• genetics
  • classical genetics cloning codominance codon A series of three nucleotides in a coding region of a nucleid acid sequence which code for a particular amino acid or stop signal during protein synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • INsertion or DELetion
  • Just by looking at our two strings one may be able to see one possible best alignment: GCATG-CU G-ATTACA One can see that letters may match, mismatch, be deleted or inserted (indel): Match: The two letters are the same Mismatch: The two letters are differential Indel (INsertion or DELetion): One letter aligns to a gap in the other string. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to the triplet nature of gene expression by codons, the insertion or deletion can change the reading frame (the grouping of the codons), resulting in a completely different translation from the original. (wikipedia.org)
  • expressed genes
  • Analysis of the incidence of mononucleotide repeat sequences in the 3'UTRs, 5'UTRs, and coding sequences of those genes most differentially expressed in RER+ versus RER- cell lines has shown that much of this differential expression can be explained by the occurrence of a massive enrichment of genes with 3'UTR T repeats longer than 11 base pairs in the most differentially expressed genes. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Sequence analysis of the 3'UTRs of a selection of the most differentially expressed genes shows that they all contain deletions in these repeats in all RER+ cell lines studied. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Proteins
  • In recent years, genome projects conducted on a variety of organisms generated massive amounts of sequence data for genes and proteins, which requires computational analysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sequence alignment shows the relations between genes or between proteins, leading to a better understanding of their homology and functionality. (wikipedia.org)
  • Out of nearly 500 known amino acids, a set of 20 are coded for by the standard genetic code and incorporated in sequence as the building blocks of polypeptides and hence proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sequences of amino acids in polypeptide chains that form proteins determine the proteins' structure and function. (wikipedia.org)
  • These were introduced by Gibbs and McIntyre in 1970 and are two-dimensional matrices that have the sequences of the proteins being compared along the vertical and horizontal axes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similarity
  • Instead of looking at the entire sequence, the Smith-Waterman algorithm compares segments of all possible lengths and optimizes the similarity measure. (wikipedia.org)
  • s ( a , b ) {\displaystyle s(a,b)} - Similarity score of the elements that constituted the two sequences W k {\displaystyle W_{k}} - The penalty of a gap that has length k {\displaystyle k} Construct a scoring matrix H {\displaystyle H} and initialize its first row and first column. (wikipedia.org)
  • For a simple visual representation of the similarity between two sequences, individual cells in the matrix can be shaded black if residues are identical, so that matching sequence segments appear as runs of diagonal lines across the matrix. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some idea of the similarity of the two sequences can be gleaned from the number and length of matching segments shown in the matrix. (wikipedia.org)
  • The closeness of the sequences in similarity will determine how close the diagonal line is to what a graph showing a curve demonstrating a direct relationship is. (wikipedia.org)
  • duplication
  • Sequencing and deletion/duplication analyses of the CDH1 gene will identify individuals at risk for CHD1-related cancers. (specialtylabs.com)
  • DNA sequencing dominant double helix duplication Contents: Top 0-9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z electrophoresis endoplasmic reticulum (ER) epigenetics episome epistasis evolution exome exon Any part of a gene that encodes a part of the final mature mRNA produced by that gene after introns have been removed by splicing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Humans
  • Such deletions in humans are referred to as hCONDELs may be responsible for the anatomical and behavioral differences between humans, chimpanzees and other mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • displaystyle
  • It is a global alignment algorithm that requires O ( m n ) {\displaystyle O(mn)} calculation steps ( m {\displaystyle m} and n {\displaystyle n} are the lengths of the two sequences being aligned). (wikipedia.org)
  • The Smith-Waterman algorithm is fairly demanding of time: To align two sequences of lengths m {\displaystyle m} and n {\displaystyle n} , O ( m 2 n ) {\displaystyle O(m^{2}n)} time is required. (wikipedia.org)
  • The space complexity was optimized by Myers and Miller from O ( m n ) {\displaystyle O(mn)} to O ( n ) {\displaystyle O(n)} (linear), where n {\displaystyle n} is the length of the shorter sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • b_{m}} be the sequences to be aligned, where n {\displaystyle n} and m {\displaystyle m} are the lengths of A {\displaystyle A} and B {\displaystyle B} respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • populations
  • We designed a 159-smMIP panel targeting 40 autosomal regions of frequent homozygous deletion across human populations and 2 sex-linked loci. (aaccjnls.org)
  • organisms
  • By determining the presence or absence of CSIs in an out-group species, one can infer whether the ancestral form of the CSI was an insert or deletion and this can be used to develop a rooted phylogenetic relationship among organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • algorithm
  • In 1970, Saul B. Needleman and Christian D. Wunsch proposed a heuristic homology algorithm for sequence alignment, also referred to as the Needleman-Wunsch algorithm. (wikipedia.org)
  • The algorithm essentially divides a large problem (e.g. the full sequence) into a series of smaller problems and uses the solutions to the smaller problems to reconstruct a solution to the larger problem. (wikipedia.org)
  • oxidative
  • Deletion of a functional NCF1 gene copy has been shown to protect a proportion of WBS patients against hypertension, likely through reduced NADPH-oxidase (NOX)-mediated oxidative stress. (biomedsearch.com)
  • DD mice, carrying a 0.67 Mb heterozygous deletion including the Eln gene, presented with a generalized arteriopathy, hypertension, and cardiac hypertrophy, associated with elevated angiotensin II (angII), oxidative stress parameters, and Ncf1 expression. (biomedsearch.com)
  • promoters
  • Only a few isoforms contain the requisite three or more N-terminal zinc motifs that confer high affinity binding to a specific core DNA sequence element in the promoters of target genes. (cancerindex.org)
  • regions
  • Low-complexity regions are regions in the sequence with only a few amino acids, which in turn, causes redundancy within that small or limited region. (wikipedia.org)
  • tends
  • The alignment of unrelated sequences tends to produce optimal local alignment scores which follow an extreme value distribution. (wikipedia.org)
  • syndrome
  • However, the autosomal dominant cases are also categorized under a more commonly diagnosed group called 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some researchers consider Opitz G/BBB syndrome to be a type of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (a slightly different and broader disease). (wikipedia.org)
  • alignment
  • Sequence alignment can also reveal conserved domains and motifs. (wikipedia.org)
  • This property allows programs to produce an expectation value for the optimal local alignment of two sequences, which is a measure of how often two unrelated sequences would produce an optimal local alignment whose score is greater than or equal to the observed score. (wikipedia.org)
  • In particular, he had a key role in introducing dynamic programming for sequence alignment and other problems in computational biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1973, Sankoff and Robert Cedergren developed a joint estimation method for phylogeny and multiple sequence alignment of 5S ribosomal RNA, laying the algorithmic foundations of comparative genomics. (wikipedia.org)
  • contrast
  • By contrast, the epidermal cell death response triggered by pep1 deletion mutants was not impaired by BI-1. (tum.de)