• distal
  • In summary, SHH promotes distal progression of limb development by enhancing CYP26B1-mediated RA clearance as part of a signalling network linking the SHH/GREM1/AER-FGF feedback loop to the newly identified AER-FGF/CYP26B1/RA module. (biologists.org)
  • apical ectod
  • J:82633 Adamska M, MacDonald BT, Meisler MH, Doubleridge, a mouse mutant with defective compaction of the apical ectodermal ridge and normal dorsal-ventral patterning of the limb. (jax.org)
  • J:73526 Ahn K, Mishina Y, Hanks MC, Behringer RR, Crenshaw EB 3rd, BMPR-IA signaling is required for the formation of the apical ectodermal ridge and dorsal-ventral patterning of the limb. (jax.org)
  • Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) induces the formation of an organizer at the end of the limb bud, called the apical ectodermal ridge (AER), which guides further development and controls cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • They demonstrated first that BMPs bind the extracellular matrix, are present at the apical ectodermal ridge in the developing limb bud, are chemotactic for human monocytes, and have neurotropic potential. (wikipedia.org)
  • lateral plate me
  • Cells from the lateral plate mesoderm and the myotome migrate to the limb field and proliferate to create the limb bud. (wikipedia.org)
  • At day 22, lung buds form, remaining ensheathed in a splanchnopleuric mesoderm Cells from the lateral plate mesoderm and the myotome migrate to the limb field and proliferate to create the limb bud. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tissues
  • I have been interested in and studying skeletal tissues since my undergraduate days in Australia in the 1960s. (indigo.ca)
  • IGF-1 plays an important role in growth and continues to have anabolic effects in adults - meaning that it can induce hypertrophy of skeletal muscle and other target tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • This addition of phosphate induces what are called "cell signaling" cascades - and the usual result of activation of the IGF-1 receptor is survival and proliferation in mitosis-competent cells, and growth (hypertrophy) in tissues such as skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • cartilage
  • in muscle-less limbs, tendons develop in the autopod but do not extend into the zeugopod, and in the absence of limb cartilage the zeugopod segments of tendons develop despite the absence of tendons in the autopod. (biologists.org)
  • It describes how bone and cartilage develop in embryos and are maintained in adults, how bone is repaired when we break a leg, or regenerates when a newt grows a new limb, or a lizard a new tail. (indigo.ca)
  • The second edition of Bones and Cartilage includes the most recent knowledge of molecular, cellular, developmental and evolutionary processes, which are integrated to outline a unified discipline of developmental and evolutionary skeletal biology. (indigo.ca)
  • Additionally, coverage includes how the molecular and cellular aspects of bones and cartilage differ in different skeletal systems and across species, along with the latest studies and hypotheses of relationships between skeletal cells and the most recent information on coupling between osteocytes and osteoclasts All chapters have been revised and updated to include the latest research. (indigo.ca)
  • In the process of chondrogenesis, chondrocytes differentiate from the condensations to form cartilage, giving rise to the skeletal primordia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fgf4
  • Polysyndactyly is observed when an excess of Fgf4 is expressed in limb buds of wild-type mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • Opposite this, when Tbx2 is over expressed or duplicated, limb buds are smaller and can have reduced digit number because of the early termination of Shh and FGF4 signaling. (wikipedia.org)
  • axes
  • In tune with this idea, efforts have been made to identify diffusive signaling molecules (morphogens) that traverse orthogonal axes of developing limbs and determine locations and identities of skeletal elements in a concentration-dependent fashion. (wikipedia.org)
  • myotome
  • The lateral plate cells produce the cartilaginous and skeletal portions of the limb while the myotome cells produce the muscle components. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although it is expressed in both the epaxial (to become muscles of the back) and hypaxial (body wall and limb muscles) portions of the myotome, it is regulated differently in these tissue lines, providing part of their alternative differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The limb myogenic precursors (derived from the hypaxial myotome) do not begin expressing Myf5 or any MRFs, in fact, until after migration to the limb buds. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • In 2014, peripheral supplementation of GDF11 protein (in mice) was shown to ameliorate the age-related dysfunction of skeletal muscle by rescuing the function of aged muscle stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • stem
  • As one of the key cell markers of satellite cells (the stem cell pool for skeletal muscles), it plays an important role in the regeneration of adult muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • proliferation
  • Signaling gradients coordinately regulate proliferation and cell fate determination in the developing limb. (sciencemag.org)
  • COVER This week's issue features a Perspective that discusses how signaling gradients coordinate cell proliferation and cell fate determination in the developing limb bud. (sciencemag.org)
  • regeneration
  • These previous findings have been disputed since another publication has demonstrated the contrary, concluding that GDF11 increases with age and has deleterious effects on skeletal muscle regeneration, being a pro-aging factor, with very high levels in some aged individuals. (wikipedia.org)
  • duplication
  • Grafting an early limb bud tip onto a late wing results in duplication of structures, while grafting a late wing bud tip onto an early limb results in a deletion of structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • While the product of this gene is capable of directing cells towards the skeletal muscle lineage, it is not absolutely required for this process. (wikipedia.org)
  • muscle
  • The absence of all three of these factors results in a phenotype with no skeletal muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • These studies were performed after it was shown that Myf5 knockouts had no clear abnormality in their skeletal muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other clinical findings may include a serous or light mucoid nasal discharge, epiphora, tender but rarely swollen submandibular lymph nodes, hyperemia of nasal and conjunctival mucosa, tachypnea, tachycardia, limb edema, muscle soreness and stiffness. (wikipedia.org)
  • tail
  • Porpoises have a bulbous head, no external ear flaps, a non-flexible neck, a torpedo shaped body, limbs modified into flippers, and a tail fin. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Sonic hedgehog-expressing cells in the developing limb measure time by an intrinsic cell cycle clock. (bath.ac.uk)
  • trunk
  • Dwarfing fruit trees acts through a reduction in the nutrients which travel from the roots through the trunk to the leaves and buds. (wikipedia.org)
  • An individual tree may be made up of three or more separate cultivars - one for the root system, which is generally selected for good stability and resistance to soil-borne diseases, one for the trunk, which modifies the overall height of the tree, and one for the productive limbs and buds, which actually produces the fruit. (wikipedia.org)