• nerves to the utricle
  • The portion above the crista falciformis presents behind, the area cribrosa superior, pierced by a series of small openings, for the passage of the nerves to the utricle and the superior and lateral semicircular ducts, and, in front, the area facians, with one large opening, the commencement of the canal for the facial nerve (aquæductus Fallopii). (wikipedia.org)
  • sensory
  • When the head moves vertically, the sensory cells of the saccule are disturbed and the neurons connected to them begin transmitting impulses to the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The saccule gathers sensory information to orient the body in space. (wikipedia.org)
  • While a number of studies have illustrated and analyzed 3D models of inner ears in higher vertebrates, inner ears in fishes have rarely been investigated in 3D, especially with regard to the sensory epithelia of the end organs, the maculae. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Poeciliidae, Teleostei) and Steatocranus tinanti (Cichlidae, Teleostei) stained with phosphotungstic acid (PTA) resulted in good tissue contrast, enabling us to perform a reliable 3D reconstruction of all three sensory maculae of the inner ears. (biomedcentral.com)
  • auditory
  • Research has shown, like songbirds, females in some species of fish show seasonal variation in auditory processing and the sensitivity of the saccule of females peaks during the breeding season. (wikipedia.org)
  • outer
  • Since the outer ear is the only visible portion of the ear in most animals, the word "ear" often refers to the external part alone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two sets of muscles are associated with the outer ear: the intrinsic and extrinsic muscles. (wikipedia.org)
  • The great auricular nerve, auricular nerve, auriculotemporal nerve, and lesser and greater occipital nerves of the cervical plexus all supply sensation to parts of the outer ear and the surrounding skin. (wikipedia.org)
  • On the outer surface, the petrosal provides attachment areas for the muscles and ligaments of the ear ossicles. (2dgf.dk)
  • ossicles
  • The middle ear contains the three small bones-the ossicles-involved in the transmission of sound, and is connected to the throat at the nasopharynx, via the pharyngeal opening of the Eustachian tube. (wikipedia.org)
  • connects
  • The middle ear also connects to the upper throat at the nasopharynx via the pharyngeal opening of the Eustachian tube. (wikipedia.org)
  • head
  • The ears of vertebrates are placed somewhat symmetrically on either side of the head, an arrangement that aids sound localisation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The saccule, like the utricle, provides information to the brain about head position when it is not moving. (wikipedia.org)
  • muscles
  • The ear muscles are supplied by the facial nerve, which also supplies sensation to the skin of the ear itself, as well as to the external ear cavity. (wikipedia.org)
  • brain
  • The brain accomplishes this by comparing arrival-times and intensities from each ear, in circuits located in the superior olivary complex and the trapezoid bodies which are connected via pathways to both ears. (wikipedia.org)
  • small
  • The ear develops from the first pharyngeal pouch and six small swellings that develop in the early embryo called otic placodes, which are derived from ectoderm. (wikipedia.org)
  • damage
  • The ear may be affected by disease, including infection and traumatic damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cranial nerve VIII, is the least affected component of the ear when ototoxicity arises, but if the nerve is affected, the damage is most often permanent. (wikipedia.org)
  • results
  • Our results indicate that reliable 3D reconstructions of inner ears including otoliths and maculae can be obtained by using high-resolution microCT imaging of specimens stained with phosphotungstic acid. (biomedcentral.com)