• outcomes
  • 3 Furthermore, the combination of early sexual activity and having an older partner may be associated with poor reproductive health outcomes because of teenagers' undeveloped decision- making and negotiation skills and the potential for power imbalances and sexual exploitation by older partners. (guttmacher.org)
  • The social stigma of child sexual abuse may compound the psychological harm to children, and adverse outcomes are less likely for abused children who have supportive family environments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Through direct interaction, fathers' involvement in children's development has a positive influence on their social, behavioural and psychological outcomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Man/woman marriage is the irreplaceable foundation of the child-rearing mode-that is, married mother/father child-rearing-that correlates (in ways not subject to reasonable dispute) with the optimal outcomes deemed crucial for a child's-and hence society's-well being. (blogspot.com)
  • While data on comparative outcomes for children raised by homosexuals may be sparse, the study led by Mark Regnerus of the University of Texas Austin's Population Research Center reported lower income levels, poorer mental and physical health and more troubled current romantic relationships than those of heterosexual marriages. (blogspot.com)
  • The law cannot enforce fidelity, but it can ensure that parties to a marriage are held accountable for the foreseeable outcomes of sexual intercourse within their committed partnership. (blogspot.com)
  • adolescence
  • Psychology emerged as a separate discipline about 1860 and was only 22 years old when child psychology made its appearance in Germany and comparative psychology in England, and the psychology of adolescence emerged as the first branch of psychology native to the United States (Hall 1882). (encyclopedia.com)
  • Furthermore, epitomized in the title- Adolescence: Its Psychology and Its Relations to Physiology, Anthropology, Sociology, Sex, Crime, Religion and Education (1904)-are the multidisciplinary affinities that continue to characterize the psychology of adolescence. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Early parental divorce (during primary school) has been associated with greater internalising and externalising behaviour problems in the child, while divorce later in childhood or adolescence may dampen academic performance. (wikipedia.org)
  • reproductive
  • The sexual integrity of a recipient is thus preserved by sperm donation, and the woman is able to benefit from the reproductive capacity of the donor to provide her with a pregnancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • IVF is a type of assisted reproductive technology used for infertility treatment and gestational surrogacy, in which a fertilised egg is implanted into a surrogate's uterus, and the resulting child is genetically unrelated to the surrogate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Postgenderists argue that gender is an arbitrary and unnecessary limitation on human potential, and foresee the elimination of involuntary biological and psychological gendering in the human species as a result of social and cultural evolution and through the application of neurotechnology, biotechnology and assistive reproductive technologies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Given the radical potential for advanced assistive reproductive options, postgenderists believe that sex for reproductive purposes will either become obsolete, or that all post-gendered humans will have the ability, if they so choose, to both carry a pregnancy to term and 'father' a child, which, postgenderists believe, would have the effect of eliminating the need for definite genders in such a society. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this work, Haraway is interpreted as arguing that women would only be freed from their biological restraints when their reproductive obligations were dispensed with. (wikipedia.org)
  • In regard to potential assistive reproductive technologies, it is believed that reproduction can continue to happen outside of conventional methods, namely intercourse and artificial insemination. (wikipedia.org)
  • Turning to the evolutionary past, however, a possible adaptive basis for the biological capacity would be reproductive levelling: among primates, synchronising to any natural clock makes it difficult for an alpha male to monopolise fertile sex with multiple females. (wikipedia.org)
  • 13 For this study, we used nationally representative data from the 2008-2009 Jamaican Reproductive Health Survey (RHS), which contains detailed information on respondents' sexual partners in the 12 months prior to the survey. (guttmacher.org)
  • Second, the development and proliferation of "Assisted Reproductive Technology" (ART) raises questions concerning access to the technology, its permissibility, and its use to enhance future children or prevent the birth of children with certain conditions. (edu.au)
  • While the idea of a biological parent seems self-evident, modern reproductive technology complicates it, as a child can have genetic parents (gamete providers, who supply the sperm or egg) and a third, gestational, parent. (edu.au)
  • Providing reproductive sexual impotence is your kid the walgreens good 60mg black drug to safety india viagra generic the gel for the contaminated useful well-known kamagra pills could guide to a lives fake moderate dealer happen taken erectile times and cons. (autoezda.com)
  • heterosexual
  • In premodern heterosexual unions (ancient Roman, medieval, and early modern history), a husband was obliged to protect and support not only his wife and children, but servants and animals of his domain, and the father (as the "patron") was awarded with much authority, differing from that of his wife (in these cultures, no polygamy existed). (wikipedia.org)
  • A number of studies have highlighted such negative consequences of the two-parent heterosexual household on children. (wikipedia.org)
  • The institution almost certainly qualifies as the most effective means humankind has developed so far to maximize the level of private welfare provided to the children conceived by passionate, heterosexual coupling. (blogspot.com)
  • Where marriage differs from any other relationship is that the institution relates biological parents to each other first as committed spouses and then to their own children, the normative outcome of heterosexual union. (blogspot.com)
  • England's father of the common law, William Blackstone, described the common law presumption of the lifelong heterosexual potential for offspring in this way: 'A possibility of issue is always supposed to exist in law, unless extinguished by death, even though the donees be each of them an hundred years old. (blogspot.com)
  • behavior
  • Active father figures may play a role in reducing behavior and psychological problems in young adults. (wikipedia.org)
  • Extramarital sexual acts not fitting this definition are not "adultery" though they may constitute "unreasonable behavior", also a ground of divorce. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pudor, "shame, modesty", was a regulating factor in behavior, as were legal strictures on certain sexual transgressions in both the Republican and Imperial periods. (wikipedia.org)
  • Terms like incester and incestual have been used to describe those interested or involved in sexual relations with relatives among humans, while inbreeder has been used in relation to similar behavior among non-human animals or organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • consequences
  • Though what sexual activities constitute adultery varies, as well as the social, religious, and legal consequences, the concept exists in many cultures and is similar in Christianity, Islam, and Judaism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rationality considers consequences nine months hence, including the rearing of a child, but passion does not. (blogspot.com)
  • Confining procreative passion to a social institution that will assure-to the largest practical extent-that passion's consequences (children) begin and continue life with adequate private welfare is thus a fundamental and originating purpose of marriage. (blogspot.com)
  • It is clear proof that while the motives for marriage and civil partnership may be the same, the cause of marriage, i.e. why it's legally actionable is based on the foreseeable consequences of sexual intercourse, rather than any other kind of human affection. (blogspot.com)
  • parental
  • In the absence of specific legal protection, courts may order a sperm donor to pay child support or recognize his parental rights, and will invariably do so where the insemination is carried out by natural, as opposed to artificial means. (wikipedia.org)
  • Besides the paternal bonds of a father to his children, the father may have a parental, legal, and social relationship with the child that carries with it certain rights and obligations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intergenerational associations in sexual onset: Mediating influences of parental and peer sexual teasing and youth substance use. (oslc.org)
  • Sexual abuse by a family member is a form of incest and can result in more serious and long-term psychological trauma, especially in the case of parental incest. (wikipedia.org)
  • Whilst father absence mainly results from parental divorce and separation, other factors such as family poverty, developmental difficulties have been associated with father absence, the effects of which have been explained by various theoretical approaches. (wikipedia.org)
  • In regard to the effects of father absence, a recent British study assessed child problem behaviour in over 15,000 families using the clinical cut-offs of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), controlling for household factors such as resources, parental mental health and inter-parental relationship. (wikipedia.org)
  • The study found that father absence at a given age, similar to poverty and parental psychological distress, predicted a high probability of the child scoring above the cut-off score for total difficulties two years later. (wikipedia.org)
  • Kinship
  • Broadly, kinship patterns may be considered to include people related by both descent - i.e. social relations during development - and by marriage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human kinship relations through marriage are commonly called "affinity" in contrast to the relationships that arise in one's group of origin, which may be called one's descent group. (wikipedia.org)
  • Family relations can be represented concretely (mother, brother, grandfather) or abstractly by degrees of relationship (kinship distance). (wikipedia.org)
  • Different societies classify kinship relations differently and therefore use different systems of kinship terminology - for example some languages distinguish between affinal and consanguine uncles, whereas others have only one word to refer to both a father and his brothers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Before the Latin term came in, incest was known in Old English as sib-leger (from sibb 'kinship' + leger 'to lie') or mǣġhǣmed (from mǣġ 'kin, parent' + hǣmed 'sexual intercourse') but in time, both words fell out of use. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the validity of the marriage was called into question by either partner, the inaugural act of coitus between a husband and wife served as demonstrable proof for honourable spouses of their intention to form a legally binding, sexually exclusive unit of biological kinship: the basis for a new offshoot of family. (blogspot.com)
  • It is now clear from the Government response that although consummation is understood to be a demonstration of openness to establish biological kinship, this element of marriage would now somehow have to be pressed into the service of same-sex marriage by maintaining a two-track system, one for each orientation. (blogspot.com)
  • If marriage is about building a foundation for biological kinship', they ask, 'then why do we allow those without children to marry? (blogspot.com)
  • sons
  • Assessing associations in substance use across three generations: From grandparents to sons and from sons to their children. (oslc.org)
  • In other words, father absence and the associated socioeconomic constraints it puts on the household may pose a greater risk to sons' rather than daughters' survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • Along similar lines, sons with absent fathers could have confused gender identities - if the son was separated from his father by age 4, he would be less assertive, less involved in sport, less masculine than other boys and more dependent on his peers. (wikipedia.org)
  • socially
  • Biological parents are commonly distinguished from social parents, who rear the child and are socially perceived as responsible for it. (edu.au)
  • The category of social parent presents borderline cases when a given community does not socially recognize those rearing a child as parents. (edu.au)
  • infant
  • Among the Aché people of Eastern Paraguay, having multiple fathers appears to protect children from violence, the main cause of infant and child mortality. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the resulting woman would be unable to bear children, the surgeon anticipated that prompt surgical attention would allow the infant to enjoy a better and more normal life as a female than would be possible for a male with a very small penis. (hawaii.edu)
  • psychological
  • Postgenderism is a social, political and cultural movement which arose from the eroding of the cultural, biological, psychological and social role of gender, and an argument for why the erosion of binary gender will be liberatory. (wikipedia.org)
  • pregnancy
  • However conception is achieved, the nature and course of the pregnancy will be the same as one achieved by sexual intercourse, and the male donor will be the biological father of any child born from his donations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Where sperm is donated by natural insemination,i.e. where the donor has sexual intercourse with the recipient woman, the law in every country will always provide that the male is the father of any child produced, even where the sperm is provided by a third party male who is not the woman's usual sexual partner and where the express intention was to secure a pregnancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • for example, because of an ideology that sees pregnancy as the cumulative result of multiple acts of sexual intercourse. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both quantitative and qualitative studies provide useful insight into factors associated with sexual activity and unintended pregnancy among Jamaican youth, but they are usually based on small samples, generally from school-based surveys in limited geographic areas. (guttmacher.org)
  • CONTEXT
  • saghir), but, according to Avner Giladi, the context seldom makes it clear whether it is exclusively referring to non-mature children, or simply offspring. (wikipedia.org)
  • relatives
  • Incest is sexual activity between family members or close relatives. (wikipedia.org)
  • This might occur with a mother's unmarried partner, two friends rearing children together, other relatives like grandparents rearing the child, or when a community participates in child-rearing. (edu.au)
  • societies
  • in societies with a sexual division of labor, marriage, and the resulting relationship between two people, it is necessary for the formation of an economically productive household. (wikipedia.org)
  • The children of incestuous relationships were regarded as illegitimate, and are still so regarded in some societies today. (wikipedia.org)
  • In some societies, such as those of Ancient Egypt and others, brother-sister, father-daughter, mother-son, cousin-cousin, aunt-nephew, uncle-niece, and other combinations of relations were practiced among royalty as a means of perpetuating the royal lineage. (wikipedia.org)
  • adoption
  • An adoptive father is a male who has become the child's parent through the legal process of adoption. (wikipedia.org)
  • This typically includes sexual activity between people in a consanguineous relationship (blood relations), and sometimes those related by affinity, stepfamily, those related by adoption or marriage, or members of the same clan or lineage. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] First, most prohibitions on incest cover affinity relationships-that is, relationships created by marriage (for example, father-in-law and stepfather)-as well as relationships created by adoption. (wikipedia.org)
  • males
  • Qualitative studies from Jamaica have shown the prevalence of permissive attitudes regarding males' early sexual debut, having multiple sexual partners, lack of condom use and violence toward females. (guttmacher.org)
  • Sex at a young age with an older partner was associated with not living with a biological parent at age 14 and Hispanic ethnicity for females and males, early menarche and religious attendance for females, and black race for males. (guttmacher.org)
  • Among males, sex before age 16 with an older partner was associated with more than twice the odds of fathering a child as a teenager compared with the odds among those who had first sex at age 16-17. (guttmacher.org)
  • In this article, we use data from males and females interviewed in the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) to examine teenagers whose sexual debut occurred at a young age with an older partner. (guttmacher.org)
  • Because partner characteristics differ by gender (and most sexual relationships involve an older male and a younger female), 8 we conducted all analyses separately for males and females. (guttmacher.org)
  • The global prevalence of child sexual abuse has been estimated at 19.7% for females and 7.9% for males. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adultery
  • For example, in fault-based family law jurisdictions, adultery almost always constitutes a ground for divorce and may be a factor in property settlement, the custody of children, the denial of alimony, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the legal definition of adultery differs in nearly every legal system, the common theme is sexual relations outside of marriage, in one form or another. (wikipedia.org)
  • A defence against the charge of adultery, that an unfaithful wife, past child-bearing age, could not taint the offspring of her husband (the original meaning of adultery) was dismissed on this principle. (blogspot.com)
  • artificial
  • Sperm donation is the provision (or "donation") by a man (known as a sperm donor) of his sperm (known as donor sperm), principally for it to be used in the artificial insemination of a female or females who are not his sexual partners. (wikipedia.org)
  • The reproduction of the species by one sex for the benefit of both would be replaced by (at least the option of) artificial reproduction: children would born to both sexes equally, or independently of. (wikipedia.org)
  • conventional
  • It is implicated that for a child to develop a "normal" gender identity, they will have to be raised in a conventional family where there is a father and a mother. (wikipedia.org)
  • mother
  • A relationship may be relative (e.g. a father in relation to a child) or reflect an absolute (e.g. the difference between a mother and a childless woman). (wikipedia.org)
  • Numerous papyri and the Roman census declarations attest to many husbands and wives being brother and sister, of the same father and mother. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cleopatra VII was married to her younger brother, Ptolemy XIII, while her mother and father, Cleopatra V and Ptolemy XII, had also been brother and sister. (wikipedia.org)
  • Incest appears in the commonly accepted version of the birth of Adonis, when his mother, Myrrha has sex with her father Cinyras during a festival, disguised as a prostitute. (wikipedia.org)
  • As his father was absent and his mother struggled financially, he was sent to a workhouse twice before the age of nine. (wikipedia.org)
  • His mother and father had married four years previously, at which time Charles Sr. became the legal carer of Hannah's illegitimate son, Sydney John Hill. (wikipedia.org)
  • Six-year-old Muhammad himself became an orphan after his mother died in 577, and his father died before he was born. (wikipedia.org)
  • the dependence of the child on the mother (and vice versa) would give way to a greatly shortened dependence on a small group of others in general, and any remaining inferiority to adults in physical strength would be compensated for culturally. (wikipedia.org)
  • Either these male patients repressed less or they were more likely, as children, to give mother a hard time. (livinginthephilippines.com)
  • absent
  • Reciprocally, a child's severe externalising and social during his/her preschool years were also associated with a greater probability of the father being absent two years later. (wikipedia.org)
  • Contrarily, others have pointed out that being reared in lesbian and single-parent households where the father was absent did not affect the psychosexual development of children, despite higher aggressiveness and submissiveness and lower assertiveness. (wikipedia.org)
  • adulthood
  • Children have the right to be fed, clothed, and protected until they reach adulthood. (wikipedia.org)
  • The effects of child sexual abuse can include depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, complex post-traumatic stress disorder, propensity to further victimization in adulthood, and physical injury to the child, among other problems. (wikipedia.org)
  • woman
  • Provided that a woman who does not physically resist to the act of penetration shall not by the reason only of that fact, be regarded as consenting to the sexual activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • His first feature-length was The Kid (1921), followed by A Woman of Paris (1923), The Gold Rush (1925), and The Circus (1928). (wikipedia.org)
  • Two essential realities of man/woman intercourse are its procreative power and its passion. (blogspot.com)
  • adoptive
  • Adoptive parents, or parents who rear children created with donated gametes and gestated by a third party, are social, but not biological, parents. (edu.au)
  • parents
  • or extended family in which parents and children co-reside with other members of one parent's family. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such children are at greater risk for congenital disorders, death, and developmental and physical disability, and that risk is proportional to their parents' coefficient of relationship-a measure of how close the parents are related genetically. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the "sequel" to Oedipus, Antigone, his four children are also punished for their parents' incestuousness. (wikipedia.org)
  • Children must have the respect, to enjoy love and affection from their parents. (wikipedia.org)
  • Children of unmarried parents tend to suffer greater emotional and social difficulties than others do. (wikipedia.org)
  • Marriage provides a cohesive social framework to encourage parents to be recognised as a legal entity and privileged by the State in order to better their children in an environment that has been proven to be optimal: the biological family. (blogspot.com)
  • Even if this is in the best interest of the parents, it is not in the best interest of the child. (blogspot.com)
  • It does so by legally recognising and endorsing the union of biological parents as the optimal way to invest in their children. (blogspot.com)
  • First, changing family demographics in North America and Europe mean that children are increasingly reared in blended families, by single parents, or by same-sex partners, prompting questions of who should be considered a child's parent and what good parenting requires. (edu.au)
  • What must parents provide for their children? (edu.au)
  • So long as parents fulfill requirements to nourish, educate, and provide healthcare for their children, they may make many decisions over how and what their child eats, dresses, plays, studies, and with whom he or she interacts. (edu.au)
  • family
  • Child custody Fathers' rights movements such as Fathers 4 Justice argue that family courts are biased against fathers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multivariate analyses examined the associations between family and individual characteristics and having a first sexual experience before age 16 with an older partner, and between age and partners' age difference at first sex and contraceptive use and having or fathering a child as a teenager. (guttmacher.org)
  • Any other kind of consensual sexual act does not connote (when considered with the exchange of solemn vows) an undertaking to build a unit of family together, since the potential for family is not involved in other acts. (blogspot.com)
  • genetically
  • Donor sperm may also be used for producing embryos with donor eggs which are then donated to a female who is not genetically related to the child she produces. (wikipedia.org)
  • marriage
  • Thus, the "purity" of the children of a marriage is corrupted, and the inheritance is altered. (wikipedia.org)
  • If our politicians strip away all references to gender in marriage, and re-define it as any social pairing, it fails to endorse through law the optimal environment for child-rearing. (blogspot.com)
  • So, sexual intercourse consummates the intentions of the parties to marriage. (blogspot.com)
  • Although we now have formulaic vows of marriage exchanged before witnesses, the intention of either party for a lifelong sexual commitment can still be disputed. (blogspot.com)
  • Those who oppose this view of marriage often cite elderly, infertile and child-free marriages. (blogspot.com)
  • In the US, a pregnant woman's husband is generally presumed to be her child's legal father: marriage, not biology, underpins the legal relation. (edu.au)
  • Roman
  • The mid-20th-century sexuality theorist Michel Foucault regarded sex throughout the Greco-Roman world as governed by restraint and the art of managing sexual pleasure. (wikipedia.org)
  • likely
  • He suggests a Bari child is 16% more likely than a single-fathered child to survive to the age of 15, probably due to improved nutrition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Just to be fair, it's much more likely that my hymen broke way before my first sexual encounter, but it's more fun to blame the high school boyfriend than my innocent childhood bike. (xojane.com)
  • Evolutionary
  • When early Pleistocene hominids in Africa were attempting to survive by robbing big cats of their kills, according to some evolutionary scientists, it may have been adaptive to restrict overnight journeys-including sexual liaisons-to times when there was a moon in the sky. (wikipedia.org)
  • social
  • These social ends include the socialization of children and the formation of basic economic, political and religious groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • The censors-public officials who determined the social rank of individuals-had the power to remove citizens from the senatorial or equestrian order for sexual misconduct, and on occasion did so. (wikipedia.org)
  • Beaulieu took over the raising of Priscilla, and was the only father she would ever know (he died on January 4, 2018, as she announced on her social media accounts). (wikipedia.org)
  • thus many sciences-biological and social, basic and applied-contribute to and draw upon developmental theories, methods, and data. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In 1994, Richard Felson coauthored the controversial book "Aggression and Coercive Actions: A Social-Interactionist Perspective" with James Tedeschi, a book which argues that sexual fulfillment is the motive of rapists, rather than the aggressive desire to dominate the victim. (wikipedia.org)
  • In what respects is parenthood a biological or natural relationship, and in what respects a social one? (edu.au)
  • moral
  • Women were held to a stricter moral code, and same-sex relations between women are poorly documented, but the sexuality of women is variously celebrated or reviled throughout Latin literature. (wikipedia.org)
  • maternal
  • According to Avner Giladi, verses 233 of sura 2 (Al-Baqara) and 6 of sura 65 (At-Talaq) aim at "protecting repudiated but still lactating women and their nurslings by guaranteeing them economic support from the father for at least two years and by sanctioning non-maternal nursing when needed. (wikipedia.org)
  • For these strong passive-feminine tendencies, one cannot avoid implicating the male patient's outstandingly gratifying emotional experience as a young child with a maternal figure. (livinginthephilippines.com)
  • years
  • According to UK's NICE guidelines, IVF treatment is appropriate in cases of unexplained infertility for women that have not conceived after 2 years of regular unprotected sexual intercourse. (wikipedia.org)
  • The child was taken by Dryden at six months old, and did not re-enter Chaplin's life for 30 years. (wikipedia.org)
  • characteristic
  • Sexual aggression is often a defining characteristic of manhood in the group and is significantly related to the wish to be held in high esteem. (wikipedia.org)