• gradients
  • A wide range of nutrients (e.g., amino acids, phosphorus, and lactate) are transported across the placenta mediated by secondary active transport, utilizing energy provided by ion gradients such as sodium, chloride, and protons [ 14 - 16 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The change in ionic gradients caused by ouabain can also affect the membrane voltage of the cell and result in cardiac arrhythmias. (wikipedia.org)
  • This suggests that the pump might not be simply a homeostatic, "housekeeping" molecule for ionic gradients. (wikipedia.org)
  • ouabagenin
  • Normal male SD rats received infusions of vehicle (VEH), rhamnose (RHA), ouabain (OUA), ouabagenin (OGN), dihydroouabain (DHO), isoouabain (ISO), and ouabain in which the lactone ring was opened (ORO)at 30 μg/Kg/24 hr for 4-5 weeks via s.c. osmotic pumps. (ahajournals.org)
  • compound
  • Ouabain is a highly toxic compound with a LD50 of 5 mg/kg when administered orally to rodents. (wikipedia.org)
  • Only the polar ouabain-displacing compound caused a significant increase, from 108 +/- 7 to 162 +/- 8 nM (n = 6, p less than 0.01), in cytosolic free calcium concentration in A10 cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • The rise in cytosolic free calcium concentration induced by the polar ouabain-displacing compound tended to be slower in onset and more sustained than that induced by arginine vasopressin. (ahajournals.org)
  • These results suggest that the polar ouabain-displacing compound we isolated from human urine may possess a vasoactive property and may play an important role in the modulation of vascular tone. (ahajournals.org)
  • This was primarily because it was not expected that a pump which provides active transport, could become an ion channel by binding of a compound such as palytoxin. (wikipedia.org)
  • vivo
  • These Abs can be used to develop assays for detection and characterization of ouabain-like molecules in vivo. (jimmunol.org)
  • proteins
  • Export of sodium from the cell provides the driving force for several secondary active transporters membrane transport proteins, which import glucose, amino acids, and other nutrients into the cell by use of the sodium gradient. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • He had discovered that a substance's anaesthetic action was related to its ability to dissolve in a layer of the lipid part of the plasma membrane, the anaesthetic molecules affected the opening of sodium channels which he assumed to be protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • All mammals have four different sodium pump sub-types, or isoforms, that each has unique properties and tissue expression patterns. (wikipedia.org)
  • gradient
  • Another important task of the Na+ -K+ pump is to provide a Na+ gradient that is used by certain carrier processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the gut, for example, sodium is transported out of the reabsorbing cell on the blood (interstitial fluid) side via the Na+ -K+ pump, whereas, on the reabsorbing (lumenal) side, the Na+ -glucose symporter uses the created Na+ gradient as a source of energy to import both Na+ and glucose, which is far more efficient than simple diffusion. (wikipedia.org)
  • insulin
  • Either ouabain or insulin alone caused accumulation of and carcinoembryonic antigen cell adhesion molecule, as well as insulin receptor-β, and epidermal growth factor receptor in early endosomes, but no synergy was demonstrable. (marshall.edu)
  • Like ouabain, insulin also caused c-Src activation. (marshall.edu)
  • suggests
  • Furthermore, the presence of a sugar group in ouabain and the absence of one in arenobufagin suggests that it may me more lipophilic that ouabain and as such form a more stable complex with the Na+-K+ pump. (wikipedia.org)
  • toxic
  • Ouabain /wɑːˈbɑːɪn/ or /ˈwɑːbeɪn, ˈwæ-/ (from Somali waabaayo, "arrow poison" through French ouabaïo) also known as g-strophanthin, is a plant derived toxic substance that was traditionally used as an arrow poison in eastern Africa for both hunting and warfare. (wikipedia.org)
  • activity
  • The activity of the sodium pump appears to be responsible for a similar proportion of metabolic rate in ectothermic vertebrates as it is in endothermic vertebrates. (biologists.org)
  • Structure-Activity Relationships for the Hypertensinogenic Activity of Ouabain: Role of the Sugar and Lactone Ring. (ahajournals.org)
  • We conclude that the hypertensinogenic activity of ouabain is mediated exclusively by the steroid nucleus. (ahajournals.org)
  • The intrinsic activity mode of Purkinje cells is set and controlled by the sodium-potassium pump. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • This pumping is active (i.e. it uses energy from ATP) and is important for cell physiology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Failure of the Na+ -K+ pumps can result in swelling of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, when the cell begins to swell, this automatically activates the Na+ -K+ pump. (wikipedia.org)
  • Besides its effects on the Na+-K+ pump, arenobufagin also has some other effects on cells, which were discovered in experiment with cancer cell lines. (wikipedia.org)
  • effects
  • The dominating vagomimetic and sympatholytic effects of ouabain also explain its stress-resolving effect frequently observed in clinical practice. (cornavita.de)
  • blood pressure
  • An overdose of ouabain can be detected by the presence of the following symptoms: rapid twitching of the neck and chest musculature, respiratory distress, increased and irregular heartbeat, rise in blood pressure, convulsions, wheezing, clicking, and gasping rattling. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ouabain "normalizes" blood pressure: high blood pressure is lowered, low blood pressure increases. (cornavita.de)
  • However
  • However, when ouabain was coupled to an Ab of A/J mice origin and the same strain of mouse was used for immunization with ouabain-Ab conjugate, three Abs (1-10, 5A12, and 7-1) specific for ouabain were obtained. (jimmunol.org)
  • However, ouabain has a low bioavailability and is absorbed poorly from the alimentary tract so much of the oral dose gets destroyed. (wikipedia.org)
  • decrease
  • Heart failure is characterized by an inability to pump enough blood to support the body, possibly due to a decrease in the volume of the blood or its contractile force. (wikipedia.org)
  • erythrocytes
  • We studied the binding properties of [3H]ouabain to erythrocytes from normotensive children (n = 83) between the ages of 10 and 18 years (mean resting arterial pressure: 102/57 mm Hg) from normotensive and essential hypertensive parents. (ahajournals.org)