• protein
  • Lectins serve many different biological functions in animals, from the regulation of cell adhesion to glycoprotein synthesis and the control of protein levels in the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Winfrey, Ron 2004-09-29 00:00:00 A full-length cDNA encoding a calreticulin-like protein was isolated by immune-screening a germinating castor bean endosperm cDNA library with antisera raised to the total lumenal fraction of purified plant endoplasmic reticulum. (deepdyve.com)
  • Toxalbumins are toxic plant proteins that disable ribosomes and thereby inhibit protein synthesis, producing severe cytotoxic effects in multiple organ systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Lectin Phytotoxin Plant defense against herbivory Ribosome-inactivating protein Hunter, William (1891). (wikipedia.org)
  • It is often found attached to proteins, and the resulting arabinogalactan protein (AGP) functions as both an intercellular signaling molecule and a glue to seal plant wounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • EVI5L is a soluble protein that localizes in the nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, plants that contain only protein chain A, such as barley, are not toxic because without the link to protein chain B, protein chain A cannot enter the cell and do damage to ribosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, 1-lysoPC can be hydrolyzed by ten different enzymes: calcium-independent phospholipase A2-gamma (coded by the gene PNPLA8), neuropathy target esterase (PNPLA6), lysophospholipase (PLB1), eosinophil lysophospholipase (CLC), galactoside-binding soluble lectin 13 (LGALS13), Group XV phospholipase A2 (PLA2G15), acyl-protein thioesterase 1 (LYPLA1), lysophospholipase (PLA2G4A), acyl-protein thioesterase 2 (LYPLA2) and PNPLA7 (Some of these enzymes also have phospholipase A2 activity). (wikipedia.org)
  • Abrin
  • Abrin naturally occurs in the seeds of the rosary pea, a plant common to tropical regions that is occasionally employed as an herbal remedy for certain conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • defense
  • Plant defense against herbivory or host-plant resistance (HPR) describes a range of adaptations evolved by plants which improve their survival and reproduction by reducing the impact of herbivores. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each type of defense can be either constitutive (always present in the plant), or induced (produced in reaction to damage or stress caused by herbivores). (wikipedia.org)
  • The Cretaceous period saw the appearance of more plant defense mechanisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacteria
  • Lectins also mediate attachment and binding of bacteria and viruses to their intended targets. (wikipedia.org)
  • viciae, root nodule bacteria that infect broad-bean, pea, common-vetch, and lentil plants with the formation of nitrogen-fixing symbiosis. (deepdyve.com)
  • They are found in every living organism, including viruses, bacteria, and most foods, to one degree or another, but most of them are harmless (R). Scientists have been studying lectins since 1884. (kickas.org)
  • EVI5L is highly conserved among its orthologs but is not present in insects, plants, bacteria, archea or protists. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vicia
  • Kosenko, L. 2004-10-13 00:00:00 Lectins from the seeds of broad bean (Vicia faba L.), pea (Pisum sativum L.), common vetch (V. sativa L.), and lentil (Lens culinaris Medik. (deepdyve.com)
  • toxins
  • These chemical defenses can act as repellents or toxins to herbivores, or reduce plant digestibility. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ricinus
  • Toxalbumins notably are present in the plant families Leguminosae and Euphorbiaceae, occurring for instance in Robinia pseudoacacia, Abrus precatorius, Jatropha curcas, Croton gratissimus and Ricinus communis. (wikipedia.org)
  • herbivory
  • Another approach diverts herbivores toward eating non-essential parts, or enhances the ability of a plant to recover from the damage caused by herbivory. (wikipedia.org)
  • but the evolution of vascular plants lead to the co-evolution of other forms of herbivory, such as sap-sucking, leaf mining, gall forming and nectar-feeding. (wikipedia.org)
  • however, herbivory, and therefore the need for plant defenses, has undoubtedly been around for longer. (wikipedia.org)
  • microbial
  • CBMs of microbial glycoside hydrolases play a central role in the recycling of photosynthetically fixed carbon through their binding to specific plant structural polysaccharides. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two classes of arabinogalactans are found in nature: plant arabinogalactan and microbial arabinogalactan. (wikipedia.org)
  • compounds
  • These are plant compounds that reduce the absorption of nutrients from the digestive system. (healthline.com)
  • Antinutrients are plant compounds that reduce the body's ability to absorb essential nutrients. (healthline.com)
  • Finally, the cell debris can be removed by centrifugation so that the proteins and other soluble compounds remain in the supernatant. (wikipedia.org)
  • The relative abundance of different species of plants in ecological communities including forests and grasslands may be determined in part by the level of defensive compounds in the different species. (wikipedia.org)
  • harmful
  • Some lectins may be harmful in high amounts, and interfere with the absorption of nutrients ( 6 , 7 ). (healthline.com)
  • In this manner, 'saturated' tropical plant fats such as palm oil and coconut oil have been labeled unhealthy, despite essentially no direct evidence that they're harmful. (blogspot.com)
  • legumes
  • viciae species that were better specialized towards one or the other host plant from the cross inoculation group of legumes. (deepdyve.com)
  • Soaking legumes in water overnight may reduce phytate, protease inhibitors, lectins and tannins. (healthline.com)
  • glycolipids
  • The saccharides that are attached to the polar head groups on the outside of the cell are the ligand components of glycolipids, and are likewise polar, allowing them to be soluble in the aqueous environment surrounding the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • growth
  • Helja is a mannose-specific jacalin-like lectin from sunflower which was shown to inhibit the growth of certain fungi. (mdpi.com)
  • Other defensive strategies used by plants include escaping or avoiding herbivores in any time and/or any place, for example by growing in a location where plants are not easily found or accessed by herbivores, or by changing seasonal growth patterns. (wikipedia.org)
  • polar
  • They are found within the cell in small vesicles called physodes, where the soluble, polar fraction is sequestrated, and as part of the cell wall, where they are insoluble and act as a structural component. (wikipedia.org)
  • earliest
  • It is generally believed that the earliest description of a lectin was given by Peter Hermann Stillmark in his doctoral thesis presented in 1888 to the University of Dorpat. (wikipedia.org)
  • The earliest land plants evolved from aquatic plants around 450 million years ago (Ma) in the Ordovician period. (wikipedia.org)
  • viruses
  • Viruses infect all cellular life and although viruses infect every animal, plant and protist species, each has their own specific range of viruses that often infect only that species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Humans cannot be infected by plant or insect viruses, but they are susceptible to infections with viruses from other vertebrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene
  • Most important, you can see if you have the lectin sensitive gene, and if you do, find out ways to reduce lectin sensitivity. (kickas.org)
  • With using SelfDecode, I've been able to figure out that the cannabinoid gene is the most important for lectin sensitivity. (kickas.org)
  • It is located near the CLEC4M (C-type lectin domain family 4, member M) gene, which is involved in peptide antigen transport. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • CBMs are the most common non-catalytic modules associated with enzymes active in plant cell-wall hydrolysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • vascular plants
  • Extrafloral nectaries have been reported in over 3941 species of vascular plants belonging to 745 genera and 108 families, 99.7% of which belong to flowering plants (angiosperms), comprising 1.0 to 1.8% of all known species. (wikipedia.org)
  • reduce
  • Bacterial ice-nucleation proteins are among the most active natural ice nucleants and can reduce the supercooling point of water in plants, thereby reducing the ability of sensitive plants to avoid damaging ice formation. (semanticscholar.org)
  • insects
  • Plants that rely on insects, birds, or bats for pollination often have septal nectaries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Foraging predatory insects show a preference for plants with extrafloral nectaries, particularly some species of ants and wasps, which have been observed to directly defend the plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Darwin understood that extrafloral nectar "though small in quantity, is greedily sought by insects" but believe the "their visits do not in any way benefit the plant" Instead, he believed that extrafloral nectaries were excretory in nature (hydathodes). (wikipedia.org)
  • Historically, insects have been the most significant herbivores, and the evolution of land plants is closely associated with the evolution of insects. (wikipedia.org)
  • While most plant defenses are directed against insects, other defenses have evolved that are aimed at vertebrate herbivores, such as birds and mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • The diversification of flowering plants (angiosperms) at that time is associated with the sudden burst of speciation in insects. (wikipedia.org)
  • This diversification of insects represented a major selective force in plant evolution, and led to selection of plants that had defensive adaptations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Leaves
  • They have been described in virtually all above-ground plant parts-including leaves (in which case they are known as foliar nectaries), petioles, stipules, cotyledons, fruits, and stems, among others. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the cost of replacement of damaged leaves is higher in conditions where resources are scarce, it may also be that plants growing in areas where water and nutrients are scarce may invest more resources into anti-herbivore defenses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many plants of this time are preserved with spine-like enations, which may have performed a defensive role before being co-opted to develop into leaves. (wikipedia.org)
  • different
  • Two lectins obtained from different lentil cultivars, unlike other lectins, had a relatively high affinity for melecitose, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, L-sorbose, and sucrose. (deepdyve.com)
  • susceptible
  • Plant agglutinins have been characterized by testing their ability to clump blood cells of certain blood types (R), which suggest that people with certain blood types may be more susceptible to health problems due to lectins than others. (kickas.org)