow cytometry or immunohistochemical staining by their specific expression of proteins such as CD14, CD40, CD11b, CD64, F4/80 (mice)/EMR1 (human), lysozyme M, MAC-1/MAC-3 and CD68. (wikipedia.org)
  • they produce a wide array of powerful chemical substances (monokines) including enzymes, complement proteins, and regulatory factors such as interleukin-1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interleukins are a group of cytokines (secreted proteins and signal molecules) that were first seen to be expressed by white blood cells (leukocytes). (wikipedia.org)
  • death receptor
  • Increased levels of Fas death receptor, Bax, and cytochrome c, activation of caspase 8, and abnormalities in mitochondria in the thalamus significantly precede the activation of caspase 3 and the appearance of neuronal apoptosis at 24 hr. (jneurosci.org)
  • We conclude that the delayed neurodegeneration in neonatal rat ventral basal thalamus after hypoxic-ischemic injury is apoptosis mediated by death receptor activation. (jneurosci.org)
  • However, the complexity of death receptor signalling has increased substantially during recent years. (mdpi.com)
  • In this review, we will summarise the current concepts of death receptor trafficking and its implications on receptor-associated signalling events. (mdpi.com)
  • The Fas receptor is a death receptor on the surface of cells that leads to programmed cell death (apoptosis). (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • Receptors on the surface of immune cells, which bind to molecular patterns common to certain classes of pathogens, such as components of bacterial or fungal cell walls, play a crucial part in the immediate innate immune response to these pathogens as well as in shaping and regulating the subsequent adaptive immune response. (hindawi.com)
  • Encyclopedia of Molecular Pharmacology, Vol. 1 (2nd ed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular cloning of the Interleukin 1 Beta converting enzyme is generated by the proteolytic cleavage of an inactive precursor molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • interact
  • LFA-1 expressed on resting cells in general does not strongly interact with ICAM-1. (jimmunol.org)
  • However, ceramide can possibly interact with other lipids to form bigger regions called microdomains which restrict its flip-flopping abilities. (wikipedia.org)
  • pattern recogniti
  • Innate immune signaling via pattern recognition receptors, such as the Toll-like receptors [ 1 ], has even received media attention recently, as the 2011 Nobel prize for medicine was awarded to Bruce A. Beutler and Jules A. Hoffman "for their discoveries concerning the activation of innate immunity" [ 2 , 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • These PAMPs bind to an important group of detection molecules of the innate immune system, called pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), including Toll-like receptors (TLRs). (wikipedia.org)
  • apoptosis
  • This receptor is reported to enhance cell proliferation and expression of apoptosis inhibitor BCL2L1/BCL2-XL and BCL2. (wikipedia.org)
  • This receptor can activate the transcription factor NF-κB, mediate apoptosis, and function as a regulator of inflammation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In cultured cells, FasL induces various types of cancer cell apoptosis through the Fas receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some reports have suggested that the extrinsic Fas pathway is sufficient to induce complete apoptosis in certain cell types through DISC assembly and subsequent caspase-8 activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cells are dubbed Type 1 cells and are characterized by the inability of anti-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family (namely Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL) to protect from Fas-mediated apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, there is also sufficient evidence which implicates ceramide to the activation of the kinase suppressor of Ras (KSR), PKCζ, and cathepsin D. Interestingly, cathepsin D has been proposed as the main target for ceramide formed in organelles called lysosomes, making lysosomal acidic SMase enzymes one of the key players in the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The same results were found for certain inducers of apoptosis particularly stimulators of receptors in a class of lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell) called B-cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzyme
  • FADD also contains a death effector domain (DED) near its amino terminus, which facilitates binding to the DED of FADD-like interleukin-1 beta-converting enzyme (FLICE), more commonly referred to as caspase-8. (wikipedia.org)
  • FLICE can then self-activate through proteolytic cleavage into p10 and p18 subunits, two each of which form the active heterotetramer enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • The propeptide is removed through cleavage by a furin type protease yielding the active enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • A plasma enzyme called lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) converts the free cholesterol into cholesteryl ester (a more hydrophobic form of cholesterol), which is then sequestered into the core of the lipoprotein particle, eventually causing the newly synthesized HDL to assume a spherical shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recombinant expression enables cells to process precursor Interleukin 1 Beta to the mature form of the enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • precursor
  • IL-1α is a unique member in the cytokine family in the sense that the structure of its initially synthesized precursor does not contain a signal peptide fragment (same is known for IL-1β and IL-18). (wikipedia.org)
  • Calpain, a calcium-activated cysteine protease, associated with the plasma membrane, is primarily responsible for the cleavage of the IL-1α precursor into a mature molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both the 31kDa precursor form of IL-1α and its 18kDa mature form are biologically active. (wikipedia.org)
  • The constitutive production of large amounts of IL-1α precursor by healthy epidermal keratinocytes interfere with the important role of IL-1α in immune responses, assuming skin as a barrier, which prevents the entry of pathogenic microorganisms into the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, when mice with this genetic deletion have wild-type neural precursor cells injected into their hippocampus and these cells are allowed to mature into astrocytes containing the interleukin-1 receptors, the mice exhibit normal hippocampal-dependent memory function, and partial restoration of long-term potentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1999
  • 1999). "Induction of germline transcription in the TCRgamma locus by Stat5: implications for accessibility control by the IL-7 receptor. (thefullwiki.org)
  • immune
  • Augmented immune tolerance during pregnancy prevents onset of inflammatory immune responses that may cause fetal rejection [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • By binding to these structures, C-type lectins mediate a variety of crucial cellular processes including cell adhesion, serum glycoprotein turnover and quick innate-type immune responses to potential pathogens [ 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The data indicate that activity of the humoral (cryoglobulinaemia, RF, autoantibodies) and cellular (sIL2r, sICAM-1, sCD30) immune response and endothelial damage (sICAM-1) are found in HCV associated CV. (bmj.com)
  • Interleukin 6 is secreted by T cells and macrophages to stimulate immune response, e.g. during infection and after trauma, especially burns or other tissue damage leading to inflammation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interleukin 6 (IL6) is a potent pleiotropic cytokine that regulates cell growth and differentiation and plays an important role in immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • The function of the immune system depends in a large part on interleukins, and rare deficiencies of a number of them have been described, all featuring autoimmune diseases or immune deficiency. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathway
  • Mechanistically, these findings raised the question how multipurpose receptors can ensure selective activation of a particular pathway. (mdpi.com)
  • Concomitant with the awareness that DR signalling can be considered as a double-edged sword, the question how these multipurpose receptors ensure selective activation of a particular pathway raised. (mdpi.com)
  • TN-C also interacts with one or more TN-C receptors on cells which activate and repress the same signal transduction pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the result, VLDLs are processed to LDL, which are removed from the circulation by the LDL receptor pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytoplasmic
  • The shared subunits contain the cytoplasmic motifs required for signal transduction, and this forms the basis of many overlapping biological activities of IL15 and IL2, although in vivo the two cytokines have separate biological effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathways
  • Although the inside-out signaling pathways by which LFA-1-mediated cell adhesion is regulated are largely unknown, they have been associated with increases in phosphoinositide hydrolysis. (jimmunol.org)
  • neutrophils
  • IL-1α is produced mainly by activated macrophages, as well as neutrophils, epithelial cells, and endothelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibitors
  • Patterns of structure and sequence in the Kunitz inhibitors interleukins-1 beta and 1 alpha and fibroblast growth factors. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • This review will summarize the main experimental and clinical findings obtained with pharmacological IL-1β inhibitors in the context of the cardiovascular complications of DM, and discuss the perspectives of IL-1β inhibitors as novel therapeutic tools for treating these patients. (frontiersin.org)
  • IL-1α inhibitors are being developed to interrupt those processes and treat diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • Detects human IL-1RAcP/IL-1 R3 in direct ELISAs. (rndsystems.com)
  • Detection of IL‑1 RAcP/IL‑1 R3 in Human Blood Monocytes by Flow Cytometry. (rndsystems.com)
  • Human peripheral blood monocytes were stained with Mouse Anti-Human IL‑1 RAcP/IL‑1 R3 Alexa Fluor® 488-conjugated Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # FAB676G, filled histogram) or isotype control antibody (Catalog # IC002G , open histogram). (rndsystems.com)
  • Interleukin-7 (IL-7) and IL-7 receptor (IL-7R) signalling complex in human solid tumours. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Acting via its sole receptor CX3CR1, CX3CL1 participates in many processes in human placental tissue, including inflammation and angiogenesis. (hindawi.com)
  • 1-4 Very low expression was found in normal adult human myocardium. (ahajournals.org)
  • When psychologically stressed, the human body produces stress hormones like cortisol, which are able to trigger interleukin-6 release into the circulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is found in substantial amounts in normal human epidermis and is distributed in a 1:1 ratio between living epidermal cells and stratum corneum. (wikipedia.org)