• temporal resolution
  • The auditory system balances its frequency and temporal resolution in a manner that is consistent with the perception of linguistic phonemes where the simultaneous recognition of both spectral and temporal shapes plays a crucial role in rapid identification of speech. (sfu.ca)
  • Most recently, highly undersampled radial FLASH MRI acquisitions have been combined with an iterative image reconstruction by regularized nonlinear inversion to achieve real-time MRI at a temporal resolution of 20 to 30 milliseconds for images with a spatial resolution of 1.5 to 2.0 millimeters. (wikipedia.org)
  • pulse
  • Bio-Optics:Optical Measurement of Pulse Wave Transit Time. (wiley.com)
  • Only the combination of (i) a low-flip angle excitation which leaves unused longitudinal magnetization for an immediate next excitation with (ii) the acquisition of a gradient echo which does not need a further radio-frequency pulse that would affect the residual longitudinal magnetization, allows for the rapid repetition of the basic sequence interval and the resulting speed of the entire image acquisition. (wikipedia.org)
  • FLASH reduced the typical sequence interval to what is minimally required for imaging: a slice-selective radio-frequency pulse and gradient, a phase-encoding gradient, and a (reversed) frequency-encoding gradient generating the echo for data acquisition. (wikipedia.org)
  • orders of magnit
  • While the amount of noise derived from this particular simulation is empirical, it indicates that the amount of noise should be four orders of magnitude less than the signal. (nih.gov)
  • The technique is revolutionary in shortening MRI measuring times by up to two orders of magnitude. (wikipedia.org)
  • repetition
  • In fact, all of the current methods for stretching sound are based on some form of windowing operation, usually with overlapping envelopes whose shape and frequency of repetition are controllable. (sfu.ca)
  • It is a gradient echo sequence which combines a low-flip angle radio-frequency excitation of the nuclear magnetic resonance signal (recorded as a spatially encoded gradient echo) with a rapid repetition time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Depending on the desired contrast, the generic FLASH technique provides spoiled versions that destroy transverse coherences and yield T1 contrast as well as refocused versions (constant phase per repetition) and fully balanced versions (zero phase per repetition) that incorporate transverse coherences into the steady-state signal and offer T1/T2 contrast. (wikipedia.org)
  • The generic FLASH technique emerges as a gradient echo sequence which combines a low-flip angle radio-frequency excitation of the NMR signal (recorded as a spatially encoded gradient echo) with a rapid repetition of the basic sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • The repetition time is usually much shorter than the typical T1 relaxation time of the protons in biologic tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • In either case, repetition times are as short as 2 to 10 milliseconds, so that the use of 64 to 256 repetitions results in image acquisition times of about 0.1 to 2.5 seconds for a two-dimensional image. (wikipedia.org)
  • wherein
  • 3. A fully automated method according to claim 1 wherein the processable data are generated by pre-processing raw data generated by the medical imaging system. (google.co.uk)
  • 5. A fully automated method according to claim 1 wherein the plurality of stored tissue classifier elements are developed using known outcome data by a process selected from the group consisting of logistic regression, decision trees, non-parametric regression, Fisher discriminant analysis, Bayesian network modeling, and a fuzzy logic system. (google.co.uk)
  • 6. A fully automated method according to claim 5 wherein at least one of the plurality of stored tissue classifier elements is determined by a process selected from the group consisting of post-operative histological examination, direct tissue inspection, and labeling by one or more experts. (google.co.uk)
  • 5. The percutaneous-point determination device of claim 1 , wherein the emitted ultrasound beam has a variable frequency to provide a predetermined axial resolution along the ultrasound beam axis. (google.es)
  • 6. The percutaneous-point determination device of claim 5 , wherein the frequency of the emitted ultrasound beam is variable between about 1 MHZ and about 15 MHZ. (google.es)
  • 10. The percutaneous-point determination device of claim 1 , wherein the computer is configured to cross-correlate the ultrasound data with reference ultrasound data to thereby determine the distance from the ultrasound device to the point. (google.es)
  • exposure time
  • With the requested exposure time of 100 ksec we expect to detect several hundred late-type stars, yielding a substantial fraction of the entire cluster population. (harvard.edu)
  • If dark-frame subtraction is not done, or if the exposure time is long enough that the hot pixel charge exceeds the linear charge capacity, the noise will be more than just shot noise, and hot pixels appear as salt-and-pepper noise. (wikipedia.org)
  • sensors
  • It can consist of one or more sensors, processing components, display devices (which are sometimes in themselves called "monitors"), as well as communication links for displaying or recording the results elsewhere through a monitoring network. (wikipedia.org)
  • The translating component of medical monitors is responsible for converting the signals from the sensors to a format that can be shown on the display device or transferred to an external display or recording device. (wikipedia.org)
  • analysis
  • Conversely, to narrow the uncertainty in frequency, a longer "window" of time is required, both in analysis and synthesis. (sfu.ca)
  • So-called "Gabor grains" have the frequency of the waveform independent of the grain duration, whereas "wavelets" maintain an inverse relation between frequency and duration, and hence are useful in analysis and re-synthesis models. (sfu.ca)
  • We repeated the same analysis procedure for 50 times to obtain error bars at each noise level. (nih.gov)
  • This process exists in opposition to phonetics and word analysis, as a different method of recognizing and verbalizing visual language (i.e. reading). (wikipedia.org)
  • The Video Coding & Analytics department is researching actively the efficient encoding, transport, processing and analysis of video signals as well as machine learning. (wikipedia.org)
  • These devices substitute the functions performed by the ear drum and stapes while simulating the frequency analysis performed in the cochlea. (wikipedia.org)
  • The FAST radiotelescope in China also joined forces in October 2016 with the Breakthrough Initiatives to launch a coordinated search, including the rapid sharing of promising new signals for additional observation and analysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Analysis is the process of breaking a complex topic or substance into smaller parts in order to gain a better understanding of it. (wikipedia.org)
  • The field of chemistry uses analysis in at least three ways: to identify the components of a particular chemical compound (qualitative analysis), to identify the proportions of components in a mixture (quantitative analysis), and to break down chemical processes and examine chemical reactions between elements of matter. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemists can use isotope analysis to assist analysts with issues in anthropology, archeology, food chemistry, forensics, geology, and a host of other questions of physical science. (wikipedia.org)
  • Signals intelligence applies cryptanalysis and frequency analysis to break codes and ciphers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Modern mathematical analysis is the study of infinite processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • data
  • 4. A fully automated method according to claim 3 further comprising normalizing the processable data prior to computationally processing the processable data. (google.co.uk)
  • The device includes a computer configured to process the ultrasound data and position data to thereby determine a location of the point. (google.es)
  • a computer configured to process the ultrasound data and position data to thereby determine the location of the point associated with the surface of the animal organ with respect to an on site reference coordinate system. (google.es)
  • The compact digital signal processor (DSP)-based demodulator hardware uses a unique personal computer test interface for downloading test data files. (wiretrip.net)
  • Mapping and geographic information systems (GIS) - Most mapping grade GNSS receivers use the carrier wave data from only the L1 frequency, but have a precise crystal oscillator which reduces errors related to receiver clock jitter. (wikipedia.org)
  • By storing the carrier phase measurements and differentially post-processing the data, positioning errors on the order of 10 centimeters are possible with these receivers. (wikipedia.org)
  • typically
  • I often refer to this process as listening "inside" the sound, and typically link the pitches that emerge from the spectrum with those used by live performers. (sfu.ca)
  • provide
  • Systematically evaluating the association of low frequency and rare variants can provide new insights regarding the genetic architecture of protein biomarkers. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The GPS capability of smartphones may use assisted GPS (A-GPS) technology, which can use the base station or cell towers to provide the device location tracking capability, especially when GPS signals are poor or unavailable. (wikipedia.org)
  • flight
  • Flight computers installed in many gliders also use GNSS to compute wind speed aloft, and glide paths to waypoints such as alternate airports or mountain passes, to aid en route decision making for cross-country soaring. (wikipedia.org)
  • either
  • As the temporal shape of a sound becomes elongated, whether by a small percentage or a very large amount, one's attention shifts towards the spectral components of the sound, either discrete frequency components, harmonics or inharmonics, or resonant regions and broadband textures. (sfu.ca)
  • RFID tags can be either passive, active or battery-assisted passive. (wikipedia.org)
  • work
  • In my own work, the granular concept has informed most of my processing of sampled sound, the most striking application being to stretch the sound in time without necessarily changing its pitch. (sfu.ca)
  • The identical process should work at Earth as well. (harvard.edu)
  • Work on the various video compression standards received the Technology and Engineering Emmy award multiple times. (wikipedia.org)
  • Compared to previous programs, the radio surveys cover 10 times more of the sky, at least 5 times more of the radio spectrum, and work 100 times faster. (wikipedia.org)
  • methods
  • A class of contemporary methods of sound synthesis and signal processing known as time-frequency models that emerged over the last two decades has their basis at this quantum level such that changes in a signal's time domain result in spectral alterations and vice versa. (sfu.ca)
  • image
  • These outgoing waves eventually bounce off some distant object and return an echo to the sender, where they are received, amplified, and processed electronically to yield an image showing the object's location. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In terms of MRI, signals with different spatial encodings that are required for the reconstruction of a full image need to be acquired by generating multiple signals - usually in a repetitive way using multiple radio-frequency excitations. (wikipedia.org)
  • The introduction of FLASH MRI sequences in diagnostic imaging for the first time allowed for a drastic shortening of the measuring times without a substantial loss in image quality. (wikipedia.org)
  • At higher exposures, however, image sensor noise is dominated by shot noise, which is not Gaussian and not independent of signal intensity. (wikipedia.org)
  • device
  • The initial device was passive, powered by the interrogating signal, and was demonstrated in 1971 to the New York Port Authority and other potential users. (wikipedia.org)
  • technology
  • These services were earlier provided for ships, then the after certain time passed and new technology grew this service was also provided for the aircraft and now, according to the recent convention the land users of mobile can also get the service throughout the world. (wiretrip.net)
  • phase
  • The analogy to the Heisenberg uncertainty principle of quantum physics is not metaphorical but exact, because just as velocity is the rate of change of position (hence the accuracy of determination of one is linked to a lack of accuracy in the other), so frequency can be thought of as the rate of change of temporal phase. (sfu.ca)
  • small
  • A phased array consists of a large number of small, computer-controlled antennas termed elements. (encyclopedia.com)
  • A battery-assisted passive (BAP) has a small battery on board and is activated when in the presence of an RFID reader. (wikipedia.org)
  • sound
  • Gabor illustrated the quantum as a rectangular area in the time and frequency domain, such that when the duration of a sound is shortened, its spectrum in the frequency domain is enlarged. (sfu.ca)
  • Sound waves vibrated a diaphragm which slightly altered the shape of the resonator, which modulated the reflected radio frequency. (wikipedia.org)
  • level
  • At this level, concepts of frequency and time are conjoined by a quantum relationship, with an uncertainty principle relating them that is precisely analogous to the more famous uncertainty principle of quantum physics. (sfu.ca)
  • It is a revealing paradox that by linking time and frequency at the micro level, one can manipulate them independently at the macro level. (sfu.ca)
  • First stage cutoff and stage separation were commanded when the IU received a signal that the tank's fuel level had reached a predetermined point. (wikipedia.org)
  • example
  • For example, creating flash cards for words that appear at a high frequency is considered a tool for overcoming dyslexia. (wikipedia.org)
  • In exceptionally poor signal conditions, for example in urban areas, satellite signals may exhibit multipath propagation where signals bounce off structures, or are weakened by meteorological conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • independent
  • Though it can be signal dependent, it will be signal independent if other noise sources are big enough to cause dithering, or if dithering is explicitly applied. (wikipedia.org)
  • radio
  • Two-way radio transmitter-receivers called interrogators or readers send a signal to the tag and read its response. (wikipedia.org)
  • The project aims to discover signs of extraterrestrial civilizations by searching stars and galaxies for radio signals and laser transmissions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The search for radio signals is carried out on the Green Bank Telescope in the Northern Hemisphere and the Parkes Telescope in the Southern Hemisphere. (wikipedia.org)
  • Together, the radio telescopes will cover ten times more sky than previous searches and scan the entire 1-to-10 GHz range, the so-called "quiet zone" in the spectrum where radio waves are unobscured by cosmic sources or Earth's atmosphere. (wikipedia.org)
  • modern
  • By exploiting the Doppler effect, which causes frequency shifts in echoes reflected from moving objects, modern RADARs can tell not only where an object is but what direction it is moving in and how quickly. (encyclopedia.com)
  • control
  • The 1977 experiment Vidal described was noninvasive EEG control of a cursor-like graphical object on a computer screen. (wikipedia.org)
  • original
  • As a rule of thumb, we suggest that the added noise should be of infinitesimal magnitude so as to minimize the interaction between the added noise and original clean signal. (nih.gov)
  • efficient
  • By October 1961, they had demonstrated efficient light emission and signal coupling between a GaAs p-n junction light emitter and an electrically-isolated semiconductor photodetector. (wikipedia.org)
  • complex
  • Serum biomarker levels are associated with the risk of complex diseases and are therefore increasingly used in clinical practice to assist with diagnosis, status monitoring and disease management. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)