• tensile stress
  • One of the simplest forms of mechanical spalling is plate impact, in which two waves of compression are reflected on the free-surfaces of the plates and then interact to generate a region of high tensile stress inside one of the plates. (wikipedia.org)
  • The relatively soft warhead, containing or made of plastic explosive, flattens against the armor plating on tanks and other armored fighting vehicles (AFVs) and explodes, creating a shock wave that travels through the armor as a compression wave and is reflected at the free surface as a tensile wave breaking (tensile stress/strain fracture) the metal on the inside. (wikipedia.org)
  • fluid
  • One parameter that affects wall shear stress is the frictional factor f which is dependent on the roughness of the solid surface on which the fluid flows over. (unisa.ac.za)
  • In each case he resolved a long-standing "mystery" by discovering either a new structure-such as micro-calcifications in the fibrous caps of vulnerable lesions or leaky junctions for transport of LDL across vascular endothelium- or a new function for a known structure -such as by demonstrating that the glycocalyx on endothelial cells senses the fluid shear stress of the blood flow and transmits it to the intracellular cytoskeleton. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is typically achieved by placing the sample between two parallel platens which apply stress in one (usually vertical) direction, and applying fluid pressure to the specimen to apply stress in the perpendicular directions. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the test, the surrounding fluid is pressurized, and the stress on the platens is increased until the material in the cylinder fails and forms sliding regions within itself, known as shear bands. (wikipedia.org)
  • The effective stress on the sample can be measured by using a porous surface on one platen, and measuring the pressure of the fluid (usually water) during the test, then calculating the effective stress from the total stress and pore pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • therefore some stress (such as a pressure difference between the two ends of the tube) is needed to overcome the friction between particle layers to keep the fluid moving. (wikipedia.org)
  • A fluid that has no resistance to shear stress is known as an ideal or inviscid fluid. (wikipedia.org)
  • This fluid has to be homogeneous in the layer and at different shear stresses. (wikipedia.org)
  • When a compressible fluid is compressed or expanded evenly, without shear, it may still exhibit a form of internal friction that resists its flow. (wikipedia.org)
  • stressors
  • The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of process shear stressors on the stability of a model monoclonal antibody, trastuzumab. (mdpi.com)
  • slope
  • An example would be to predict the stability of the soil on a slope, whether the slope will collapse or whether the soil will support the shear stresses of the slope and remain in place. (wikipedia.org)
  • Generally this movement is induced either because the stresses in the slope are altered, perhaps by increasing shear stress or decreasing the effective normal stress, or by reducing the resistance to the movement perhaps by decreasing the shear strength of the materials within the landslide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Weathered materials Sheared materials Jointed or fissured materials Adversely orientated discontinuities Permeability contrasts Material contrasts Rainfall and snow fall Earthquakes Slope angle Uplift Rebound Fluvial erosion Wave erosion Glacial erosion Erosion of lateral margins Subterranean erosion Slope loading Vegetation change Erosion Topography Slope Aspect and Gradient Geological Factors Discontinuity Factors (Dip Spacing, Asparity, Dip and length) Physical Characteristics of the Rock (Rock Strength etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • resistance
  • From the triaxial test data, it is possible to extract fundamental material parameters about the sample, including its angle of shearing resistance, apparent cohesion, and dilatancy angle. (wikipedia.org)
  • vivo
  • To mimic in vivo vibration of vocal fold cells, we studied the controllability and range of frequency, acceleration, duration, and shear stress in a new bioreactor attachment. (mdpi.com)
  • 1999) Distribution of early atherosclerotic lesions in the human abdominal aorta correlates with wall shear stresses measured in vivo . (springer.com)
  • generate
  • Previous investigations utilized a variety of methods to generate shear such as pipe flow, movement of surfaces, flow through packed beds, rotation of concentric cylinders and aeration. (unisa.ac.za)
  • alleviate
  • 7 On accumulation of unfolded proteins, GRP78 releases the stress sensing elements, allowing ATF6 to translocate to the nucleus and bind to the endoplasmic reticulum stress element (ERSE) and increase the transcription of genes to alleviate the ER stress. (ahajournals.org)
  • Having the tools to understand and alleviate these potential stresses is key for engineers in effectively executing a wide range of modern design tasks. (wiley.com)
  • mechanical
  • A triaxial shear test is a common method to measure the mechanical properties of many deformable solids, especially soil (e.g., sand, clay) and rock, and other granular materials or powders. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mechanical spalling occurs at high stress contact points, for example, in a ball bearing. (wikipedia.org)
  • In anti-tank warfare, spalling through mechanical stress is an intended effect of high-explosive squash head (HESH) anti-tank shells and many other munitions which may not be powerful enough to pierce the armor of a target. (wikipedia.org)
  • Flow
  • Results compare favorably with the limited literature data, especially on the second normal stress difference, as well as with predictions obtained with a recent tube-based model of entangled polymers accounting for shear-flow-induced molecular tumbling. (aps.org)
  • Increased GRP78 correlated with the activation of the ER stress sensing element (ERSE1) promoter by atheroprone flow as a marker of the UPR. (ahajournals.org)
  • Shear stress regulated GRP78 through increased protein stability when compared to other flow regulated proteins, such as connexin-43 and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1. (ahajournals.org)
  • The range of shear stresses achieved in the investigations was up to 0.63 for laminar flow and between 0.35 and 8.71 for turbulent flow. (unisa.ac.za)
  • Results
  • Results demonstrate capabilities of the TRB-multiwell disc system that, when combined with computational modeling, provide quantifiable vibration parameters covering frequencies 0.01-250 Hz, accelerations of 0.02-300 m/s 2 , and shear stresses of 0.01-1.4 Pa. (mdpi.com)
  • Results show that trastuzumab was resistant to the process shear stresses applied and to microencapsulation processes. (mdpi.com)
  • The results of this study conclude that trastuzumab may be resistant to various processing stresses. (mdpi.com)
  • Exposure of normal erythrocytes to super-physiologic but subhemolytic shear stresses results in decreased red cell deformability. (rice.edu)
  • In a triaxial shear test, stress is applied to a sample of the material being tested in a way which results in stresses along one axis being different from the stresses in perpendicular directions. (wikipedia.org)
  • This requires much simpler and less expensive apparatus and sample preparation, though the applicability is limited to samples that the sides won't crumble when exposed, and the confining stress being lower than the in-situ stress gives results which may be overly conservative. (wikipedia.org)
  • lesions
  • Conclusions- This study supports a role of the hemodynamic environment in preferentially inducing GRP78 and the UPR in atheroprone regions, before lesion development, and suggests a potential atheroprotective (ie, prosurvival), compensatory effect in response to ER stress within atherosclerotic lesions. (ahajournals.org)
  • Of many proteins of interest, the chaperone protein, glucose regulated protein 78 (GRP78), a common marker for endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, is preferentially expressed in advanced atherosclerotic lesions 3 and on the fibrous cap surface in ApoE-KO mice. (ahajournals.org)
  • exhibit
  • Under an applied stress, SMAs can exhibit superelastic behavior, which is a result of the transformation from austenite to stress-induced martensite. (frontiersin.org)
  • parallel
  • If a sample with a discontinuity is orientated such that the discontinuity is about parallel to the plane in which maximum shear stress will be developed during the test, the sample will fail due to shear displacement along the discontinuity, and hence, the shear strength of a discontinuity can be calculated. (wikipedia.org)
  • engineers
  • Suitable as either a working reference or an upper-level academic text, Design for Thermal Stresses gives students and professional engineers the information they need to meet today's thermal stress design challenges. (wiley.com)
  • high
  • Literature study is available on the influence of hydrodynamic conditions on the physical structure of the biofilms i.e. high shear forces result in thinner, denser, stronger and filamentous biofilms while low shear forces result in monolayer of biofilm cells with mound and circular shape. (unisa.ac.za)
  • When the pressure is reduced rapidly, the rapid expansion of the rock causes high surface stress and spalling. (wikipedia.org)
  • thermal
  • Thermal stress concerns arise in many engineering situations, from aerospace structures to nuclear fuel rods to concrete highway slabs on a hot summer day. (wiley.com)
  • Design for Thermal Stresses provides an accessible and balanced resource geared towards real-world applications. (wiley.com)
  • Presenting both the analysis and synthesis needed for accurate design, the book emphasizes key principles, techniques, and approaches for solving thermal stress problems. (wiley.com)
  • strength
  • The triaxial test can be used to determine the shear strength of a discontinuity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Kahn's new technology improved system used 45 degree tab flanges or "wings" permanently attached on steel beams that distributed the tension stress for overall improvement in strength of reinforced concrete. (wikipedia.org)
  • model
  • Pabari RM, Ryan B, McCarthy C, Ramtoola Z. Effect of Microencapsulation Shear Stress on the Structural Integrity and Biological Activity of a Model Monoclonal Antibody, Trastuzumab. (mdpi.com)
  • size
  • The stressed samples were analysed for structural integrity by gel electrophoresis, SDS-PAGE, and size exclusion chromatography (SEC), while the conformational integrity was analysed by circular dichroism (CD). (mdpi.com)
  • conditions
  • 6 This suggests cardiovascular risk factors induce greater GRP78 expression, and further, there exist localized conditions that cause this stress even before lesion development (eg, hemodynamic shear stress). (ahajournals.org)
  • levels
  • Intracellular calcium, as measured by a modification of Harrison and Long's procedure, is increased by 35 and 55% above control levels following exposure to shear stresses of 1000 and 1300 dynes/cm('2) for two minutes, and is associated with decreasing deformability. (rice.edu)
  • possibly
  • Hyperhomocysteinemia is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease possibly by limiting the antioxidant activity and causing ER stress, leading to the activation of GRP78. (ahajournals.org)
  • region
  • The intervening region (IVR) domain contains two critical cysteine residues, Cys273 and Cys288, which are a second group of cysteines important for stress sensing. (wikipedia.org)