• thin layer chromato
  • Thin-layer chromatography is performed on a sheet of glass, plastic, or aluminium foil, which is coated with a thin layer of adsorbent material, usually silica gel, aluminium oxide (alumina), or cellulose. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thin-layer chromatography can be used to monitor the progress of a reaction, identify compounds present in a given mixture, and determine the purity of a substance. (wikipedia.org)
  • To run a thin layer chromatography plate, the following procedure is carried out: Using a capillary, a small spot of solution containing the sample is applied to a plate, about 1.5 centimeters from the bottom edge. (wikipedia.org)
  • mixture
  • The mobile phase may be a mixture, allowing chemists to fine-tune the bulk properties of the mobile phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Solid-phase extraction (SPE) is a sample preparation process by which compounds that are dissolved or suspended in a liquid mixture are separated from other compounds in the mixture according to their physical and chemical properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sampler brings the sample mixture into the mobile phase stream which carries it into the column. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sample mixture to be separated and analyzed is introduced, in a discrete small volume (typically microliters), into the stream of mobile phase percolating through the column. (wikipedia.org)
  • silanol
  • Surface functionalization of silica can be performed in a monomeric or a polymeric reaction with different short-chain organosilanes used in a second step to cover remaining silanol groups (end-capping). (wikipedia.org)
  • octadecyl
  • The most popular column is an octadecyl carbon chain (C18)-bonded silica (USP classification L1) with 297 columns commercially available. (wikipedia.org)
  • biological
  • Its utility has increased due to the simplified sample preparation for biological samples, when analyzing for metabolites, since the metabolic process generally results in the addition of polar groups to enhance elimination from the cellular tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lipids are a diverse and ubiquitous group of compounds which have many key biological functions, such as acting as structural components of cell membranes, serving as energy storage sources and participating in signaling pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • composition
  • Then water, or buffer of the same composition as the sample, is typically washed through the column to wet the silica surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pumps deliver the desired flow and composition of the mobile phase through the column. (wikipedia.org)
  • Typical
  • A typical solid phase extraction involves five basic steps. (wikipedia.org)
  • That it differed from other ethers - particularly by its propensity to engage in addition reactions, which are typical of unsaturated compounds - had long been a matter of debate. (wikipedia.org)
  • column
  • Some types of countercurrent chromatography, such as dual flow CCC, feature a true countercurrent process where the two immiscible phases flow past each other and exit at opposite ends of the column. (wikipedia.org)
  • The eluate is the mobile phase leaving the column. (wikipedia.org)
  • The active component of the column, the adsorbent, is typically a granular material made of solid particles (e.g. silica, polymers, etc.), 2-50 μm in size. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adsorption, ion exchange and chromatography are sorption processes in which certain adsorbates are selectively transferred from the fluid phase to the surface of insoluble, rigid particles suspended in a vessel or packed in a column. (wikipedia.org)