• Broca's
  • Alexander MP, Naeser MA, Palumbo C. Broca's area aphasias: aphasia after lesions including the frontal operculum. (medscape.com)
  • Broca's aphasia is characterized by non-fluent or telegraphic-type speech - where articles, conjunctions, prepositions, auxiliary verbs, pronouns and morphological inflections (plurals, past tense) are omitted. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interestingly, lesions exclusively to Broca's area (the foot of the inferior frontal gyrus) do not produce Broca's aphasia, but instead mild dysprosody and agraphia, sometimes accompanied by word-finding pauses and mild dysarthria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Not much is known about what other areas must be damaged in order to produce Broca's aphasia, but some maintain damage to the inferior preorlandic motor strip (the motor cortex region responsible glossopharyngeal muscle control) is also necessary. (wikipedia.org)
  • expressive
  • First described by the French neurologist Paul Broca in the nineteenth century, expressive aphasia causes the speech of those afflicted to display a considerable vocabulary but to show grammatical deficits. (wikipedia.org)
  • The view of expressive aphasia as an expressive disorder is supported by its frequent co-occurrence with facial motor difficulties, and its anatomical localization. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although expressive aphasia may be caused by brain damage to many regions, it is most commonly associated with the inferior frontal gyrus, a region that overlaps with motor cortex controlling the mouth and tongue, extending into the periventricular white matter. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stroke
  • Alexander, M. P., & Schmitt, M. A. (1980) The aphasia syndrome of stroke in the left anterior cerebral artery territory. (springer.com)
  • This lesion can be caused by a variety of different methods: malfunctioning blood vessels (caused, for example, by a stroke) in the brain are the cause of 80% of aphasias in adults, as compared to head injuries, dementia and degenerative diseases, poisoning, metabolic disorders, infectious diseases, and demyelinating diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aphasia is most often caused by stroke, but any disease or damage to the parts of the brain that control language can cause aphasia. (wikipedia.org)
  • brain
  • Aphasia is an inability to comprehend and formulate language because of damage to specific brain regions. (wikipedia.org)
  • To be diagnosed with aphasia, a person's speech or language must be significantly impaired in one (or several) of the four communication modalities following acquired brain injury or have significant decline over a short time period (progressive aphasia). (wikipedia.org)
  • The term aphasia implies that one or more communication modalities in the brain have been damaged and are therefore functioning incorrectly. (wikipedia.org)
  • People with aphasia may experience any of the following behaviors due to an acquired brain injury, although some of these symptoms may be due to related or concomitant problems such as dysarthria or apraxia and not primarily due to aphasia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aphasia symptoms can vary based on the location of damage in the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, the localization of the two best-known aphasias mirrors the grossest dichotomy in brain organization: anterior areas are specialized for motor output, and posterior areas for sensory processing. (wikipedia.org)
  • person's
  • This requires the ability in the person making the copy to map the sensory input they hear from the other person's vocal pronunciation into a similar motor output with their own vocal tract . (thefullwiki.org)
  • disorder
  • For dynamic aphasia, this is most apparent when the patient is asked to sequence at the sentence level whereas for other aphasias contiguity disorder can be seen at the phoneme or word level. (wikipedia.org)
  • Frontal
  • The herpes simplex virus affects the frontal and temporal lobes, subcortical structures, and the hippocampal tissue, which can trigger aphasia. (wikipedia.org)
  • left hemisphere
  • In their pioneering studies on aphasia Broca (1861 , 1863 ) and Wernicke (1874 , 1906 , 1977 ) described distinct syndromes associated with involvement of anterior and posterior cortical areas of the left hemisphere, respectively. (frontiersin.org)
  • Aphasia can also sometimes be caused by damage to subcortical structures deep within the left hemisphere, including the thalamus, the internal and external capsules, and the caudate nucleus of the basal ganglia. (wikipedia.org)
  • alexia
  • Also called optic alexia, sensory alexia, visual alexia, to differentiate from motor alexia (anarthria), in which there is loss of the power to read aloud even though the significance of what is written or printed is understood. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • severe
  • Struggle in non-fluent aphasias: A severe increase in expelled effort to speak after a life where talking and communicating was an ability that came so easily can cause visible frustration. (wikipedia.org)
  • commonly associated
  • Paraphasia is a type of language output error commonly associated with aphasia, and characterized by the production of unintended syllables, words, or phrases during the effort to speak. (wikipedia.org)
  • language
  • Language and Language Disturbances: Aphasic Symptom Complexes and Their Significance for Medicine and Theory of Language is a book on aphasia by Dr. Kurt Goldstein, published in 1948. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Language and Language Disturbances, Goldstein theorized that a loss of abstract processing was the core deficit in aphasia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aphasia also affects visual language such as sign language. (wikipedia.org)
  • severity
  • Signs and symptoms may or may not be present in individuals with aphasia and may vary in severity and level of disruption to communication. (wikipedia.org)
  • damage
  • Substantial damage to tissue anywhere within the region shown in blue on the figure below can potentially result in aphasia. (wikipedia.org)
  • A very small number of people can experience aphasia after damage to the right hemisphere only. (wikipedia.org)
  • primary
  • In primary progressive aphasia, the drugs used for Alzheimer disease have not been proven beneficial (and a cholinergic deficiency is not evident as in Alzheimer disease). (medscape.com)