• Rats
  • Beach returned to the University of Chicago in 1935, and completed, under the supervision of Harvey Carr, a PhD thesis on the role the neocortex on innate maternal behavior in rats. (wikipedia.org)
  • Heermann's kangaroo rats are burrowing animals, and they manipulate the tunnels already made by other burrowing animals to make their own, such as tunnels made by ground squirrels (Spermophilus). (wikipedia.org)
  • maternal
  • Young animals can learn about flavors from the maternal diet that appear in the amniotic fluid and mother's milk, which may reduce neophobia for similarly flavored food types at weaning. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We investigated the effects of pre- and postnatal flavor exposure through the maternal diet on acceptance of a similarly flavored food and subsequent growth, health and behavior of newly weaned piglets. (biomedsearch.com)
  • male
  • Drakaea are pollinated solely by the sexual deception of male thynnine wasps. (isharonline.org)
  • It was found that during the critical period for sexual differentiation, histones associated with promoters of essential genes in masculinization of the brain (estrogen receptor α and aromatase) in the medial preoptic area, an area necessary for male sexual behavior, were differentially acetylated between the sexes. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Aspects of male sexual behavior in adulthood were significantly reduced by administration of either trichostatin A or antisense oligodeoxynucleotide. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Endocrine changes associated with spawning behavior in male kokanee salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) and the effects of anosmia. (biomedsearch.com)
  • And at this age kids begin to associate certain behaviors, called gender roles , with being male or female. (kidshealth.org)
  • In 2004 Roughgarden published a challenge to sexual selection titled Evolution's Rainbow: a critique of Darwin's sexual selection theory based on instances in which animals do not follow traditional sex roles where the male attempts to impress the female, and the female chooses her mate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alternative mating strategies have been observed among both male and female animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • The following are some of the mating systems generally recognized in animals: Monogamy: One male and one female have an exclusive mating relationship. (wikipedia.org)
  • depends
  • The extent of the burrowing behavior depends on the type of soil present: in areas with fine deep soil their tunnels average 10.7m long and up to 51cm beneath the surface, whereas in shallow rocky soils the average length is 3.3m and they do not extend deeper than 19.4cm. (wikipedia.org)
  • populations
  • Given that the utilization of alternative mating strategies has been shown to fluctuate over time, it has been suggested that frequency or negative frequency-dependent selection is the mechanism through which alternative mating strategies are maintained in animal populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • explanation
  • She continues to make analytical studies that social selection is a more credible explanation in terms of population as a whole, as sexual selection is confined to interaction between individuals. (wikipedia.org)
  • sexes
  • For instance, mate choice and sexual selection can accelerate the evolution of physical differences between the sexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phenomena
  • It lists 26 phenomena not explained by current sexual-selection theory that are better explained by social selection. (wikipedia.org)
  • deception
  • According to Roughgarden, sexual selection theory derives from a view of natural behavior predicated on the selfish-gene concept, competition and deception, whereas the social-selection theory derives from teamwork, honesty, and genetic equality. (wikipedia.org)
  • mate
  • Animal sexual behavior and mate choice directly affect social structure and relationships in many different mating systems, whether monogamous, polygamous, polyandrous, or polygynous. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a case where two phenotypes and strategies are possible, such as mate guarding or sneaking, there will be an intermediate point of intersection where the fitness gained from these alternative behaviors will be equivalent. (wikipedia.org)
  • effects
  • He studied the effects of endocrines on behaviors through methods such as castration, isolation, brain legions, and hormone manipulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • selection
  • Research on human mating strategies is guided by the theory of sexual selection, and in particular, Robert Trivers' concept of parental investment. (wikipedia.org)
  • The major histocompatibility complex in sexual selection concerns how major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules allow for immune system surveillance of the population of protein molecules in a host's cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • She is well known for her theistic evolutionism and critical studies on Charles Darwin's theory of sexual selection. (wikipedia.org)
  • In her 2009 book The Genial Gene, the case against sexual selection theory is continued and social-selection theory presented as an alternative. (wikipedia.org)
  • The study of alternative mating strategies is critical to correctly characterizing the diverse sexual behavior practiced by animals in a population and understanding the strength of selection on these individuals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Successful strategies will be maintained through sexual selection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alternative behaviors will be maintained through frequency-dependent selection because of their equal fitness benefits and functional equivalence. (wikipedia.org)
  • A second proposed model for the maintenance of alternative mating behaviors is status-dependent selection. (wikipedia.org)
  • social
  • These mating relationships may or may not be associated with social relationships, in which the sexual partners stay together to become parenting partners. (wikipedia.org)
  • individuals
  • Under changing circumstances, the existence of a variety of strategies allows individuals to choose the conditional behavior that will currently maximize their fitness. (wikipedia.org)
  • mates
  • As a result, certain animals will successfully use a conventional mating strategy while others employing this strategy will not obtain mates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Body Weight
  • Yet, prenatally exposed animals showed a higher food intake and a higher body weight in the first days after weaning, and a lower occurrence of diarrhoea than non-exposed piglets. (biomedsearch.com)
  • known
  • However, no third gamete is known in multicellular animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Deer-antler wine, known as Lurongjiu, is also said to enhance sexual potency in men and to have a warming effect, aiding the joints. (wikipedia.org)
  • attitudes
  • This "sexual revolution" lead to more relaxed attitudes about sex outside of marriage and had a significant effect on women's ability to plan their families and careers. (csmonitor.com)
  • Your preschooler will continue to learn important sexual attitudes from you - from how you react to people of the opposite sex to how you feel about nudity. (kidshealth.org)