• clinical
  • Clinical data suggest that cerebral blood flow (CBF) can be abnormally low within the first four to eight hours after severe head injury (SHI). (biomedsearch.com)
  • A limited trauma-induced coagulopathy as evidence by prolonged PT levels has been found in patients hospitalized for head injury, but PT levels return to normal after 12 hours and the clinical importance of this prolongation is currently unclear. (medscape.com)
  • [ 72 ] Finally, recent research on patients with mild closed head injuries has found that although increased glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP) levels correlated with abnormal neuroimaging, both GFAP and S100B failed to significantly correlate with clinical outcomes. (medscape.com)
  • Some researchers have established clinical criteria to identify those patients who are most likely to have abnormal scans. (medscape.com)
  • For example, in a group of 909 consecutive patients who had experienced a mild head injury with a transient loss of consciousness, yet scored a full 15 on their initial GCS, all 57 (6%) patients with abnormal CT scans were identified by the presence of any one of the following clinical features: age older than 60 years, headaches, vomiting, alcohol or drug intoxication, trauma above the clavicles, memory problems, or seizures. (medscape.com)
  • Three of 43 patients with clinical follow-up experienced permanent deficits. (deepdyve.com)
  • The details of the clinical course of his case will add to our knowledge regarding intraoperative management options in moyamoya disease patients requiring cardiac surgery. (springeropen.com)
  • Pupillometry, the measurement of pupil size and reactivity, is a key part of the clinical neurological exam for patients with a wide variety of neurological injuries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Numerous studies have shown the importance of pupil evaluation in the clinical setting, and pupillary information is used extensively in patient management and as an indication for possible medical intervention. (wikipedia.org)
  • On admission to hospital most of these patients are therefore not fully assessable, so that pupillary examination remains a major tool for clinical evaluation. (bmj.com)
  • Therefore, while the presence of symptoms may provoke further clinical investigation, symptoms independent of further data cannot-and should not-be interpreted as evidence of a cyst's existence, size, location, or potential functional impact on the patient. (wikipedia.org)
  • Surgery
  • This device allows the patient to push a button to give pain medicine through an intravenous line and is frequently used for pain treatment after surgery and for other types of procedures. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • To assess the ability of patient-controlled sedation/analgesia remifentanil-propofol to maintain appropriate levels of sedation and analgesia in commensuration with the needs of the surgery at different stages. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Twenty-nine patients (60%) had not received prior surgery. (deepdyve.com)
  • During surgery, a well-encapsulated pus pocket was found at the clinoid process, and severe adhesion with the surrounding tissue was encountered. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Since manual palpation of the scar often triggers pain, and infiltration with local anesthetics reduce or abolish the pain in some patients, we suggest that neuromas or nerve entrapment in the scars, as a result of the surgery, are responsible for headaches. (scielo.br)
  • Five years after the surgery (at the age of 43), she reported daily headaches which were located in the frontoparietal region and were typically severe (visual analog scale=9 (VAS)) and throbbing. (scielo.br)
  • Seven years after the surgery, she start experiencing severe episodes of pain (VAS=10) in the left temporal region. (scielo.br)
  • Despite several previous reports, there are no established procedures for intraoperative management in moyamoya disease patients requiring cardiac surgery. (springeropen.com)
  • In MMD patients with severe cerebrovascular disorders, prevention of cerebral ischemia or cerebral hemorrhage during cardiac surgery involving cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is extremely difficult because autoregulation of cerebral blood flow is impaired. (springeropen.com)
  • Before cerebral revascularization surgery, severe MR (III/IV) due to the prolapse of the P2 leaflet in the mitral valve was indicated by transthoracic echocardiography. (springeropen.com)
  • Neurosurgeons at our center judged that the patient did not have an indication for cerebral revascularization surgery, which is used to prevent ischemic complications during the perioperative period of mitral valve plasty. (springeropen.com)
  • OBJECTIVES To clarify whether different causative events (trauma, stroke, intracranial surgery), time of intervention, and treatment mode influence outcome, patients with fixed and dilated pupils (FDPs) in a prospective neurosurgical series were evaluated. (bmj.com)
  • In advanced stage esthesioneuroblastoma in pediatric patients, where surgery is no longer possible, aggressive chemotherapy and radiotherapy has resulted in some tumor control and long term survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lastly, despite being randomized, more patients in the craniectomy arm had unreactive pupils (after randomization but before surgery) than patients in the medical therapy arm, a potential confounding factor. (wikipedia.org)
  • After surgery, the split-brain patients are often given extensive neuropsychological assessments. (wikipedia.org)
  • The organization's most recent grade in 2007 assigned astroblastoma as a high-grade III and grade IV neoplasm, signifying that the glial tumor is dangerous for patients, causing fatal problems even after surgery. (wikipedia.org)
  • Headaches
  • Treatment consists mainly of: Corticosteroids - Corticosteroid therapy is essential for all patients with brain metastases, as it prevents development of cerebral edema, as well as treating other neurological symptoms such as headaches, cognitive dysfunction, and emesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • A study found 18% of patients with intracranial arachnoid cysts had non-specific headaches. (wikipedia.org)
  • A patient with a cyst on the left middle cranial fossa had auditory hallucinations, migraine-like headaches, and periodic paranoia Patients with left temporal lobe cysts had mood disturbances similar to manic depression (bipolar disorder) and were known to show outward aggression Patients with arachnoid cysts may never show symptoms, even in some cases where the cyst is large The exact cause of arachnoid cysts is not known. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some patients with SCSFLS will develop headaches that begin in the afternoon. (wikipedia.org)
  • lesions
  • Craniotomies are often critical operations, performed on patients who are suffering from brain lesions or traumatic brain injury (TBI), and can also allow doctors to surgically implant deep brain stimulators for the treatment of Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, and cerebellar tremor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lumbar pain and lower body weakness is also a rarity in astroblastoma patients, even though it is entirely possible for lesions to proliferate toward the spinal cord. (wikipedia.org)
  • occurs
  • Unlike SIADH, in which the patient is euvolemic, cerebral salt wasting typically occurs with volume depletion and is caused by the release of a natriuretic hormone. (medscape.com)
  • Bacterial meningitis or viral meningitis occurs in about 0.8 to 1.5% of individuals undergoing craniotomy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ataxia: when metastasis occurs to the cerebellum, patients will experience various difficulties with spatial awareness and coordination. (wikipedia.org)
  • In general, this phenomenon occurs in patients with advanced brain tumor or severe head injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • Split-brain patients have been subjects for numerous psychological experiments that sought to discover what occurs in the brain now that the primary interhemispheric pathways have been disrupted. (wikipedia.org)
  • neurosurgical
  • A 2006 multistudy review found neurosurgical interventions resulting from a repeat CT scan occurred in 0-54% of patients. (medscape.com)
  • Although prognostic factors after severe head injury have been widely studied, 5 14-16 there is less information in the literature on the efficacy of neurosurgical therapy of any kind on outcome in the presence of FDPs. (bmj.com)
  • symptoms
  • Neurological symptoms are often caused by increased intracranial pressure, with severe cases resulting in coma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Symptomatic care should be given to all patients with brain metastases, as they often cause severe, debilitating symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is a wide range of symptoms that patients show. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients with arachnoid cysts may never show symptoms, even in some cases where the cyst is large. (wikipedia.org)
  • The graver course is one form of malignant multiple sclerosis, with patients reaching a significant level of disability in less than five years from their first symptoms, often in a matter of months. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, most patients come into the clinic citing symptoms associated with the primary injury causing the Kernohan's notch. (wikipedia.org)
  • moderate
  • The Modified Short Orientation Memory Concentration Test (SOMCT) is a validated questionnaire that discriminates among mild, moderate, and severe cognitive deficits. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Postcraniotomy pain is frequent and moderate to severe in nature. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moderate to severe acne vulgaris appears to be more often associated with virulent strains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Brain injuries can be classified into mild, moderate, and severe categories. (wikipedia.org)
  • In general, it is agreed that a TBI with a GCS of 13 or above is mild, 9-12 is moderate, and 8 or below is severe. (wikipedia.org)
  • seizures
  • Anticonvulsants - Anticonvulsants should be used for patients with brain metastases who experience seizures, as there is a risk of status epilepticus and death. (wikipedia.org)
  • Corpus callosotomy is intended to treat patients who suffer from epilepsy and the resultant chronic seizures. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the vast majority of cases, corpus callosotomy abolishes instance of seizures in the patient. (wikipedia.org)
  • loss of consciousn
  • Patients have a loss of consciousness (LOC), then a lucid interval, then sudden deterioration (vomiting, restlessness, LOC) Head CT shows lenticular (convex) deformity. (wikipedia.org)
  • These patients have a history of head trauma with loss of consciousness, then a lucid period, followed by loss of consciousness. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients may have a history of loss of consciousness but they recover and do not relapse. (wikipedia.org)
  • prognosis
  • However, if hematomas are accompanied with severe contusion and laceration brain injury or cerebral herniation, prognosis is usually uncertain, and death rate could reach 20% [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • While not all patients who have experienced a stroke will develop a severe edema, those who do have a very poor prognosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most important factor for any patient when cancer is concerned - the likelihood of surviving - is still controversial for astroblastoma, but recent advances in the last decade have improved prognosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • epilepsy
  • The diminished life expectancy associated with epilepsy patients has been documented by population-based studies in Europe. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the United Kingdom and Sweden, the relative mortality rate of epileptic patients (patients whose epilepsy was not under control from medical or other surgical therapies, and who continued to suffer the disease) increased two- and threefold, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the first half of the 20th Century, some neurosurgeons concluded that the best option of treating severe epilepsy was by severing the patient's corpus callosum. (wikipedia.org)
  • occur
  • Brain metastases can occur in patients months or even years after their original cancer is treated. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the case of severe head injury, a clot can occur over the surface of the brain and can often cause shift of the middle part of the brain against the tentorium, which creates the Kernohan's notch. (wikipedia.org)
  • consciousness
  • Blood alcohol levels and drug screens are important because positive results may help explain subnormal levels of consciousness and cognition in some patients with head trauma. (medscape.com)
  • For more than 100 years, clinicians have evaluated the pupils of patients with suspected or known brain injury or impaired consciousness to monitor neurological status and trends, checking for pupil size and reactivity to light. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to modern emergency guidelines nearly all patients with a history of head trauma or stroke with severe impairment of consciousness are sedated, intubated, and ventilated at the emergency site. (bmj.com)
  • preoperative
  • Preoperative Assessment Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with and without gadolinium contrast was performed preoperatively in all patients. (deepdyve.com)
  • stroke
  • The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) uses pupillary response as a systematic assessment tool to provide a quantitative measure of stroke-related neurologic deficit and to evaluate acuity of stroke patients, determine appropriate treatment, and predict patient outcome. (wikipedia.org)
  • pain
  • Local anaesthesia (freezing) and sedation are required to make the patient comfortable and free of pain, but also to be able to cooperate for testing of brain function (speaking, moving) in order to preserve these areas while removing the brain tumour. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The usual way to give these medications is by the anesthesiologist assessing pain level, watching the patient and monitoring blood pressure and heart rate. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • methods
  • METHODS Patient Selection We performed a retrospective review of data on all patients undergoing frontal keyhole craniotomy performed by the senior author during a 3-yr period from 2012 to 2015 at our institution. (deepdyve.com)
  • often
  • Paresthesias: patients often present with (hemiparesis), or weakness on only one side of the body, which is often a result of damage to neighboring brain tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • cases
  • If not treated quickly, severe cases can result in death. (wikipedia.org)
  • For most cases, corpus callosotomies did not in any way affect patients' real world functioning, however, those psychology experiments have demonstrated some interesting differences between split-brain patients and normal subjects. (wikipedia.org)
  • cardiac
  • Compared to healthy controls, cardiac arrest patients kept at 36°C (n = 9) had increased plasma cytokines levels, which was not apparent in patients kept at 33°C (n = 11). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Immune response to TLR ligands in patients after cardiac arrest was generally reduced and associated with lower HLA-DR expression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Patients after cardiac arrest have a modest systemic inflammatory response compared to healthy controls, associated with lower HLA-DR expression and attenuated immune response to Gram-negative and Gram-positive antigens, the latter indicative of an impaired immune response to bacteria. (biomedcentral.com)