• antibody
  • This 121SLE antibody is specific to CA19-9, which can predict recurrence of disease prior to radiographic treatment. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Expression of other antibody isotypes (IgD, IgM IgG1-4, IgA1-2, IgE) occurs via a process of class-switch recombination (CSR) after antigen exposure. (wikipedia.org)
  • The IgG, IgE and IgA antibody isotypes are generated following class-switching during germinal centre reaction and provide different effector functions in response to specific antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • IgG is the most abundant antibody class in the serum and it is divided into 4 subclasses based on differences in the structure of the constant region genes and the ability to trigger different effector functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • IgG2 represents the major antibody subclass reacting to glycan antigens but IgG1 and IgG3 subclasses have also been observed in such responses, particularly in the case of protein-glycan conjugates. (wikipedia.org)
  • sIgA has also been shown to potentiate the immune response in intestinal tissue by uptake of antigen together with the bound antibody by dendritic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The viruses bind to the antigen binding site at the other end of the antibody. (wikipedia.org)
  • Extractable nuclear antigens (ENA) are a group of autoantigens that were originally identified as antibody targets in people with autoimmune disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor markers
  • Tumor markers can be determined in serum or rarely in urine or other body fluids, often by immunoassay but other techniques such as enzyme activity determination are sometimes used. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specificity
  • it could not detect early forms and its specificity was insufficient, since its serum levels increase in several pathologies. (justia.com)
  • Screening for specific cancer types or locations requires a level of specificity and sensitivity that has so far only been reached by Example: elevated prostate specific antigen suggests that is used in some countries to screen for prostate cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • limits
  • Estimated reference limits for plasma CA 125, CA 19-9 and CEA were approximately the same as for healthy populations. (bibsys.no)
  • Serum concentrations of CGA and CYFRA 21-1 correlated strongly with estimated GFR, and GFR-dependent reference limits were estimated. (bibsys.no)
  • cancer
  • In people with pancreatic masses, CA 19-9 can be useful in distinguishing between cancer and other diseases of the gland. (wikipedia.org)
  • Medical societies including American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommend against women with average risk of ovarian cancer having routine CA-125 screening or other screening for this cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Around 90% of women with advanced ovarian cancer have elevated levels of CA-125 in their blood serum, making CA-125 a useful tool for detecting ovarian cancer after the onset of symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Monitoring CA-125 blood serum levels is also useful for determining how ovarian cancer is responding to treatment (with the duration of disease-free survival correlating with the rate of fall of CA-125) and for predicting a patient's prognosis after treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • PSA is present in small quantities in the serum of men with healthy prostates, but is often elevated in the presence of prostate cancer or other prostate disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • A review commissioned by the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force concluded that "Prostate-specific antigen-based screening results in small or no reduction in prostate cancer-specific mortality and is associated with harms related to subsequent evaluation and treatments, some of which may be unnecessary," or more simply, "[t]he potential benefit does not outweigh the expected harms" in patients not already diagnosed or being treated for prostate cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the serum levels are raised in some types of cancer, which means that it can be used as a tumor marker in clinical tests. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Serum from individuals with colorectal carcinoma often has higher levels of CEA than healthy individuals (above approximately 2.5 µg/L). CEA measurement is mainly used as a tumor marker to monitor colorectal carcinoma treatment, to identify recurrences after surgical resection, for staging or to localize cancer spread through measurement of biological fluids. (wikipedia.org)
  • TAG-72 antigen entry in the public domain NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms Scott, Andrew M. (wikipedia.org)
  • levels
  • This is because the persistence of high levels of CA-125 during therapy is associated with poor survival rates in patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • Serum levels can also be elevated in heavy smokers. (wikipedia.org)
  • The levels of surface expression of IgD isotype has been associated with differences in B cell activation status but their role in serum is poorly understood. (wikipedia.org)
  • populations
  • In addition to the M or N and S or s antigens, that commonly occur in all populations, about 40 related variant phenotypes have been identified. (wikipedia.org)
  • primarily
  • The IgG responses to bacterial capsular polysaccharide antigens are mediated primarily via IgG2 subclass, and deficiencies in this subclass result in susceptibility to certain bacterial species. (wikipedia.org)
  • specific
  • CA-125 has found application as a tumor marker or biomarker that may be elevated in the blood of some patients with specific types of cancers, or other conditions that are benign. (wikipedia.org)
  • peptide
  • HLA-F can associate with TAP (transporter associated with antigen processing) and with the multimeric complex involved in peptide loading. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene
  • HLA class I histocompatibility antigen, alpha chain F is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HLA-F gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • normal
  • Liver function tests were abnormal, with an alkaline phosphatase of 215 U/l (normal: 32-92 U/l), aspartate aminotransferase of 266 U/l (normal: 15-41 U/l), alanine aminotransferase of 433 U/l (normal: 14-54 U/l), γ-glutamyl transpeptidase of 524 U/l (normal: 7-50 U/l) and a total bilirubin of 19 μmol/l (normal: 0-16 μmol/l). (bmj.com)
  • Complement
  • Despite the high sequence similarity (90% identical on the amino acid level), each subclass has a different half-life, a unique profile of antigen binding and distinct capacity for complement activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • clinical
  • Indeed, a rising CA-125 level may precede clinical evidence of disease relapse by an interval of 3 to 6 months. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • Class-switching is mediated by the AID (activation-induced cytidine deaminase) enzyme and only occurs after the B cell binds an antigen through its B cell receptor, and is further activated through interaction with a T helper cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • often
  • IgG4 is the least abundant IgG subclass in the serum and is often generated following repeated exposure to the same antigen or during persistent infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • present
  • It has the shortest half-life compared to the other IgG subclasses and is frequently present together with IgG1 in response to protein antigens in particular after viral infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ANA test detects the autoantibodies present in an individual's blood serum. (wikipedia.org)
  • different
  • MUC16 (CA-125) has been shown to play a role in advancing tumorigenesis and tumor proliferation by several different mechanisms. (wikipedia.org)