• cytokines
  • Toll-like receptors (TLRs) detect microorganisms by recognizing specific pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and IL-1R family members respond the interleukin-1 (IL-1) family cytokines. (wikipedia.org)
  • The functional IL9 receptor complex requires this protein as well as the interleukin 2 receptor, gamma (IL2RG), a common gamma subunit shared by the receptors of many different cytokines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transforming growth factor beta 1 or TGF-β1 is a polypeptide member of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily of cytokines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similarly, TGF-β1 can inhibit the secretion and activity of many other cytokines including interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and various interleukins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, the expression of monocytic cytokines (including interleukin-1(IL-1)-alpha, IL-1-beta, and TNF-α), and phagocytic killing by macrophages can be increased by the action of TGF-β1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although there are many interactions of IL-1α with other cytokines, the most consistent and most clinically relevant is its synergism with TNF. (wikipedia.org)
  • IL-1α and TNF are both acute-phase cytokines that act to promote fever and inflammation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The diverse interactions between TLRs with their ligands converge into either the MyD88-dependent or MyD88-independent pathways, resulting in the: (1) activation of lymphocytes, (2) up-regulation/expression of co-stimulatory signals, and (3) release of pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines ( 7 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • These data further support the role of the IL-1 system of cytokines in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. (ahajournals.org)
  • Previous studies have shown that mice primed with Corynebacterium parvum produce higher levels of inflammatory cytokines than unprimed mice upon challenge with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). (aspetjournals.org)
  • IL-1β along with IL-1α cytokines secreted from local inflammatory cells, are belong to IL-1 family. (proteopedia.org)
  • 1] The former is dominate (90% of Interleukin-1) and the two cytokines could be distinguished by the cells with which they interact. (proteopedia.org)
  • The active mature IL-1 cytokines could mediate a large range of biological activities such as innate and adaptive immunity as well as bio-components of the acute phase reaction, including the febrile response, secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACIH), and the synthesis of acute phase proteins . (proteopedia.org)
  • 3D structure was showed here, and the cartoon (right) showed the formation of the ternary complex paradigm,the primary receptors( IL-1R ) first bind their corresponding cytokine ligands( IL-1β ) and then engage the accessory receptor( IL-1RAcP ) (which is incapable of binding cytokines by itself). (proteopedia.org)
  • Because IL-1 cytokines family are usually over-expressed at tumor sites or inflammatory, these cytokines could be used as bio-markers to help diagnose in advance. (proteopedia.org)
  • Type-1 cytokines, particularly gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), interleukin-12 (IL-12), and IL-23, the major cytokines that regulate IFN-gamma production, are essential in CMI. (biologicalworld.com)
  • intracellular
  • Only intracellular IL-1ra type I mRNA was detected in human umbilical vein ECs (HUVECs) and human coronary artery ECs (HCAECs) when they were stimulated with bacterial lipopolysaccharide/phorbol myristate acetate and transforming growth factor-β. (ahajournals.org)
  • genes
  • The activated AhR/ARNT heterodimer complex is then capable of either directly and indirectly interacting with DNA by binding to recognition sequences located in the 5'- regulatory region of dioxin-responsive genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are two possible trancripts (due to alternative splicing) that encode 2 isoforms of STAT1 STAT1 is involved in upregulating genes due to a signal by either type I, type II, or type III interferons. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is illustrated by patients with unusual severe infections caused by poorly pathogenic mycobacteria and Salmonella species, in whom genetic deficiencies have been identified in several key genes in the type-1 cytokine pathway, including IL12RB1, the gene encoding the beta1 chain of the IL-12 and IL-23 receptors. (biologicalworld.com)
  • induces
  • Stimulation and activation of ECs by the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1 causes multiple responses within the endothelium but most notably induces the expression of adhesion molecules, which promote monocyte recruitment and infiltration into the arterial wall. (ahajournals.org)
  • IRAK
  • Some special/significant features of each IRAK family member: There is some evidence that IRAK-1 functions in regulating other signaling cascades leading to NF-kB activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • One signaling pathway in particular nerve growth factor (NGF) may be dependent on the function of IRAK-1 in its signaling pathway for its activation and cell survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • IRAK-M negatively regulates TLR signaling by inhibiting the IRAK-4/IRAK-1 complex The newest described IRAK family member, IRAK-4, has been found to be critical for the recruitment of IRAK-1 and for its activation/degradation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subsequent studies associated IRAKs with multiple signalling pathways triggered by interleukin, and specified multiple IRAK types. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1997 ). The first exon encodes the N-terminal DD, which mediates downstream interactions with the IRAK family of kinases. (springer.com)
  • TLRs
  • TLRs and IL-1R members have a highly conserved amino acid sequence in their cytoplasmic domain called the Toll/Interleukin-1 (TIR) domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • These PAMPs bind to an important group of detection molecules of the innate immune system, called pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), including Toll-like receptors (TLRs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Toll-like receptors (TLRs) primarily known for the pathogen recognition and subsequent immune responses are being investigated for their pathogenic role in various chronic diseases. (frontiersin.org)
  • Kinases
  • All STAT molecules are phosphorylated by receptor associated kinases, that causes activation, dimerization by forming homo- or heterodimers and finally translocate to nucleus to work as transcription factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specifically STAT1 can be activated by several ligands such as Interferon alpha (IFNa), Interferon gamma (IFNg), Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF), Platelet Derived Growth Factor (PDGF) or Interleukin 6 (IL-6) Type I interferons (IFN-a, IFN-b) bind to receptors, cause signaling via kinases, phosphorylate and activate the Jak kinases TYK2 and JAK1 and also STAT1 and STAT2. (wikipedia.org)
  • endogenous
  • IL-1α is also known as fibroblast-activating factor (FAF), lymphocyte-activating factor (LAF), B-cell-activating factor (BAF), leukocyte endogenous mediator (LEM), epidermal cell-derived thymocyte-activating factor (ETAF), serum amyloid A inducer or hepatocyte-stimulating factor (HSP), catabolin, hemopoetin-1 (H-1), endogenous pyrogen (EP), and proteolysis-inducing factor (PIF). (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a highly complex process initiated by the action on the brain thermosensitive cells of a number of endogenous pyrogens, which are produced by the host in response to infectious as well as noninfectious inflammatory insults ( Blatteis and Sehic, 1997 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Macrophages from hypotensive rats were shown to be cellular sources of endogenous anandamide, and capable of transferring the hypotensive response into normotensive recipients. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Thus, our findings show that high-level fecal DCA may serve as an endogenous danger signal to activate NLRP3 inflammasome and contribute to HFD-related colonic inflammation. (frontiersin.org)
  • activates
  • 8. The isolated TALL-1 receptor homologue of claim 1, wherein said homologue activates NF-.kappa.B in a cell expressing said homologue through a TRAF5, TRAF6, NIK, IKK.alpha. (patentgenius.com)
  • inflammatory
  • Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is an interleukin that acts as both a pro-inflammatory cytokine and an anti-inflammatory myokine. (wikipedia.org)
  • IL-6's role as an anti-inflammatory cytokine is mediated through its inhibitory effects on TNF-alpha and IL-1, and activation of IL-1ra and IL-10. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we, for the first time, showed that DCA dose-dependently induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation and highly pro-inflammatory cytokine-IL-1β production in macrophages. (frontiersin.org)
  • Colorectal instillation of DCA significantly increased mature IL-1β level in colonic tissue and exacerbated DSS-induced colitis, while in vivo blockage of NLRP3 inflammasome or macrophage depletion dramatically reduced the mature IL-1β production and ameliorated the aggravated inflammatory injury imposed by DCA. (frontiersin.org)
  • Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is a central mediator of the inflammatory response. (biologicalworld.com)
  • monocytes
  • Detection of IL‑1 RAcP/IL‑1 R3 in Human Blood Monocytes by Flow Cytometry. (rndsystems.com)
  • Human peripheral blood monocytes were stained with Mouse Anti-Human IL‑1 RAcP/IL‑1 R3 Alexa Fluor® 488-conjugated Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # FAB676G, filled histogram) or isotype control antibody (Catalog # IC002G , open histogram). (rndsystems.com)
  • expression
  • It can also decrease the expression levels of cytokine receptors, such as the IL-2 receptor to down-regulate the activity of immune cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1-4 Very low expression was found in normal adult human myocardium. (ahajournals.org)
  • Increased expression of AMF/PGI and its receptor has been found in a wide spectrum of malignancies and is associated with cancer progression and metastasis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The data submitted here show that AMF expression significantly contributes to the aggressive phenotype of human pancreatic cancer and thus may provide a novel prognostic and therapeutic target. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Consequently, CD81 depletion results in SAMHD1 increased expression, decreasing the availability of deoxynucleoside triphosphates (dNTP) and thus HIV-1 reverse transcription. (stanford.edu)
  • Conversely, CD81 overexpression, but not the expression of a CD81 carboxy (C)-terminal deletion mutant, increases cellular dNTP content and HIV-1 reverse transcription. (stanford.edu)
  • encodes
  • This gene encodes a member of the inward rectifier-type potassium channel family, Kir4.1, characterized by having a greater tendency to allow potassium to flow into, rather than out of, a cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • responses
  • The constitutive production of large amounts of IL-1α precursor by healthy epidermal keratinocytes interfere with the important role of IL-1α in immune responses, assuming skin as a barrier, which prevents the entry of pathogenic microorganisms into the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, both CB agonists modulated LPS responses through the CB1 receptor. (aspetjournals.org)
  • On binding to its cognate receptor (IL-22R1), which is associated to the interleukin-10 receptor 2 (IL-10R2), IL-22 promotes activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway and several other cellular responses. (biologicalworld.com)
  • family
  • It participates in an NF-κB-inducing signalling cascade common to receptors of the tumour-necrosis/nerve-growth factor (TNF/NGF) family and to the interleukin-1 type-I receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sequence analysis have revealed the presence of three highly conserved regions among the different members of the family: box 1 (FDAFISY), box 2 (GYKLC-RD-PG), and box 3 (a conserved W surrounded by basic residues). (wikipedia.org)
  • The aryl hydrocarbon receptor is a member of the family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Members of this family were shown to be involved in vesicle trafficking between Golgi, endoplasmatic reticulum, and plasma membrane and lack a signal peptide for secretion. (rupress.org)
  • Interleukin 1 alpha (IL-1α) also known as hematopoietin 1 is a cytokine of the interleukin 1 family that in humans is encoded by the IL1A gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • IL-1α is a unique member in the cytokine family in the sense that the structure of its initially synthesized precursor does not contain a signal peptide fragment (same is known for IL-1β and IL-18). (wikipedia.org)
  • Analysis of all members of the Fos-Jun family of transcription factors showed that Fra-1 was the only member that was specifically up-regulated by BRL49653. (aspetjournals.org)
  • macrophages
  • IL-1α is produced mainly by activated macrophages, as well as neutrophils, epithelial cells, and endothelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interleukin 6 is secreted by T cells and macrophages to stimulate immune response, e.g. during infection and after trauma, especially burns or other tissue damage leading to inflammation. (wikipedia.org)
  • extracellular
  • The extracellular region shows three C2-type Ig-like domains, the most membrane proximal of which is suggested to be responsible for dimerization with IL-1 RI (10). (rndsystems.com)
  • Shortly thereafter it was shown that mutation of an extracellular lysine residue resulted in 6-fold increase in K+ current. (wikipedia.org)
  • Germline mutations of the extracellular domains of this receptor were found to be associated with the human genetic disorder called tumor necrosis factor associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS) or periodic fever syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • biological
  • Background- The coxsackievirus-adenovirus receptor (CAR) was cloned as a receptor for both viruses, but its primary biological functions and regulatory mechanisms are unknown. (ahajournals.org)
  • IL-1ra is an acute-phase reactant, and levels in a number of biological systems vary in parallel with IL-1. (ahajournals.org)
  • The paper summarizes the up-to-date knowledge on structure, source, biological function and clinical significance of Interleukin-2 receptor measurements in patients suffering from neoplastic diseases. (biologicalworld.com)