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  • genes
  • Circular bacterial plasmids are classified according to the special functions that the genes encoded on the plasmid provide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fertility plasmids, or f plasmids, allow for conjugation to occur whereas resistance plasmids, or r plasmids, contain genes that convey resistance to a variety of different antibiotics such as ampicillin and tetracycline. (wikipedia.org)
  • Naturally occurring circular plasmids can be modified to contain multiple resistance genes and several unique restriction sites, making them valuable tools as cloning vectors in biotechnology applications. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once delivered into the host, the products of the plasmid genes will then stimulate both the innate immune response and the adaptive immune response of the host. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • In prokaryotes, nonviral extrachromosomal DNA is primarily found in plasmids whereas in eukaryotes extrachromosomal DNA is primarily found in organelles. (wikipedia.org)
  • The linear plasmids of prokarykotes are found either containing a hairpin loop or a covalently bonded protein attached to the telomeric ends of the DNA molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • These types of linear plasmids represent the largest class of extrachromosomal DNA as they are not only present in certain bacterial cells, but all linear extrachromosomal DNA molecules found in eukaryotic cells also take on this invertron structure with a protein attached to the 5' end. (wikipedia.org)
  • The colicin B and M gene region was sequenced in 60 strains and it was found (with one exception) that all plasmids lacking an intact colicin B activity gene have an identical colicin gene structure, possessing a complete colicin B immunity gene and a 130 bp remnant of the B activity gene. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • nucleotides
  • In eukaryotes, a poly-(A) tail (consisting of a long sequence of adenine nucleotides) distinguishes mRNA from tRNA and rRNA and can therefore be used as a primer site for reverse transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once mRNA is purified, oligo-dT (a short sequence of deoxy-thymidine nucleotides) is tagged as a complementary primer which binds to the poly-A tail providing a free 3'-OH end that can be extended by reverse transcriptase to create the complementary DNA strand. (wikipedia.org)
  • The plasmid is 206,479 nucleotides long, the GC content is 56% and 81% of the material is coding genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • To be specific, TERT is responsible for catalyzing the addition of nucleotides in a TTAGGG sequence to the ends of a chromosome's telomeres. (wikipedia.org)
  • Restriction enzymes recognize a specific sequence of nucleotides and produce a double-stranded cut in the DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genes
  • Sequences similar to the B. anthracis cap genes or their regulator, acpA , were not detected among any of the examined isolates. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Outside the T-DNA, are located the genes for the opine catabolism, the genes involved in the process of T-DNA transfer from the bacterium to the plant cell and the genes involved in bacterium-bacterium plasmid conjugative transfer. (wikipedia.org)
  • The process of T-DNA transfer is mediated by the cooperative action of proteins encoded by genes determined in the Ti plasmid virulence region (vir genes) and in the bacterial chromosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Ti plasmid also contains the genes for opine catabolism produced by the crown gall cells, and regions for conjugative transfer and for its own integrity and stability. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Ti plasmids are classified into different types based on the type of opine produced by their genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The plasmid has 196 genes that code for 195 proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1977) Rat insulin genes: Construction of plasmids containing the coding sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike plasmids, they can also be packaged in phage capsids, which allows the foreign genes to be transferred into or between cells by transduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzyme
  • Cutting with a single enzyme and religating and transforming gave a single length circular plasmids with a well defined sequence. (protocol-online.org)
  • The sequence in pBR322 is List of restriction enzyme cutting sites Watson, N. (1988). (wikipedia.org)
  • EcoRI digestion produces "sticky" ends, whereas SmaI restriction enzyme cleavage produces "blunt" ends: Recognition sequences in DNA differ for each restriction enzyme, producing differences in the length, sequence and strand orientation (5' end or 3' end) of a sticky-end "overhang" of an enzyme restriction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Naturally-occurring P elements contain: Coding sequence for the enzyme transposase Recognition sequences for transposase action Transposase is an enzyme that regulates and catalyzes the excision of a P element from the host DNA, cutting at two recognition sites, and then reinserting randomly. (wikipedia.org)
  • It also denatures proteins, like DNase, which is especially important if the plasmids are to be used for enzyme digestion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Otherwise, smearing may occur in enzyme restricted form of plasmid DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • reads
  • sequencing , reads , clusters and 1 more. (protocol-online.org)
  • giving bad sequence reads. (protocol-online.org)
  • Many of them are palindromic, meaning the base sequence reads the same backwards and forwards. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mirror-like palindrome is similar to those found in ordinary text, in which a sequence reads the same forward and backward on a single strand of DNA, as in GTAATG. (wikipedia.org)
  • The inverted repeat palindrome is also a sequence that reads the same forward and backward, but the forward and backward sequences are found in complementary DNA strands (i.e., of double-stranded DNA), as in GTATAC (GTATAC being complementary to CATATG). (wikipedia.org)
  • extrachromosomal
  • E. coli strains are often genetically modified to contain a mutant recA allele and thereby ensure the stability of extrachromosomal segments of DNA, known as plasmids. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • Given their relatively simple design and inherent ability to move DNA sequences, transposons are highly compatible at transducing genetic material, making them ideal genetic tools. (wikipedia.org)
  • began their experiment by constructing a genetic sequence consisting of the Hmox-1 transposable element and transposase from Sleeping Beauty. (wikipedia.org)
  • recognition
  • The search process induces stretching of the DNA duplex, which enhances sequence complementarity recognition (a mechanism termed conformational proofreading). (wikipedia.org)
  • Restriction enzymes of this type are more useful for laboratory work as they cleave DNA at the site of their recognition sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • similar
  • This plasmid also had a single position mixed base, similar to what you have found. (protocol-online.org)
  • pTi and pRi share little sequence homology but are functionally rather similar. (wikipedia.org)
  • A Biopython Seq object is similar to a Python string in many respects: it supports the Python slice notation, can be concatenated with other sequences and is immutable. (wikipedia.org)
  • Virtually
  • Virtually any DNA sequence can be cloned and amplified, but there are some factors that might limit the success of the process. (wikipedia.org)
  • restriction
  • Mutagenesis and repair, restriction-modification systems, amino acid frequency, codon bias and structural parameters, to name just a few, should all influence the frequency and sequence of oligonucleotides. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The plasmid has unique restriction sites for more than forty restriction enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • Circular bacterial plasmids are classified according to the special functions that the genes encoded on the plasmid provide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fertility plasmids, or f plasmids, allow for conjugation to occur whereas resistance plasmids, or r plasmids, contain genes that convey resistance to a variety of different antibiotics such as ampicillin and tetracycline. (wikipedia.org)
  • Naturally occurring circular plasmids can be modified to contain multiple resistance genes and several unique restriction sites, making them valuable tools as cloning vectors in biotechnology applications. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once delivered into the host, the products of the plasmid genes will then stimulate both the innate immune response and the adaptive immune response of the host. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • In prokaryotes, nonviral extrachromosomal DNA is primarily found in plasmids whereas in eukaryotes extrachromosomal DNA is primarily found in organelles. (wikipedia.org)
  • The linear plasmids of prokarykotes are found either containing a hairpin loop or a covalently bonded protein attached to the telomeric ends of the DNA molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • These types of linear plasmids represent the largest class of extrachromosomal DNA as they are not only present in certain bacterial cells, but all linear extrachromosomal DNA molecules found in eukaryotic cells also take on this invertron structure with a protein attached to the 5' end. (wikipedia.org)
  • The colicin B and M gene region was sequenced in 60 strains and it was found (with one exception) that all plasmids lacking an intact colicin B activity gene have an identical colicin gene structure, possessing a complete colicin B immunity gene and a 130 bp remnant of the B activity gene. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Bacterial
  • Phage eluted in the final step can be used to infect a suitable bacterial host, from which the phagemids can be collected and the relevant DNA sequence excised and sequenced to identify the relevant, interacting proteins or protein fragments. (wikipedia.org)
  • In E. coli, the direction for orisome assembly are built into a short stretch of nucleotide sequence called as origin of replication (oriC) which contains multiple binding sites for the initiator protein DnaA (a highly homologous protein amongst bacterial kingdom). (wikipedia.org)
  • The IncP-1 plasmid group (IncP plasmids in Escherichia coli) of which RK2 is a part has been described as "highly potent, self-transmissible, selfish DNA molecules with a complicated regulatory circuit" RK 2 was first isolated in connection with an outbreak of antibotic-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella aerogenes in Birmingham in 1969, as one of a family of plasmids implicated in transfer of Ampicillin resistance between bacterial strains. (wikipedia.org)
  • In bacterial plasmids, RuvA and RuvB repair DNA damage, and are involved in the recombination process of Holliday junctions. (wikipedia.org)
  • mRNA
  • Lipofectamine Stem Reagent outperforms FuGENE HD Reagent in pluripotent stem cell transfection, delivering both small and large DNA plasmids, mRNA, and Cas9 protein complexes. (thermofisher.com)
  • Pseudomonas
  • Malgorzata Adamczyk and Grazyna Jagura-Burdzy: "Spread and survival of promiscuous IncP-1 plasmids", Acta Biochimica Polonica, Vol 50, no. 2/2003, p. 425-453 LEWIS C. INGRAM, M. H. RICHMOND, AND R. B. SYKES: "Molecular Characterization of the R Factors Implicated in the Carbenicillin Resistance of a Sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strains Isolated from Burns", ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS AND CHEMOTHERAPY, Feb. 1973, p. 279-288 Thomas CM et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleotide sequence
  • Cruciform DNA is a form of non-B DNA that requires at least a 6 nucleotide sequence of inverted repeats to form a structure consisting of a stem, branch point and loop in the shape of a cruciform, stabilized by negative DNA supercoiling. (wikipedia.org)
  • interaction
  • Applications of phage display technology include determination of interaction partners of a protein (which would be used as the immobilised phage "bait" with a DNA library consisting of all coding sequences of a cell, tissue or organism) so that the function or the mechanism of the function of that protein may be determined. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another example of cruciform structure significance is seen in the interaction between p53, a tumor suppressor, and cruciform forming sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • coli
  • Repeat sequences in the Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase toxin can be recognized as alternative carboxy-proximal secretion signals by the Escherichia coli α-hemolysin translocator. (imbc-med.ru)
  • Two such mutants, PFF1cop254D and PFF1cop271C, increase the copy number of PFF1 in E. coli from approximately 39-40 to about 501 and 113 plasmids per cell, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • Resistance
  • The MerC protein encoded on the IncJ plasmid pMERPH of the Shewanella putrefaciens mercuric resistance operon is 137 amino acids in length and possesses four putative transmembrane α-helical spanners (TMSs). (wikipedia.org)
  • multiple
  • The goal of this study was to illustrate the versatility of Invitrogen Lipofectamine Stem Transfection Reagent, which was developed specifically for stem cells, to co-deliver multiple payloads in addition to large plasmid constructs with high transfection efficiency. (thermofisher.com)
  • high
  • Our new NEBNext® Ultra™ II FS DNA Library Prep Kit with novel fragmentation reagent meets the dual challenge of generating high quality next gen sequencing libraries from ever-decreasing input amounts AND simple scalability. (neb.com)
  • Many derivatives of this structure were screened using SELEX, but the chosen fluorophore, 3,5-difluoro-4-hydroxybenzylidene imidazolinone (DFHBI), showed the best selective fluorescence with high quantum yield (0.72) when bound to the RNA sequence 24-2, deemed Spinach. (wikipedia.org)
  • structural
  • This apparent discrepancy between structural and sequence based similarities is really intriguing and requires further analysis. (burnham.org)
  • Human
  • Human being hCOX2 plasmids had been obtained from Teacher R. Kulmacz (College or university of Texas Wellness Science Middle at Houston). (cancercurehere.com)
  • ab94065 is a 293T cell transfected lysate in which Human IKK beta has been transiently over-expressed using a pCMV-IKK beta plasmid. (abcam.com)
  • Time-lapse phase-contrast (left) and fluorescence (right) movies of human ES cells (H9) grown in Essential 8 medium on vitronectin and transfected with 1 µL Lipofectamine Stem reagent complexed with a GFP-expression construct (500 ng total plasmid DNA). (thermofisher.com)
  • (A) Human ES (H9) cells or Human Episomal iPSCs were transfected with Lipofectamine Stem Reagent or FuGENE HD Regent according to the accompanying protocol and either a 5 kb or 11 kb DNA plasmid expressing GFP and examined for GFP expression 24 hours posttransfection. (thermofisher.com)
  • detection
  • In the bottom panel NCRM-iPS cells transfected using Lipofectamine Stem Reagent with a ~10.5 kb plasmid expressing Cas9 and GFP followed by detection via immunocytochemistry. (thermofisher.com)
  • cell
  • Lipofectamine Stem reagent offers expanded capabilities for stem cell transfection, making it possible to deliver DNA plasmids in sizes up to 11 kb. (thermofisher.com)
  • Both methods utilize plasmids, which carry DNA inside a cell that can replicate independently of chromosomal DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • structure
  • J A Kornacki, C H Chang, and D H Figurski: "kil-kor regulon of promiscuous plasmid RK2: structure, products, and regulation of two operons that constitute the kilE locus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Repeat
  • p53 binding correlates with inverted repeat sequences, such as the ones that help form cruciform DNA structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Under negative superhelical stress p53 binds preferentially to cruciform forming targets due to the A/T rich environment which feature these necessary inverted repeat sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • active
  • DnaA-ATP is hydrolyzed into the inactive DnaA-ADP by RIDA (Regulatory Inactivation of DnaA), and converted back to the active DnaA-ATP form by DARS (DnaA Reactivating Sequence, which is itself regulated by Fis and IHF). (wikipedia.org)