• feces
  • However, other types of dry toilets - those that are designed to be easily emptied, without the addition of water - do not generate fecal sludge but dried feces (in the case of urine-diverting dry toilets) or compost (in the case of composting toilets), for example. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pathogens contained in feces can lead to groundwater pollution when they are given the opportunity to reach the groundwater, making it unsafe for drinking. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are a number of "excreta-derived fertilizers" which vary in their properties and fertilizing characteristics: urine, dried feces, composted feces, fecal sludge (septage), sewage, sewage sludge and animal manure. (wikipedia.org)
  • The wastewater from residences and institutions, carrying bodily wastes (primarily feces and urine), washing water, food preparation wastes, laundry wastes, and other waste products of normal living, are classed as domestic or sanitary sewage. (wikipedia.org)
  • activated sludge process
  • The treatment processes that can be used are in principle the same as those used for sewage treatment, except that they are usually installed on a smaller scale (decentralized level), often at household or building level: Biological systems such as constructed wetlands or living walls and bioreactors or more compact systems such as membrane bioreactors which are a variation of the activated sludge process and is also used to treat sewage. (wikipedia.org)
  • pollution
  • This can lead to surface water and groundwater pollution, spreading of pathogens into the environment and adverse public health impacts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Agricultural pollution, direct and diffuse Wastewater can be diluted or mixed with other types of water by the following mechanisms: Seawater ingress (high volumes of salt and microbes) Direct ingress of river water Rainfall collected on roofs, yards, hard-standings, etc. (generally clean with traces of oils and fuel) Groundwater infiltrated into sewage Mixing with other types of wastewater or fecal sludge The composition of wastewater varies widely. (wikipedia.org)
  • The objective of sewage treatment is to produce a disposable effluent without causing harm to the surrounding environment, and prevent pollution. (pearltrees.com)
  • Require pollution prevention programs for sludges with detectible amounts of dioxins. (sourcewatch.org)
  • Many causes of pollution including sewage and fertilizers contain nutrients such as nitrates and phosphates. (scribd.com)
  • Pollution in the form of organic material enters waterways in many different forms as sewage, as leaves and grass clippings, or as runoff from livestock feedlots and pastures. (scribd.com)
  • Pathogens are another type of pollution that prove very harmful. (scribd.com)
  • World Health Organization Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality state that as an indicator organism Escherichia coli provides conclusive evidence of recent fecal pollution and should not be present in water meant for human consumption. (wikipedia.org)
  • Klebsiella can occur in nonenteric environments and have been isolated from environmental samples in the apparent absence of fecal pollution. (ehstoday.com)
  • effluent
  • In the United States, the Mississippi River serves as both the destination of sewage treatment plant effluent and the source of potable water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using advanced technology it is now possible to re-use sewage effluent for drinking water, although Singapore is the only country to implement such technology on a production scale in its production of NEWater. (pearltrees.com)
  • Traditional activated sludge package plants are capable of producing a relatively high-quality effluent, but they often require high maintenance (i.e., sludge removal), and some plants produce offensive odors. (eponline.com)
  • digestion
  • More commonly with domestic sewage, the fresh sludge is continuously extracted from the tank mechanically and passed to separate sludge digestion tanks that operate at higher temperatures than the lower story of the Imhoff tank and, as a result, digest much more rapidly and efficiently. (wikipedia.org)
  • septic systems
  • Major sources include industrial and household chemicals and garbage landfills, excessive fertilizers and pesticides used in agriculture, industrial waste lagoons, tailings and process wastewater from mines, industrial fracking, oil field brine pits, leaking underground oil storage tanks and pipelines, sewage sludge and septic systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fecal material can enter the environment from many sources including waste water treatment plants, livestock or poultry manure, sanitary landfills, septic systems, sewage sludge, pets and wildlife. (wikipedia.org)
  • phosphorus
  • One method for treating sludge dewatering streams is by using a process that is also used for phosphorus recovery. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another benefit for sewage treatment plant operators of treating sludge dewatering streams for phosphorus recovery is that it reduces the formation of obstructive struvite scale in pipes, pumps and valves. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such obstructions can be a maintenance headache particularly for biological nutrient removal plants where the phosphorus content in the sewage sludge is elevated. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, the Canadian company Ostara Nutrient Recovery Technologies is marketing a process based on controlled chemical precipitation of phosphorus in a fluidized bed reactor that recovers struvite in the form of crystalline pellets from sludge dewatering streams. (wikipedia.org)
  • biological
  • For many people, composting is used to refer to several different types of biological processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The organic matter of sewage is measured by determining its biological oxygen demand (BOD) or the chemical oxygen demand (COD). (wikipedia.org)
  • treatment
  • This could include any solids, slime solids or liquid slurry residue generated during the treatment of domestic sewage including scum and solids removed during primary, secondary or advanced treatment processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the US-based Water Environment Research Foundation has shown that some pathogens do survive sewage sludge treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mobile or permanent transfer stations can be used to improve the efficiency of fecal sludge transportation by transferring the waste to larger tankers for haulage to treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fecal sludge management (FSM) requires safe and hygienic septic tank and pit latrine emptying services, along with the effective treatment of solids and liquids and the reuse of treated produce where possible. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sewage sludge treatment describes the processes used to manage and dispose of sewage sludge produced during sewage treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Secondary sludge separated in secondary clarifiers includes treated sewage sludge from secondary treatment bioreactors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thickening is often the first step in a sludge treatment process. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thickened sludge with less than ten percent solids may receive additional sludge treatment while liquid thickener overflow is returned to the sewage treatment process. (wikipedia.org)
  • Filtrate and centrate are typically returned to the sewage treatment process. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sludge treatment technologies that are used for thickening or dewatering of sludge have two products: the thickened or dewatered sludge, and a liquid fraction which is called sludge treatment liquids, sludge dewatering streams, liquors, centrate (if it stems from a centrifuge), filtrate (if it stems from a belt filter press) or similar. (wikipedia.org)
  • The treatment can take place in the sewage treatment plant itself (by recycling the liquid to the start of the treatment process) or as a separate process. (wikipedia.org)
  • The concept is also used in water supply and food production and is generally understood as a series of treatment steps and other safety precautions to prevent the spread of pathogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • The aim of the treatment is to remove all pathogens and at the same time to generate outputs of commercial value. (wikipedia.org)
  • Their process is a sewage sludge treatment system that produces drinking water and electrical energy as end products from sewage sludge. (wikipedia.org)
  • The treatment process first involves boiling the sewage sludge, during which water vapour is boiled off and recovered. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scientists at Duke University in the U.S. have developed and are testing a prototype fecal sludge treatment unit that fits in a 20-foot shipping container and treats the fecal matter of roughly 1000 people using supercritical water oxidation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unilever PLC in the United Kingdom is developing a pyrolysis-based fecael sludge treatment unit designed to serve over 2000 people. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some have too much, which complicates water treatment processes because of floods and overflows. (thenextweb.com)
  • Activated Sludge Treatment). (pearltrees.com)
  • Somatic coliphages' (SOMCPH) ability for acting as surrogates for enteroviruses was assessed in 47 sludge samples subjected to novel treatment processes. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Traditionally, if a developer was faced with a sewerage problem, he or she could simply install one of many onsite sewage treatment systems available on the market. (eponline.com)
  • Additionally, direct discharge permits for new package plants (and any other sewage treatment systems) started becoming more and more difficult to obtain. (eponline.com)
  • soil conditioner
  • Another possibility is to use the treated fecal sludge after composting as a soil conditioner or for the production of biogas, charcoal, biodiesel, powdered industrial fuel and electricity. (wikipedia.org)
  • indicator organisms
  • It is better to test for the specific indicator organisms E.coli , and species within the genus Enterococci , to indicate fecal contamination, thereby providing the best available data on possible contamination. (ehstoday.com)
  • The most rigorous tests for determining fecal contamination, test for the specific indicator organisms, E. coli and Enterococcus species. (ehstoday.com)
  • sanitary
  • Wastewater may be conveyed in a sanitary sewer which conveys only sewage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Liquid-carried wastes from stores and service establishments serving the immediate community, termed commercial wastes, are included in the sanitary or domestic sewage category if their characteristics are similar to household flows. (wikipedia.org)
  • nutrients
  • The quality of greywater can deteriorate rapidly during storage because it is often warm, contains some nutrients and organic matter (e.g. dead skin cells) as well as pathogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • secondary
  • Sludge from primary or secondary clarifiers may be stirred (often after addition of clarifying agents) to form larger, more rapidly settling aggregates. (wikipedia.org)
  • organisms
  • However, the presence of many of these organisms is not indicative of fecal contamination and so these tests provide suggestive, but not definitive, evidence of sewage contamination. (ehstoday.com)
  • conveys
  • In American technical and professional English usage, "sewerage" refers to the infrastructure that conveys sewage. (wikipedia.org)
  • latrines
  • Pit latrines generate fecal sludge, and these are sometimes classified as dry toilets, although wet pits are also common, especially in Asia. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are also intended to address the large number of existing pit latrines which lack a supporting infrastructure of fecal sludge collection and processing when the pits are full. (wikipedia.org)
  • households
  • Greywater (also spelled graywater, grey water, gray water) or sullage is all wastewater generated in households or office buildings from streams without fecal contamination, i.e. all streams except for the wastewater from toilets. (wikipedia.org)
  • exposure
  • Kang suspects Daslim's growth is being impeded by environmental enteropathy, a condition in which the nutrient-absorbing finger-like projections lining the small intestine are transformed into broad, leaf-like flaps in response to constant exposure to pathogens. (wordpress.com)
  • The greater the sewage contamination and exposure to people, the higher the risk of contracting ear, nose and throat infections and stomach upsets such as diarrhea. (ehstoday.com)
  • greywater
  • Greywater is all wastewater that is generated in household or office building sources without fecal contamination. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, by definition, greywater does not include the discharge of toilets or highly fecally contaminated wastewater, which is designated sewage or blackwater and contains human waste. (wikipedia.org)
  • Current approaches to sewage management may include handling surface runoff separately from sewage, handling greywater separately from blackwater (flush toilets), and coping better with abnormal events (such as peaks stormwater volumes from extreme weather). (wikipedia.org)