• variation
  • Here, we analyse a flexible mathematical model of disease transmission in a hierarchically structured wildlife population, and find that increased variation in group size reduces the epidemic threshold, making social animal populations susceptible to a broader range of pathogens. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Variation in group size also increases the likelihood of an epidemic for mildly transmissible diseases, but can reduce the likelihood and expected size of an epidemic for highly transmissible diseases. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Such models ignore both within-group connectivity and variation in group size, both of which can influence disease transmission. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The pelage of P. papio is a reddish brown, with significant geographic variation. (animaldiversity.org)
  • The traditional five-form classification probably under-represents the variation within Papio. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fission-fusion dynamics , as the term is currently used, consist of the temporal variation in the spatial cohesion between group members, who form subgroups that can also vary in size and composition over time, due to splitting and coming together with other subgroups. (springer.com)
  • Individual variation in local interaction rules can explain emergent patterns of spatial organization in wild baboons. (springer.com)
  • However, variation in molar size in Pp. broomi overlaps the other two. (wikipedia.org)
  • medium-sized
  • The Tana River mangabey is a medium-sized primate with a long semi-prehensile tail, yellow-brown coat, and a center part on the crown of the head with long, dark fur. (wikipedia.org)
  • monkey
  • Photo cd: Squirrel-monkey (Saimiri oerstedi), Manuel Antonio National Park, Costa Rica, Central America Author: Konrad WotheDate: 2009-09-23 Maximum available size: 19.4 Mpix. (tradebit.com)
  • Royalty free: Common monkey-flower (Mimulus guttatus) Author: Creativ Studio HeinemannDate: 2010-05-25 Royalty Free photo versions - Maximum available size: 21 Mpix. (tradebit.com)
  • Photographie: Monkey baby Author: Adrian C. Nitu Date: 2003-12-28 Maximum available size: 18.2 Mpix. (tradebit.com)
  • Photo: Berber Monkey Barbary Macaque Macaca sylvanus Middle Atlas Moyen Morocco Author: Stefan Auth Date: 2007-03-17 Maximum available size: 18 Mpix. (tradebit.com)
  • molars
  • The features were discovered after detailed study of the shapes of molars and premolars inherited by baboons in a long-studied colony at the Southwest National Primate Research Center in San Antonio, Texas. (terradaily.com)
  • A characteristic feature of baboons is their long molars and broad incisors. (wikipedia.org)
  • troops
  • Baboons are incredibly sociable animals that live in large troops that can be very varied in size and can contain a few hundred members. (a-z-animals.com)
  • Baboons caught up a tree by Kalahari lions (1 of 3) Baboons caught up a tree by Kalahari lions (2 of 3) Baboons caught up a tree by Kalahari lions (3 of 3) Most baboons live in hierarchical troops. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Guinean troops are large multiple-male, multiple-female troops with 50-300 baboons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Behavioral
  • However, current knowledge of the morphological, genetic, and behavioral diversity within Papio is too poor to make any final, comprehensive judgment on this matter. (wikipedia.org)
  • captivity
  • Unusually large sizes have been claimed in captivity with claims that specimens measuring up to 75 cm (30 in) in length and 200 cm (79 in) but these are unverified and possibly misreported as these figures match the largest Eurasian eagle-owls. (wikipedia.org)
  • Baboons in captivity have been known to live up to 45 years, while in the wild their life expectancy is about 30 years. (wikipedia.org)
  • mammals
  • Hamadryas baboon also eat insects, reptiles and small mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Taken together, these findings show that the formant spacing of male koala bellows has the potential to provide receivers with reliable information on the caller's body size, and reveal that vocal adaptations allowing callers to exaggerate (or maximise) the acoustic impression of their size have evolved independently in marsupials and placental mammals. (biologists.org)
  • Just over half of its known diet is comprised by mammals but equal or even greater numbers of birds and even insects may be hunted locally, along with any other appropriately sized prey that is encountered. (wikipedia.org)
  • mane
  • Baboons have wild-looking fur with a longer mane that extends over the shoulders and hairless patches on their faces and rumps which are padded with hard skin. (a-z-animals.com)
  • Horn
  • Because of large the size to their horn, Ceratogyrus cornuatum may be the most dangerous of all in this regard. (everything2.com)
  • found
  • Baboons would have once been found throughout the African continent and today, although they are still widespread, their natural range continues to decrease. (a-z-animals.com)
  • In contrast, no relationship between body size and the fundamental frequency was found. (biologists.org)
  • In 2015 researchers found the oldest baboon fossil dating 2 million years ago. (wikipedia.org)
  • teeth
  • A detailed study of the inherited shapes and sizes of baboon teeth led to the discovery of a dental trait that can be used to track the evolution of primates over the last 20 million years. (terradaily.com)
  • decrease
  • Specifically, the increase in sexual swelling size during the follicular phase is correlated with increased estrogen levels, and the decrease in swelling size during the luteal phase is associated with rising progesterone levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • male
  • Corrigendum to "Testosterone related to age and life-history stages in male baboons and geladas. (springer.com)
  • Here, we used a combination of acoustic and anatomical data to investigate whether male koala bellows provide reliable information on the caller's body size, and to confirm whether male koalas have a permanently descended larynx. (biologists.org)
  • Evolution
  • We analysed the evolution of the mouse PSG sequences, and compared them to rat, human and baboon PSGs to attempt to understand the evolution of this complex gene family. (beds.ac.uk)
  • sexual
  • Sexual swellings are enlarged areas of the perineal skin occurring in some female primates that vary in size over the course of the menstrual cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Exaggerated sexual swellings also increase gradually in size throughout the female's cycle, beginning after menstruation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Parapapio is distinguished from other Papio by the lack of an anteorbital drop, thin browridges, absence of maxillary fossae or a sagittal crest and only slight sexual dimorphism. (wikipedia.org)
  • small
  • The Kinda baboon is also characterized by its short face (relating to its small size), pink circles around its eyes, and its infants are frequently born with white instead of black hair. (wikipedia.org)
  • ranges
  • Group size ranges from 13-36 individuals, and sometimes combining to form aggregations of 50 to 60 individuals. (wikipedia.org)
  • groups
  • Further, we introduce the concept of epidemiological effective group size , which we define to be the group size of a hypothetical population containing groups of identical size that has the same epidemic threshold as an observed population. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • If the transmission probability between two connected groups is assumed to be positively correlated with the sizes of the groups, then larger mean group sizes are expected to facilitate disease transmission. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • known
  • Baboons are incredibly sociable and intelligent animals that are known to form close bonds with other members of the troop that often last for life. (a-z-animals.com)
  • long
  • Based on wing chord size compared to body mass and other linear dimensions, the Verreaux's eagle-owl average somewhat larger in the size of its wings relative to its body size than most other eagle-owls, excluding the Asian fish owls which are also seemingly relatively long-winged. (wikipedia.org)
  • group
  • Here, we introduce a network-based model of infectious disease transmission in a two-level hierarchically structured population, and use it to investigate the impact of group size distributions on disease dynamics. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • We focus specifically on the mean and the variance of group sizes. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Disentangling the various mechanisms that account for the decline in vigilance with group size. (springer.com)