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  • thin layer chromato
  • Thin-layer chromatography is performed on a sheet of glass, plastic, or aluminium foil, which is coated with a thin layer of adsorbent material, usually silica gel, aluminium oxide (alumina), or cellulose. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thin-layer chromatography can be used to monitor the progress of a reaction, identify compounds present in a given mixture, and determine the purity of a substance. (wikipedia.org)
  • To run a thin layer chromatography plate, the following procedure is carried out: Using a capillary, a small spot of solution containing the sample is applied to a plate, about 1.5 centimeters from the bottom edge. (wikipedia.org)
  • mixture
  • The mobile phase may be a mixture, allowing chemists to fine-tune the bulk properties of the mobile phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Countercurrent chromatography (CCC, also counter-current chromatography) is a form of liquid-liquid chromatography that uses a liquid stationary phase that is held in place by centrifugal force and is used to separate, identify, and quantify the chemical components of a mixture. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mixture is dissolved in a fluid called the mobile phase, which carries it through a structure holding another material called the stationary phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sampler brings the sample mixture into the mobile phase stream which carries it into the column. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sample mixture to be separated and analyzed is introduced, in a discrete small volume (typically microliters), into the stream of mobile phase percolating through the column. (wikipedia.org)
  • Solid-phase extraction (SPE) is a sample preparation process by which compounds that are dissolved or suspended in a liquid mixture are separated from other compounds in the mixture according to their physical and chemical properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • SPE uses the affinity of solutes dissolved or suspended in a liquid (known as the mobile phase) for a solid through which the sample is passed (known as the stationary phase) to separate a mixture into desired and undesired components. (wikipedia.org)
  • silanol
  • Surface functionalization of silica can be performed in a monomeric or a polymeric reaction with different short-chain organosilanes used in a second step to cover remaining silanol groups (end-capping). (wikipedia.org)
  • polymers
  • Its chemical surface properties distinguish it from more conventional LC packings such as bonded-silica gels and polymers. (thermofisher.com)
  • The active component of the column, the adsorbent, is typically a granular material made of solid particles (e.g. silica, polymers, etc.), 2-50 μm in size. (wikipedia.org)
  • octadecyl
  • octadecyl (C18) is the most common stationary phase, but octyl (C8) and butyl (C4) are also used in some applications. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most popular column is an octadecyl carbon chain (C18)-bonded silica (USP classification L1) with 297 columns commercially available. (wikipedia.org)
  • adsorption
  • Chromatography can be described as a mass transfer process involving adsorption. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adsorption, ion exchange and chromatography are sorption processes in which certain adsorbates are selectively transferred from the fluid phase to the surface of insoluble, rigid particles suspended in a vessel or packed in a column. (wikipedia.org)
  • biological
  • Its utility has increased due to the simplified sample preparation for biological samples, when analyzing for metabolites, since the metabolic process generally results in the addition of polar groups to enhance elimination from the cellular tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lipids are a diverse and ubiquitous group of compounds which have many key biological functions, such as acting as structural components of cell membranes, serving as energy storage sources and participating in signaling pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • composition
  • The pumps deliver the desired flow and composition of the mobile phase through the column. (wikipedia.org)
  • The velocity of each component depends on its chemical nature, on the nature of the stationary phase (column) and on the composition of the mobile phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Then water, or buffer of the same composition as the sample, is typically washed through the column to wet the silica surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • Typical
  • A typical solid phase extraction involves five basic steps. (wikipedia.org)
  • That it differed from other ethers - particularly by its propensity to engage in addition reactions, which are typical of unsaturated compounds - had long been a matter of debate. (wikipedia.org)
  • react
  • Plates can be labeled before or after the chromatography process using a pencil or other implement that will not interfere or react with the process. (wikipedia.org)
  • wherein
  • 3. The compound according to claim 2, wherein said L is independently a single covalent bond or a covalent linkage having 1-20 nonhydrogen atoms selected from the group consisting of C, N, O, P, and S. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 6. The compound according to claim 2, wherein one of R 30 , R 31 , R 32 , R 33 , and R 34 is -L-R x , or -L-S c . (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 8. The compound according to claim 7, wherein R x is independently a maleimide group or a succinimidyl ester of a carboxylic acid. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 9. The compound according to claim 7, wherein S c is independently an antibody or antibody fragment or a BAPTA or APTRA ion-complexing moiety. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 18. The method of claim 1, wherein the first and/or second mobile phase is substantially free of non-volatile salts. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 19. The method of claim 1, wherein the first and/or second mobile phase comprises less than about 20 mM of non-volatile salts. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 14. The silicon-based polymer according to claim 13, wherein the nanostructure is selected from the group consisting of nanoparticles and agglomerated nanoparticles, agglomerated micelles, reverse micelles, vesicles, sheet structures and wire structures, the latter 5 all containing nanoparticles. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • commonly
  • This tandem technique can be used to analyze biochemical, organic, and inorganic compounds commonly found in complex samples of environmental and biological origin. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the mobile phase in a LC system is a pressurized liquid, the MS analyzers commonly operate under vacuum (around 10−6 torr). (wikipedia.org)
  • chemically
  • Overall, the interface is a mechanically simple part of the LC-MS system that transfers the maximum amount of analyte, removes a significant portion of the mobile phase used in LC and preserves the chemical identity of the chromatography products (chemically inert). (wikipedia.org)
  • typical
  • A typical solid phase extraction involves five basic steps. (wikipedia.org)
  • That it differed from other ethers - particularly by its propensity to engage in addition reactions, which are typical of unsaturated compounds - had long been a matter of debate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ionic
  • Ionic additives, such as ammonium acetate and ammonium formate, are usually used to control the mobile phase pH and ion strength. (wikipedia.org)
  • mobile phase
  • To quantify the results, the distance traveled by the substance being considered is divided by the total distance traveled by the mobile phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the capillary inlet interface, the evaporation of the mobile phase inside the capillary was one of the main issues. (wikipedia.org)
  • The eluate is the mobile phase leaving the column. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mobile phase is the phase that moves in a definite direction. (wikipedia.org)
  • column
  • Some types of countercurrent chromatography, such as dual flow CCC, feature a true countercurrent process where the two immiscible phases flow past each other and exit at opposite ends of the column. (wikipedia.org)
  • One or more pumps deliver the phases to the column which is the CCC instrument itself. (wikipedia.org)
  • substantially
  • Chromatography technique developed substantially as a result of the work of Archer John Porter Martin and Richard Laurence Millington Synge during the 1940s and 1950s, for which they won the 1952 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. (wikipedia.org)
  • typically
  • All our functionalized gels are typically made on standard Silia Flash silica gel R10030B , with 40 - 63 μm, 60 Å. (silicycle.com)
  • ligand
  • Search for Chiral Catalysts Through Ligand Diversity: Substrate-Specific Catalysts and Ligand Screening on Solid Phase," Angew. (patentgenius.com)