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  • cerebral cortex
  • When the pre-frontal region of the cerebral cortex, which is generally involved in decision making and planning, determines that a particular motor activity will be executed, it sends activating signals to the motor cortices. (wikipedia.org)
  • forebrain
  • The nucleus accumbens (NAc or NAcc), also known as the accumbens nucleus, or formerly as the nucleus accumbens septi (Latin for nucleus adjacent to the septum) is a region in the basal forebrain rostral to the preoptic area of the hypothalamus. (wikipedia.org)
  • RGS9
  • Regulator of G-protein signalling 9, also known as RGS9, is a human gene, which codes for a protein involved in regulation of signal transduction inside cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Members of the RGS family, such as RGS9, are signaling proteins that suppress the activity of G proteins by promoting their deactivation. (wikipedia.org)
  • cortical
  • In more specific terms, the basal ganglia's primary function is likely to control and regulate activities of the motor and premotor cortical areas so that voluntary movements can be performed smoothly. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulation
  • In smooth muscle, cGMP is the signal for relaxation, and is coupled to many homeostatic mechanisms including regulation of vasodilaton, vocal tone, insulin secretion, and peristalsis. (wikipedia.org)
  • movements
  • The basal ganglia are associated with a variety of functions including: control of voluntary motor movements, procedural learning, routine behaviors or "habits" such as teeth grinding, eye movements, cognition, and emotion. (wikipedia.org)
  • The difference between these two potentials is that the BP is involved in self-paced, or voluntary movements, whereas the CNV is involved with cued movements, movements performed as reactions to an environmental signal. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • The ability to promptly respond to rapidly changing stimulation requires timely inactivation of G proteins, a process controlled by a family of specialized proteins known as regulators of G protein signaling (RGS). (springer.com)
  • As heterotrimeric complexes, R7 RGS proteins not only associate with and regulate a number of G protein signaling pathway components, but have also been found to form complexes with proteins that are not traditionally associated with G protein signaling. (springer.com)
  • G proteins: critical control points for transmembrane signals. (springer.com)
  • G-proteins as transducers in transmembrane signalling. (springer.com)
  • GTPase-activating proteins for heterotrimeric G proteins: Regulators of G protein signaling (RGS) and RGS-like proteins. (springer.com)
  • Calcium is a common signaling mechanism, as once it enters the cytoplasm it exerts allosteric regulatory affects on many enzymes and proteins. (nih.gov)
  • receptors
  • The hypothesis was initially based on a set of clinical, neuropathological, and, later, genetic findings pointing at a hypofunction of glutamatergic signaling via NMDA receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • medial
  • During development, the cells that migrate tangentially to form the basal ganglia are directed by the lateral and medial ganglionic eminences. (wikipedia.org)
  • sensory
  • Some basic types of responsiveness such as reflexes can be mediated by the spinal cord or peripheral ganglia, but sophisticated purposeful control of behavior based on complex sensory input requires the information integrating capabilities of a centralized brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • sends
  • As a result, the brain is left with damaged tissue that sends damaged signals to the skeletal muscles in the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • action potentials
  • The purpose of these spontaneous action potentials is to inhibit targets of the basal ganglia, and decreases in inhibition are associated with movement. (wikipedia.org)
  • These axons transmit signals in the form of electrochemical pulses called action potentials, which last less than a thousandth of a second and travel along the axon at speeds of 1-100 meters per second. (wikipedia.org)
  • patients
  • If we can artificially increase basal ganglia activity, abnormal muscle constrictions in dystonia patients could be well controlled", said Prof Nambu and Dr Chiken. (bio-medicine.org)
  • main
  • Decreased activity of basal ganglia is the main cause of abnormal muscle constrictions i. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Here, Japanese research team led by Prof Atsushi Nambu and Dr Satomi Chiken of National Institute for Physiological Sciences (NIPS) in Japan, with Dr. Pullanipally Shashidharan of Mt Sinai School of Medicine in USA, has found that the decreased activity of the basal ganglia, a part of the brain structure, is the main cause of abnormal muscle constrictions of dystonia using a mouse model. (bio-medicine.org)
  • brain
  • They send these signals by means of an axon, which is a thin protoplasmic fiber that extends from the cell body and projects, usually with numerous branches, to other areas, sometimes nearby, sometimes in distant parts of the brain or body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like most parts of the brain, the basal ganglia consist of left and right sides that are virtual mirror images of each other. (wikipedia.org)
  • activity
  • The motor cortices send signals through the basal ganglia to refine the choice of muscles that will participate in the movement and to amplify the activity in the motor cortices that will drive the muscle contractions. (wikipedia.org)