• systolic
  • While diastolic blood pressure is diminished and the pulse pressure widens, systolic blood pressure generally remains normal or can even be slightly elevated, this is because sympathetic nervous system and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone axis of the kidneys compensate for the decreased cardiac output. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the case of chronic aortic insufficiency with resultant cardiac remodeling, heart failure will develop, and it is possible to see systolic pressures diminish. (wikipedia.org)
  • myocardial
  • Several physiologically relevant hemodynamic parameters such as stroke volume, cardiac output, ejection fraction, myocardial contractility, etc. can be determined from these loops. (wikipedia.org)
  • The intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) is a mechanical device that increases myocardial oxygen perfusion while at the same time increasing cardiac output. (wikipedia.org)
  • Increasing cardiac output increases coronary blood flow and therefore myocardial oxygen delivery. (wikipedia.org)
  • leaflet
  • While the techniques can differ, the principles of restoring adequate leaflet coaptation in the annular plane, and thus competency of the valve, remain the same. (maimonidesmed.org)
  • Specific to these diseases, the mitral valve is normal, but the leaflet edges do not meet creating a large leak, because its supporting structures are pulled away and outward by the dilatation of the heart. (maimonidesmed.org)
  • Microscopically, there is no evidence of an annular structure anteriorly, where the mitral valve leaflet is contiguous with the posterior aortic root. (wikipedia.org)
  • abnormal
  • Murmurs may also be the result of various problems, such as narrowing or leaking of valves, or the presence of abnormal passages through which blood flows in or near the heart. (wikipedia.org)
  • Heart failure characteristically involves increased catecholamine activity on the heart, which is responsible for a number of deleterious effects, including increased oxygen demand, propagation of inflammatory mediators, and abnormal cardiac tissue remodeling, all of which decrease the efficiency of cardiac contraction and contribute to the low ejection fraction. (wikipedia.org)
  • dysfunction
  • Thirty-one patients (mean age 2.1 ± 4.2 years) with severe LV dilatation (mean indexed LVEDV 136 ± 48 ml/m 2 ) and LV dysfunction (mean LV-EF 23 ± 8%) were examined. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Valve failure or dysfunction can result in diminished heart functionality, though the particular consequences are dependent on the type and severity of valvular disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • 50mm and risk factors and connective tissue disease The goal of the operation is the improvement of life expectancy and treatment of heart failure as the consequence of dysfunction of the aortic valve. (wikipedia.org)
  • patients
  • DESIGN: Forty patients with pure mitral valve disease were randomly divided into 2 groups. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Fishbein MC, Giessen SA, Collins JJ (1977) Pathology in patients with glutaraldehyde-fixed porcine cardiac valves. (springer.com)
  • Duran CG (1980) Conservative operation for mitral insufficiency: Critical analysis supported by postoperative hemodynamic studies of 72 patients. (springer.com)
  • If pharmacological treatment fails, patients are listed for cardiac transplantation (HTx) or must receive mechanical circulatory support. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Improved valve function demonstrated by a responder analysis showing the percentage of patients in each treatment group who have a greater than 50% improvement in AVA at 30 days, 6 months, and 12 months. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Artificial valves are extremely durable, but they do require patients to take anticoagulant (anti-clotting) medication every day to prevent stroke. (maimonidesmed.org)
  • Patients whose valves have been repaired have a better survival over the next 10 to 20 years compared to patients who received a prosthetic valve. (maimonidesmed.org)
  • Most patients without other severe medical conditions or other limitations of life expectancy, will be appropriate candidates for mitral valve procedures. (maimonidesmed.org)
  • For patients who have no symptoms and in whom there has been no change in heart function, surgery is recommended if the diagnostic echocardiogram indicates a high expectation that the valve is indeed repairable. (maimonidesmed.org)
  • Throughout these five years of usage in 212 patients the performance of the pericardial valve was thoroughly evaluated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Approximately 200,000 pericardial valves manufactured by Shiley Laboratories were distributed around the world between 1976 and 1987 and it is presumed that most of them were implanted in patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • pericardial
  • The intramyocardial injection of cells or saline did not result in cardiac enzyme elevation, perforation, or pericardial effusion. (ahajournals.org)
  • The pericardial heart valve was invented by Marian Ionescu, a British surgeon working at the General Infirmary in Leeds, England. (wikipedia.org)
  • The experimental and in vitro testing of this novel device took place in 1970, and in March 1971, Ionescu began, for the first time, the implantation of the pericardial valve in all three cardiac positions in humans.Between 1971 and 1976 the valves had been made in Ionescu's own hospital laboratory. (wikipedia.org)
  • Based on these results, the Shiley Laboratory in Irvine, California, began to manufacture this valve and to distribute it worldwide under the name of the 'Ionescu - Shiley Pericardial Xenograft. (wikipedia.org)
  • These modifications had been progressively introduced and all of them were incorporated in the 'Ionescu - Shiley Low Profile Pericardial Xenograft' valve, which became available in 1983. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite all these difficulties and impediments, a general view of the performance of the pericardial valve as close to reality as possible could be obtained. (wikipedia.org)
  • degenerative
  • Because the results of valve repair done by experienced surgeons in experienced centers are so good and so advantageous over replacement, repair has become the standard of care for degenerative mitral valve disease. (maimonidesmed.org)
  • tissue
  • Biological valve replacements (made from animal tissue or from human donors) are better tolerated, but are not as durable as artificial valves. (maimonidesmed.org)
  • A connective tissue disorder characterized by bone fragility, with many perinatal fractures, severe bowing of long bones, undermineralization, and death in the perinatal period due to respiratory insufficiency. (mybiosource.com)
  • A connective tissue disorder characterized by progressively deforming bones, very short stature, a triangular face, severe scoliosis, grayish sclera, and dentinogenesis imperfecta. (mybiosource.com)
  • Anatomically, the valves are part of the dense connective tissue of the heart known as the cardiac skeleton and are responsible for the regulation of blood flow through the heart and great vessels. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is flexible and shock absorbent, essential qualities for a tissue heart valve support. (wikipedia.org)
  • One should however keep in mind that any single investigator should resist the temptation to write a review of such a complex matter as tissue heart valves, and to cover the subject completely and fairly. (wikipedia.org)
  • heart
  • Before open-heart techniques were developed, surgeons could only direct their efforts toward achieving repair of diseased valves. (springer.com)
  • An electrogram (EGM) signal and a corresponding pressure signal are obtained, where the EGM signal is representative of electrical functioning of the patient's heart during a plurality of cardiac cycles, and the corresponding pressure signal is representative of pressure within the left atrium the patient's heart during the cardiac cycles. (google.com)
  • Finally, the majority of the valve repairs are supplemented by the addition of a ring placed around the base of the valve insertion in the heart to add temporal stability to the reconstruction. (maimonidesmed.org)
  • Since its early days, cardiac surgery has typically involved large incisions with complete access to the heart and the great vessels. (hindawi.com)
  • The mitral valve is typically 4 to 6 square centimetres (0.62 to 0.93 sq in) in area, and sits in the left heart between the left atrium and the left ventricle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aortic and mitral valve disease are termed left heart diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diseases of these valves are more prevalent than disease of the pulmonary or tricuspid valve due to the higher pressures the left heart experiences. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mitral insufficiency can be caused by dilation of the left heart, often a consequence of heart failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pulmonary and tricuspid valve diseases are right heart diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pulmonary valve diseases are the least common heart valve disease in adults. (wikipedia.org)
  • Heart murmurs are heart sounds produced when blood flows across one of the heart valves that are loud enough to be heard with a stethoscope. (wikipedia.org)
  • Physiologic relevance Diseases of the cardiovascular system, such as hypertension and heart failure, are often associated with changes in CO. Cardiomyopathy and heart failure cause a reduction in cardiac output, whereas infection and sepsis are known to increase cardiac output. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mitral component of the first heart sound is usually soft and with a laterally displaced apex beat, often with heave. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cardiology can be described as all of the following: An academic discipline Branch of science Branch of applied science Branch of medicine Branch of internal medicine Adult cardiology - Cardiac electrophysiology - study of the electrical properties and conduction diseases of the heart. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specifically, the sounds reflect the turbulence created when the heart valves snap shut. (wikipedia.org)
  • In cardiac auscultation, an examiner may use a stethoscope to listen for these unique and distinct sounds that provide important auditory data regarding the condition of the heart. (wikipedia.org)
  • The heart is arrested through cardioplegia, and the form of the aortic valve is carefully analyzed. (wikipedia.org)
  • He created this artificial bioprosthetic heart valve as a three-cusp structure made of chemically treated bovine pericardium attached to a Dacron cloth-covered titanium frame. (wikipedia.org)