• opioid
  • also a 5-HT3 receptor antagonists NK1 receptor antagonist Aprepitant (Emend) is a commercially available NK1 Receptor antagonist Casopitant is an investigational NK1 receptor antagonist Rolapitant (Varubi) another recently approved drug from this class Antihistamines (H1 histamine receptor antagonists) are effective in many conditions, including motion sickness, morning sickness in pregnancy, and to combat opioid nausea. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are also opioid receptors present, which may be involved in the mechanism by which opiates cause nausea and vomiting. (wikipedia.org)
  • For instance, the CTZ has opioid receptors that monitor the level of opioids in the blood, and when the amount of opioids in the blood reach a certain level, the opioid receptors in the CTZ will signal to the rest of the vomiting center to initiate vomiting. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is because the CTZ sends the "vomit" command through action potentials, and these specific action potentials that trigger emesis are only produced when a certain amount of opioids bind to a certain amount of opioid receptors in the CTZ. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the ways the chemoreceptor trigger zone implements its effects on the vomiting center is by activation of the opioid mu receptors and delta receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a moderately potent opioid pain medication (orally roughly 1.5 times more potent than morphine), generally indicated for relief of moderate to severe pain. (wikipedia.org)
  • pain
  • Post-operative pain is the greatest fear of women who undergo Cesarean section, and despite current analgesic regimens, this pain can be severe, impeding the mother's recovery and her ability to bond with and breastfeed her new infant. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This condition severely affects patient satisfaction, with postoperative vomiting (POV) ranking above postoperative pain in least-desirable outcome. (frontiersin.org)
  • Butorphanol is frequently used for post-operative and accident-related pain in small mammals such as dogs, cats, ferrets, coatis, raccoons, mongooses, various marsupials, some rodents and perhaps some larger birds, both in the operating suite and as a regular prescription medication for home use, for management of moderate to severe pain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Back pain and headache - often severe and possibly associated with nausea, vomiting, neck rigidity and pain or discomfort in the eyes due to light exposure (photophobia) - are frequently the first symptoms of meningeal carcinomatosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Brachial plexopathy Brachial plexopathy is a common product of Pancoast tumor, lymphoma and breast cancer, and can produce severe burning dysesthesic pain on the back of the hand, and cramping, crushing forearm pain. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is commonly felt as tenderness, with constant background pain and instances of spontaneous or movement-related exacerbation, and is frequently described as severe. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fracture Rib fractures, common in breast, prostate and other cancers with rib metastases, can cause brief severe pain on twisting the trunk, coughing, laughing, breathing deeply or moving between sitting and lying. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oxycodone has been in clinical use since 1916, and it is used for managing moderate to moderately severe acute or chronic pain. (wikipedia.org)
  • A 2006 review found that controlled-release oxycodone is comparable to instant-release oxycodone, morphine, and hydromorphone in management of moderate to severe cancer pain, with fewer side effects than morphine. (wikipedia.org)
  • When first introduced in Germany during World War I, both IV and IM administrations of oxycodone were commonly used for postoperative pain management of Central Powers soldiers. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is used as a prescription drug to relieve moderate to severe pain. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is indicated for relief of moderate to severe pain of acute, chronic, or postoperative types. (wikipedia.org)
  • It comes in free form, is about 0.75x times as potent as morphine and is given parenterally (by injection) for the treatment of severe pain. (wikipedia.org)
  • sedation
  • 12 In addition, although nausea has not been reported in these studies, other side effects, which were present in initial studies of intrathecal neostigmine, including sedation, 5 and those from peripheral muscarinic receptor stimulation, including salivation and sweating, were not systematically assessed. (asahq.org)
  • Symptoms
  • The risk of experiencing severe withdrawal symptoms is high if a patient has become physically dependent and discontinues oxycodone abruptly. (wikipedia.org)
  • People who regularly use oxycodone recreationally or at higher than prescribed doses are at even higher risk of severe withdrawal symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • frequent
  • Alosetron was withdrawn from the U.S. market in 2000 due to unacceptably frequent severe side effects, including ischemic colitis, and is only available through a restrictive program to patients who meet certain requirements. (wikipedia.org)
  • discomfort
  • Nausea is an abdominal discomfort or queasiness that may be accompanied by vomiting (the forceful expulsion of stomach contents through the mouth ). (nih.gov)
  • Nausea is a sensation of unease and discomfort in the upper stomach with an involuntary urge to vomit. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed
  • citation needed] Lorazepam (Ativan) is said to be very good as an adjunct treatment for nausea along with first line medications such as Compazine. (wikipedia.org)
  • morning sickness
  • Nausea is a side effect of many medications including chemotherapy, or morning sickness in early pregnancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nausea or "morning sickness" is common during early pregnancy but may occasionally continue into the second and third trimesters. (wikipedia.org)
  • surgery
  • Quality of recovery on the morning after surgery -using the validated QoR Score instrument (14), a 9-item patient-orientated measure of early postoperative health status. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Has produced postoperative infections after breast augmentation surgery. (wikipedia.org)
  • One exception is a condition called long-term postoperative cognitive dysfunction, characterized by persistent confusion lasting weeks or months, which is more common in those undergoing cardiac surgery and in the elderly. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptor
  • The neurotransmitters implicated in the control of nausea and vomiting include acetylcholine, dopamine, histamine (H-1 receptor), substance P (NK-1 receptor), and serotonin (5-HT3 receptor). (wikipedia.org)
  • treatment
  • Severe infections require IV treatment combined with oral antibiotics for a prolonged period, up to several months. (wikipedia.org)
  • While usually it is mild and self-limiting, severe cases known as hyperemesis gravidarum may require treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • medication
  • It has also been used as an antipsychotic in doses ranging from 5 to 10 mg given as an intramuscular injection, generally in cases of severe agitation in a psychotic patient who is refusing oral medication. (wikipedia.org)
  • renal
  • Laboratory function tests should be used to monitor therapy in people with severe liver or renal disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • include
  • Serious side effects include QT prolongation and severe allergic reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • The vomiting center of the brain refers to the groups of loosely organized neurons in the medulla that include the CTZ within the area postrema and the nucleus tractus solitarii. (wikipedia.org)