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  • macrophages
  • Osteoclasts are characterized by unique cell adhesion structures found in highly motile cells called podosomes, a property they share with several types of cancer cells and monocyte and/or macrophages. (rupress.org)
  • mice
  • c-Src is indispensable for the formation of a sealing zone and subsequent ruffled border because osteoclasts from c-Src knockout mice lack the capacity to redistribute F-actin as ring-like structures ( 8 , 11 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • There are several studies directing a role to the P2X7 receptor in mediating ATP-induced apoptosis in other cell types [ 7 ] and accordingly increased osteoclast numbers have been found in mice with ablation of the P2X7 receptor (P2X7−/− mice) [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • apoptosis
  • The older bisphosphonates, etidronate and clodronate, form cytotoxic acyclic ATP analogues which accumulate in osteoclasts (following endocytosis from bone surfaces), leading to apoptosis (programmed cell death). (bmj.com)
  • The resulting interference with cellular processes leads to earlier apoptosis of several cell types including osteoclasts. (bmj.com)
  • mechanisms
  • The molecular mechanisms of the above effects of TAC on osteoclastogenesis were investigated by using RT-PCR and immunoblotting for osteoclast specific and ER stress signaling molecules, including PERK, IRE1, GRP78, eIF2α, c-Fos and NFATc1. (bmj.com)
  • form
  • Osteoclasts lacking proteins critical for the assembly of the sealing zone cannot form a ruffled border, which is the extracellular secondary lysosome necessary for dissolving minerals and degrading bone matrix proteins ( 6 - 8 ). (aacrjournals.org)