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  • genes
  • Circular bacterial plasmids are classified according to the special functions that the genes encoded on the plasmid provide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fertility plasmids, or f plasmids, allow for conjugation to occur whereas resistance plasmids, or r plasmids, contain genes that convey resistance to a variety of different antibiotics such as ampicillin and tetracycline. (wikipedia.org)
  • Naturally occurring circular plasmids can be modified to contain multiple resistance genes and several unique restriction sites, making them valuable tools as cloning vectors in biotechnology applications. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once delivered into the host, the products of the plasmid genes will then stimulate both the innate immune response and the adaptive immune response of the host. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • In prokaryotes, nonviral extrachromosomal DNA is primarily found in plasmids whereas in eukaryotes extrachromosomal DNA is primarily found in organelles. (wikipedia.org)
  • The linear plasmids of prokarykotes are found either containing a hairpin loop or a covalently bonded protein attached to the telomeric ends of the DNA molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • These types of linear plasmids represent the largest class of extrachromosomal DNA as they are not only present in certain bacterial cells, but all linear extrachromosomal DNA molecules found in eukaryotic cells also take on this invertron structure with a protein attached to the 5' end. (wikipedia.org)
  • The colicin B and M gene region was sequenced in 60 strains and it was found (with one exception) that all plasmids lacking an intact colicin B activity gene have an identical colicin gene structure, possessing a complete colicin B immunity gene and a 130 bp remnant of the B activity gene. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • particular
  • The total number of a particular plasmid within a cell is referred to as the copy number and can range from as few as two copies per cell to as many as several hundred copies per cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • A nucleic acid hybridization assay employing an immobilized or immobilizable polynucleotide probe selected to form DNA.RNA or RNA.RNA hybrids with the particular polynucleotide sequence to be determined. (google.ca)
  • The principle of nucleic acid hybridization assays was developed by workers in the recombinant DNA field as a means for determining and isolating particular polynucleotide base sequences of interest. (google.ca)
  • Genes
  • Sequences similar to the B. anthracis cap genes or their regulator, acpA , were not detected among any of the examined isolates. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Outside the T-DNA, are located the genes for the opine catabolism, the genes involved in the process of T-DNA transfer from the bacterium to the plant cell and the genes involved in bacterium-bacterium plasmid conjugative transfer. (wikipedia.org)
  • The process of T-DNA transfer is mediated by the cooperative action of proteins encoded by genes determined in the Ti plasmid virulence region (vir genes) and in the bacterial chromosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Ti plasmid also contains the genes for opine catabolism produced by the crown gall cells, and regions for conjugative transfer and for its own integrity and stability. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Ti plasmids are classified into different types based on the type of opine produced by their genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The plasmid has 196 genes that code for 195 proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The plasmid is 206,479 nucleotides long, the GC content is 56% and 81% of the material is coding genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1977) Rat insulin genes: Construction of plasmids containing the coding sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • Through homology in at least one and usually several genes, polintons are evolutionarily linked to linear plasmids, virophages (especially Mavirus virophage, family Lavidaviridae), giant viruses (Megavirales), Ginger 1 transposons, Tlr1 transposons, transpovirons, eukaryotic viruses of the Adenoviridae family, and bacteriophages of the Tectiviridae family. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleotides
  • Restriction enzymes recognize a specific sequence of nucleotides and produce a double-stranded cut in the DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • In eukaryotes, a poly-(A) tail (consisting of a long sequence of adenine nucleotides) distinguishes mRNA from tRNA and rRNA and can therefore be used as a primer site for reverse transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once mRNA is purified, oligo-dT (a short sequence of deoxy-thymidine nucleotides) is tagged as a complementary primer which binds to the poly-A tail providing a free 3'-OH end that can be extended by reverse transcriptase to create the complementary DNA strand. (wikipedia.org)
  • To be specific, TERT is responsible for catalyzing the addition of nucleotides in a TTAGGG sequence to the ends of a chromosome's telomeres. (wikipedia.org)
  • genomes
  • Subsequently, embryos that exhibit mutations have their genomes sequenced and compared, thus revealing the loci that have been affected by insertion and the roles of the loci. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzyme
  • Cutting with a single enzyme and religating and transforming gave a single length circular plasmids with a well defined sequence. (protocol-online.org)
  • The sequence in pBR322 is List of restriction enzyme cutting sites Watson, N. (1988). (wikipedia.org)
  • EcoRI digestion produces "sticky" ends, whereas SmaI restriction enzyme cleavage produces "blunt" ends: Recognition sequences in DNA differ for each restriction enzyme, producing differences in the length, sequence and strand orientation (5' end or 3' end) of a sticky-end "overhang" of an enzyme restriction. (wikipedia.org)
  • It also denatures proteins, like DNase, which is especially important if the plasmids are to be used for enzyme digestion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Otherwise, smearing may occur in enzyme restricted form of plasmid DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Naturally-occurring P elements contain: Coding sequence for the enzyme transposase Recognition sequences for transposase action Transposase is an enzyme that regulates and catalyzes the excision of a P element from the host DNA, cutting at two recognition sites, and then reinserting randomly. (wikipedia.org)
  • reads
  • sequencing , reads , clusters and 1 more. (protocol-online.org)
  • giving bad sequence reads. (protocol-online.org)
  • Many of them are palindromic, meaning the base sequence reads the same backwards and forwards. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mirror-like palindrome is similar to those found in ordinary text, in which a sequence reads the same forward and backward on a single strand of DNA, as in GTAATG. (wikipedia.org)
  • The inverted repeat palindrome is also a sequence that reads the same forward and backward, but the forward and backward sequences are found in complementary DNA strands (i.e., of double-stranded DNA), as in GTATAC (GTATAC being complementary to CATATG). (wikipedia.org)
  • extrachromosomal
  • E. coli strains are often genetically modified to contain a mutant recA allele and thereby ensure the stability of extrachromosomal segments of DNA, known as plasmids. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • Given their relatively simple design and inherent ability to move DNA sequences, transposons are highly compatible at transducing genetic material, making them ideal genetic tools. (wikipedia.org)
  • began their experiment by constructing a genetic sequence consisting of the Hmox-1 transposable element and transposase from Sleeping Beauty. (wikipedia.org)
  • recognition
  • The search process induces stretching of the DNA duplex, which enhances sequence complementarity recognition (a mechanism termed conformational proofreading). (wikipedia.org)
  • Restriction enzymes of this type are more useful for laboratory work as they cleave DNA at the site of their recognition sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • resistance
  • The plasmid pSC101, a natural plasmid from Salmonella panama, confers tetracycline resistance which allows for simpler screening process with antibiotic selection, but it is a low copy number plasmid which does not give a high yield of plasmid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another plasmid, RSF 2124, which is a derivative of ColE1, confers ampicillin resistance but is larger. (wikipedia.org)
  • similar
  • This plasmid also had a single position mixed base, similar to what you have found. (protocol-online.org)
  • pTi and pRi share little sequence homology but are functionally rather similar. (wikipedia.org)
  • A Biopython Seq object is similar to a Python string in many respects: it supports the Python slice notation, can be concatenated with other sequences and is immutable. (wikipedia.org)
  • Virtually
  • Virtually any DNA sequence can be cloned and amplified, but there are some factors that might limit the success of the process. (wikipedia.org)